Social Media in Conflict Situations
                 -
   Ushahidi, Twitter and More



IIJ Summer Academy 2010
August 18, ...
...certainly the earliest after dinner
lecture I've ever delivered - but:
...'post-culinary
depression'...
New title:
Shirky vs. Morozov:
The showdown
in the blue corner
‣ defending champion
‣ New York City, New York

‣ born in the United States of America
‣ 6 books

‣ num...
in the red corner
‣ contender
‣ from Washington, DC

‣ born in Belarus
‣ 1 (forthcoming) book

‣ numerous articles in inte...
What are they fighting over?
Do "Social Media"further democracy -
or do they help authoritarian regimes?
Do "Social Media"further democracy -
or do they help authoritarian regimes?
Ushahidi
Ushahidi
Ushahidi
Ushahidi
Ushahidi
Ushahidi
Ushahidi
Ushahidi
Ushahidi
Ushahidi
‣   is a platform
Ushahidi
Ushahidi
Ushahidi
Ushahidi
The 'Twitter Revolution'
The 'Twitter Revolution'

BBC
How Iran's political battle is fought in cyberspace
The 'Twitter Revolution'

BBC
How Iran's political battle is fought in cyberspace

Time Magazine
Iran Protests: Twitter, t...
The 'Twitter Revolution'

BBC
How Iran's political battle is fought in cyberspace

Time Magazine
Iran Protests: Twitter, t...
The 'Twitter Revolution'
cartoon removed for copyright reasons, available here:
http://0.tqn.com/d/politicalhumor/1/0/y/m/...
Shirky
"Here Comes Everybody: The Power of Organizing
Without Organization"
Shirky
"Here Comes Everybody: The Power of Organizing
Without Organization"


Hypothesis:
Shirky
"Here Comes Everybody: The Power of Organizing
Without Organization"


Hypothesis:
The Internet and social media he...
Shirky
"Here Comes Everybody: The Power of Organizing
Without Organization"


Hypothesis:
The Internet and social media he...
Morozov
"How Dictators Learned to Stop Worrying and Love
the Web" (January 2011)
Morozov
"How Dictators Learned to Stop Worrying and Love
the Web" (January 2011)


Hypothesis:
Morozov
"How Dictators Learned to Stop Worrying and Love
the Web" (January 2011)


Hypothesis:
Authoritarian regimes can a...
Morozov
"How Dictators Learned to Stop Worrying and Love
the Web" (January 2011)


Hypothesis:
Authoritarian regimes can a...
1st Round
The Minsk Flash Mobs
image removed for copyright reasons, available here:
http://www.spokesman.com/photos/2010/jul/16/1099...
The Minsk Flash Mobs
‣ started in March 2006, a day after the violent
dispersal of the opposition's peaceful rally in Mins...
The Minsk Flash Mobs
Shirky: 'I think that the thing that's worth fighting
for here is the ability of citizens within a cou...
The Minsk Flash Mobs
Morozov: 'My biggest problem with these
flashmobbing kids in Belarus was that they had
erroneously tho...
The Minsk Flash Mobs
'So I do fear that some of these kids thought that
the Internet offered a nice shortcut that would al...
1st Round: Morozov 10 - Shirky 8
2nd Round
2008 Sichuan Earthquake (China)
2008 Sichuan Earthquake (China)
2008 Sichuan Earthquake (China)
‣   some 7.000 schools collapsed
2008 Sichuan Earthquake (China)
‣ some 7.000 schools collapsed
‣ some 10.000 children dead
2008 Sichuan Earthquake (China)
Mothers coordinate via web to protest
2008 Sichuan Earthquake (China)
image removed for copyright reasons, available here:
http://static.guim.co.uk/sys-images/G...
2008 Sichuan Earthquake (China)
Chinese officials sacked over handling of
earthquake

The Guardian, June 23, 2008
2008 Sichuan Earthquake (China)
Shirky: 'the first time the Chinese government has
faced a radicalized population who had n...
2008 Sichuan Earthquake (China)
Morozov: Will governments 'be able to adapt to
this environment by engaging in new ways of...
2008 Sichuan Earthquake (China)
Example of Chinese man dying in police custody in
Yunnan Province
2008 Sichuan Earthquake (China)
Example of Chinese man dying in police custody in
Yunnan Province
‣ public protest, organi...
2008 Sichuan Earthquake (China)
Example of Chinese man dying in police custody in
Yunnan Province
‣ public protest, organi...
2008 Sichuan Earthquake (China)
Example of Chinese man dying in police custody in
Yunnan Province
‣ public protest, organi...
2008 Sichuan Earthquake (China)
Sichuan earthquake activist to stay in jail for five
years

The Telegraph, June 9, 2010
2nd Round: Morozov 10 - Shirky 8
3rd Round
Iran
Iran
Shirky: there was a cause-and-effect situation
Iran
Shirky: there was a cause-and-effect situation
Morozov: there was a synchronicity of events. But:
Iran
Shirky: there was a cause-and-effect situation
Morozov: there was a synchronicity of events. But:


'How many complet...
Neda
image removed for copyright reasons, available here:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Neda_non_graphic.jpg
Neda
Shirky: Social media have a coordinating effect;
things would not have happened without them
Neda
Morozov: 'despite millions of angry tweets and
cellphone cameras pointed at their faces, the
Iranian government still...
Neda
Morozov: 'despite millions of angry tweets and
cellphone cameras pointed at their faces, the
Iranian government still...
What are the results?
Shirky: Yes, but there are still changes:
'I believe that the Green Uprising altered the
balance bet...
What are the results?
Morozov: Agreed. But these kinds of changes are
much more complex and have multiple causes -
What are the results?
Morozov: Agreed. But these kinds of changes are
much more complex and have multiple causes -
take th...
3rd Round: Morozov 9 - Shirky 9
Final Score after Three Rounds
Final Score after Three Rounds
Not a knock-out, but Morozov wins on points (29 vs.
Shirky's 25)
Final Score after Three Rounds
Not a knock-out, but Morozov wins on points (29 vs.
Shirky's 25)
What's your score?
Thank you!
images under Creative Commons licenses:
slide 04: http://www.flickr.com/photos/kplawver/481666069/sizes/l/in/pho...
Social media in conflict situations - Ushahidi, Twitter and More
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Social media in conflict situations - Ushahidi, Twitter and More

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The presentation analyses with the different views on how social media are used in conflict related situations, comparing the arguments of Evgeny Morozov and Clay Shirky. Examples used are the "Green Uprising" in Iran, the Sichuan Earthquake in China and the Minsk Flash Mobs.

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  • Hi Janette, thanks for your favorable comment. It was interesting to put all this together and deal with Shirky's and Morozov's arguements.
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
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  • Wow. I was able to watch the TED talks of Shirky and Morozov on how they perceive social media is changing the landscape of activism and government engagement. Thumbs up for putting this together. I lean on Morozov perspective too.

    The perspective of Shirky can be quite romantic for the idealist. But at the end of the day, the social media climate is fiery but can be 'handled' by resourceful, powerful, and strong-willed people.

    Like news, hot issue on social media today can be less thought of tomorrow.
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
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Social media in conflict situations - Ushahidi, Twitter and More

  1. 1. Social Media in Conflict Situations - Ushahidi, Twitter and More IIJ Summer Academy 2010 August 18, 2010 Berlin ms@immateriblog.de Twitter: @spielkamp
  2. 2. ...certainly the earliest after dinner lecture I've ever delivered - but:
  3. 3. ...'post-culinary depression'...
  4. 4. New title:
  5. 5. Shirky vs. Morozov: The showdown
  6. 6. in the blue corner ‣ defending champion ‣ New York City, New York ‣ born in the United States of America ‣ 6 books ‣ numerous articles in international papers ‣ under contract by New York University
  7. 7. in the red corner ‣ contender ‣ from Washington, DC ‣ born in Belarus ‣ 1 (forthcoming) book ‣ numerous articles in international papers ‣ under contract by George Washington University
  8. 8. What are they fighting over?
  9. 9. Do "Social Media"further democracy - or do they help authoritarian regimes?
  10. 10. Do "Social Media"further democracy - or do they help authoritarian regimes?
  11. 11. Ushahidi
  12. 12. Ushahidi
  13. 13. Ushahidi
  14. 14. Ushahidi
  15. 15. Ushahidi
  16. 16. Ushahidi
  17. 17. Ushahidi
  18. 18. Ushahidi
  19. 19. Ushahidi
  20. 20. Ushahidi ‣ is a platform
  21. 21. Ushahidi
  22. 22. Ushahidi
  23. 23. Ushahidi
  24. 24. Ushahidi
  25. 25. The 'Twitter Revolution'
  26. 26. The 'Twitter Revolution' BBC How Iran's political battle is fought in cyberspace
  27. 27. The 'Twitter Revolution' BBC How Iran's political battle is fought in cyberspace Time Magazine Iran Protests: Twitter, the Medium of the Movement
  28. 28. The 'Twitter Revolution' BBC How Iran's political battle is fought in cyberspace Time Magazine Iran Protests: Twitter, the Medium of the Movement Washington Post Iran Elections: A Twitter Revolution?
  29. 29. The 'Twitter Revolution' cartoon removed for copyright reasons, available here: http://0.tqn.com/d/politicalhumor/1/0/y/m/2/stop-or-tweet.gif
  30. 30. Shirky "Here Comes Everybody: The Power of Organizing Without Organization"
  31. 31. Shirky "Here Comes Everybody: The Power of Organizing Without Organization" Hypothesis:
  32. 32. Shirky "Here Comes Everybody: The Power of Organizing Without Organization" Hypothesis: The Internet and social media help synchronizing a politically engaged public -
  33. 33. Shirky "Here Comes Everybody: The Power of Organizing Without Organization" Hypothesis: The Internet and social media help synchronizing a politically engaged public - and this, in itself, is politcal and furthers democratisation.
  34. 34. Morozov "How Dictators Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Web" (January 2011)
  35. 35. Morozov "How Dictators Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Web" (January 2011) Hypothesis:
  36. 36. Morozov "How Dictators Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Web" (January 2011) Hypothesis: Authoritarian regimes can adjust their methods of governance to Internet communication -
  37. 37. Morozov "How Dictators Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Web" (January 2011) Hypothesis: Authoritarian regimes can adjust their methods of governance to Internet communication - and at times work 'better' (more effectively) with it than ever before.
  38. 38. 1st Round
  39. 39. The Minsk Flash Mobs image removed for copyright reasons, available here: http://www.spokesman.com/photos/2010/jul/16/109917/
  40. 40. The Minsk Flash Mobs ‣ started in March 2006, a day after the violent dispersal of the opposition's peaceful rally in Minsk ‣ goal: to 'peacefully express one's point of view on what's going on in the country' ‣ several flash mob activities have been carried out in Minsk
  41. 41. The Minsk Flash Mobs Shirky: 'I think that the thing that's worth fighting for here is the ability of citizens within a country to communicate with one another, and I remain convinced that that will have political ramifications. I think that to the degree that citizens can communicate with each other, that actually matters much more than access to information, or than communication with the outside world. What we should be worrying about is freedom of speech, lower case "f", lower case "s", not as a political right, but as just a daily capability.'
  42. 42. The Minsk Flash Mobs Morozov: 'My biggest problem with these flashmobbing kids in Belarus was that they had erroneously thought that the Internet presents an entirely new way of doing politics. They thought that they would build up and operate a fully virtual movement, that they would not need to bother with the dirty and bloody business of opposing a dictator, a business that often entails harassments of all kinds, as well as bloodshed, intimidation, expulsion from universities. Let's not kid ourselves: that's what being in an opposition in authoritarian country entails. It's never a pretty picture.'
  43. 43. The Minsk Flash Mobs 'So I do fear that some of these kids thought that the Internet offered a nice shortcut that would allow them to meaningfully challenge the dictator without having to go through any of that unpleasant stuff. They thought they could just blog the dictatorship away.'
  44. 44. 1st Round: Morozov 10 - Shirky 8
  45. 45. 2nd Round
  46. 46. 2008 Sichuan Earthquake (China)
  47. 47. 2008 Sichuan Earthquake (China)
  48. 48. 2008 Sichuan Earthquake (China) ‣ some 7.000 schools collapsed
  49. 49. 2008 Sichuan Earthquake (China) ‣ some 7.000 schools collapsed ‣ some 10.000 children dead
  50. 50. 2008 Sichuan Earthquake (China) Mothers coordinate via web to protest
  51. 51. 2008 Sichuan Earthquake (China) image removed for copyright reasons, available here: http://static.guim.co.uk/sys-images/Guardian/Pix/pictures/2008/06/03/c4.jpg
  52. 52. 2008 Sichuan Earthquake (China) Chinese officials sacked over handling of earthquake The Guardian, June 23, 2008
  53. 53. 2008 Sichuan Earthquake (China) Shirky: 'the first time the Chinese government has faced a radicalized population who had no preexisting coordination'
  54. 54. 2008 Sichuan Earthquake (China) Morozov: Will governments 'be able to adapt to this environment by engaging in new ways of propaganda? By selectively manipulating who gets to cover which story?'
  55. 55. 2008 Sichuan Earthquake (China) Example of Chinese man dying in police custody in Yunnan Province
  56. 56. 2008 Sichuan Earthquake (China) Example of Chinese man dying in police custody in Yunnan Province ‣ public protest, organised over Internet
  57. 57. 2008 Sichuan Earthquake (China) Example of Chinese man dying in police custody in Yunnan Province ‣ public protest, organised over Internet ‣15 'netizen investigators' appointed, looked at the prison, wrote an inconclusive report
  58. 58. 2008 Sichuan Earthquake (China) Example of Chinese man dying in police custody in Yunnan Province ‣ public protest, organised over Internet ‣ 15 'netizen investigators' appointed, looked at the prison, wrote an inconclusive report ‣ Story died, it later came out most of the 15 were current or former employees of state media
  59. 59. 2008 Sichuan Earthquake (China) Sichuan earthquake activist to stay in jail for five years The Telegraph, June 9, 2010
  60. 60. 2nd Round: Morozov 10 - Shirky 8
  61. 61. 3rd Round
  62. 62. Iran
  63. 63. Iran Shirky: there was a cause-and-effect situation
  64. 64. Iran Shirky: there was a cause-and-effect situation Morozov: there was a synchronicity of events. But:
  65. 65. Iran Shirky: there was a cause-and-effect situation Morozov: there was a synchronicity of events. But: 'How many completely uninitiated protests have actually engaged with the real world because of something they had read on Twitter or Facebook?'
  66. 66. Neda image removed for copyright reasons, available here: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Neda_non_graphic.jpg
  67. 67. Neda Shirky: Social media have a coordinating effect; things would not have happened without them
  68. 68. Neda Morozov: 'despite millions of angry tweets and cellphone cameras pointed at their faces, the Iranian government still cracked down on the protesters'
  69. 69. Neda Morozov: 'despite millions of angry tweets and cellphone cameras pointed at their faces, the Iranian government still cracked down on the protesters' cartoon removed for copyright reasons, available here: http://0.tqn.com/d/politicalhumor/1/0/y/m/2/stop-or- tweet.gif
  70. 70. What are the results? Shirky: Yes, but there are still changes: 'I believe that the Green Uprising altered the balance between the theocracy and the military aspects of the Iranian government. [...] it seems to me that one of the effects, paradoxical and sad, of the Green Uprising, is that it has pushed Iran into being an essentially military power.'
  71. 71. What are the results? Morozov: Agreed. But these kinds of changes are much more complex and have multiple causes -
  72. 72. What are the results? Morozov: Agreed. But these kinds of changes are much more complex and have multiple causes - take the example of the smuggled Xerox machines in Poland: 'they may not have been all that important, for it was the fundamental economic unsustainability of communism that precipitated its collapse.'
  73. 73. 3rd Round: Morozov 9 - Shirky 9
  74. 74. Final Score after Three Rounds
  75. 75. Final Score after Three Rounds Not a knock-out, but Morozov wins on points (29 vs. Shirky's 25)
  76. 76. Final Score after Three Rounds Not a knock-out, but Morozov wins on points (29 vs. Shirky's 25) What's your score?
  77. 77. Thank you! images under Creative Commons licenses: slide 04: http://www.flickr.com/photos/kplawver/481666069/sizes/l/in/photostream/ slide 07: http://www.flickr.com/photos/joi/1397946225/sizes/l/in/photostream/ slide 09: http://www.flickr.com/photos/re-publica/4520673288/sizes/l/in/photostream/ slide 16: http://www.flickr.com/photos/dci/243722737/sizes/z/in/photostream/ slide 52: http://www.flickr.com/photos/remkotanis/3251729749/sizes/l/in/photostream/ Matthias Spielkamp www.immateriblog.de (in German) ms@immateriblog.de Twitter: @spielkamp

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