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  • 1. Page 1 of 60 1. Background of the studyEconomic globalization, increasing consumer demand for better quality products or services,explosions in technological advances and constant changes in the business environment havecreated the need for organizations to continuously provide their employees with certain skills,knowledge and abilities (SKAs) in order to maintain market competitiveness and businesssurvival (Vloeberghs & Faes; 2003). As Employee training is essential as it is one of themain ways of raising the skill level of the workforce. Training is an important factor thatcould facilitate a firm‟s expansion, develop its potentials and enhance its profitability (Cosh,et al, 1998). Tung-Chun (2001) agreed with this stating that educated and well-trainedemployees are a prerequisite for an organization‟s competitive advantage.For developing and managing people properly organizations are conducted by HumanResource Management (HRM). HRM is a planned approach to managing people effectivelyfor performance (BEARDWELL et al, 2004). The core activities of HRM are manpowerPlanning, Recruitment, Performance Management, Training and Development, StaffRelations. Among of these training is the most important act to utilize employees‟ talent andskills. It is a learning experience that seeks a relatively permanent change in individuals thatwill improve their ability to perform of the job (Decenzo & Robbins; 2006). Traininginclude: the improvement of employee job performance, employee development (Burdenand Proctor, 2000).Especially for the Multi-national Company‟s (MNCs) staff training is essential as MNCsoperate in a complex and uncertain environment which creates a unique set of organizational,co-ordination and managerial issues for managers (Collings & Morley, 2004). Like othersMNCs Ericsson also has a huge budget for employee training. Ericsson is now a top companyin the world only because of its personnel so it trusts that people are assets, it motivates itspeople to be creative and hard work through satisfying them. Actually the company recruitstalent people and try to utilize their capability and finally retain them. 2. Background of the companyEricsson is a world-leading supplier of telecommunications equipment and related services tomobile and fixed network operators globally. Its 1,000 networks in 140 countries utilize itsnetwork equipment and 40 percent of all mobile calls are made through its systems. It has
  • 2. Page 2 of 60been present in Bangladesh since 1997, to support its customers through a local branch office,Ericsson AB – Branch Office Dhaka. In early 2006, it incorporated under the Bangladeshlaws as LM Ericsson Bangladesh Limited (EBL), for establishing a full-fledged company.Today, Ericsson Bangladesh is a partner to all major operators in the country. At present thecountry‟s largest end-to-end telecommunications solutions provider with complete in-countryexpertise and support team with a staff-strength of more than 400.Ericsson trusts its employees are its greatest asset. Every employee is important in helpingthem to reach its vision and goals so every employee counts. It recruits those people who areproactive, innovative, trustworthy and responsive and then utilizes them. As Ericsson utilizeits resources globally, promote global networking, and expect its employees to work acrossorganizational and national boundaries and makes the staffs capable through training anddevelopment. EBL has 800 staffs and it utilizes their SKAs through local and foreigntraining. It funds BDT 5 million yearly for its human resources‟ development. It providestraining almost 400 employees yearly and it is committed with its staffs that it will help themmake the most of their potential by providing a rich learning environment and a structuredframework for their career development. 3. The problems statement and Significance of the studyThe 21st century companies are facing unique competitive, economic and global challenges.With the challenges the global business climate also facing a challenge for managing andemploying people, (Vloeberghs & Faes; 2003). People are one of the key inputs intoorganizations (Campbell and Butterworth: 2005).Any company‟s success depends on itsmanpower. To reach the vision of a company, it has to recruit talent, proactive, innovative,trustworthy and responsive staffs. Then improve their SKAs by training and justify thepotential results or feedback from the trained staffs. Training enhances organizationperformance with employee‟s individual performance. So the main intension of the study isto gain a better understanding of the effectiveness of training those enhance personnel‟sperformance in EBL.
  • 3. Page 3 of 60 4. Research objectives and questionsFrom the problem discussion above, the main objective of the research is a general evaluationof EBL to assess its training effectiveness to enhance employees‟ performances. These arethe main intentions why the research is done: i. To evaluate the effectiveness of training in EBL ii. Assessing the effectiveness of training motivation in EBL iii. Scrutinize the relationship between employee perceived training effectiveness and job satisfaction in EBL iv. To identify the EBL‟s training strategies for enhancing employees‟ performances?The following three research questions have been developed in order to support theobjectives of the study in the best way possible. The following research questions will beexplored in the study: i. Does training enhance employees‟ performances? ii. How employees could be utilized for the betterment of the organization via effective training? 5. Review of Literature5.1 Definition of TrainingCascio (2003) stated training consists of planned programs designed to improve performanceat the individual, group or organizational levels. It is a learning experience in that it seeks arelatively permanent change in an individual that will improve the ability to perform on thejob. it includes experiences intended to meet essential job requirements, update skills, preparepeople for career movement of any kind, rectify knowledge or skill deficiencies, and evokenew insights or even create new knowledge (Rothwell & Kazanas, 2003). Its main purpose
  • 4. Page 4 of 60is workplace is to develop the abilities of the individuals and to satisfy the present and futureneeds of the organization (Manpower Services Commission, 1981).5.2 Types of trainingAccording to Robbins (2005) training can include everything from teaching employees basicreading skills to advanced courses in executive leadership. There are four general skillscategories: Skill Categories Basic literacy Interpersonal Problem Technical skills skills skills solving skillsFigure 2:7 Skills categories of trainingSource: Robbins, 2005. Pp.521 • Basic literacy skills: Organizations increasingly have to offer basic reading and math skills for their employees. • Technical skills: Most training is focussed at upgrading and improving employee‟s technical skills. Technical training has become vital at present because of two reasons- new technology and new structural design. • Interpersonal skills: Human resources‟ work performance depends on their ability to interact with their co-workers and their boss. Some employees may have to improve their interpersonal skills through training. • Problem solving skills: When managers or employees perform no routine tasks, they have to solve problems on their job then according their requirements of skills they can participate in problem solving training (Robbins, 2005).5.3 Training MethodsAccording to McConnell (2005) there are two procedures of training and these are 1)Internal training & 2) External training. Internal training is that training offered and
  • 5. Page 5 of 60conducted by the organization. External Training is also job-related, but an external sourcerather than the organization itself. There are two methods of training; *Coaching or Understudy method *Special assignments *„Sitting by Nellie‟ and learning by doing *Mentoring On-the-job training *Shadowing & Job rotation Decenzo & Robbins; (2006) *E-learning *Apprenticeship programs *Job instruction training Source: Beardwell et al., 2004, Training Methods *Classroom Lectures/ conferences *Films *Simulation exercises *Experimental exercises *Role playing Off-the-job training *Case studies *Computer modeling *Vestibule training *Sensitivity training *Transactional analysis Source: (Decenzo & Robbins; 2006)Figure 2:8 Training MethodsSource; Beardwell et al., 20045.3.1 On-the-job training: Training a person to learn a job while working on it. it is planned,organized, and conducted at the employees worksite. i. Coaching or Understudy method: Coaching is one of the training methods, which is considered as a remedial method for inadequate performance (Dessler; 2005). ii. Special assignments: Special assignments similarly give to lower-level executives‟ firsthand experience in working on actual problems. (Dessler; 2005)
  • 6. Page 6 of 60 iii. „Sitting by Nellie‟ and learning by doing: these traditional methods are used to teach new skills and methods to employee and they can be very effective. iv. Mentoring: Mentoring provides guidance and clear understanding of how the organization goes to achieve its vision and mission to the junior employee. It is not as structured and regular than in coaching (Beardwell et al, 2004). v. Shadowing & Job rotation: It usually aims to give trainee managers a „feel‟ for the organization by providing experience of working in different departments. vi. E-learning: a more recent concept of the informational and learning exchange environment is electronic learning (e- learning) (Beardwell et al, 2004).5.3.2 Off-the-job training:It can involve both theory and practical training and may comprise assessment andexaminations. But it may not provide as much transfer of training to the actual job as do onthe job program (Fisher et al, 2005). There are some methods of off-the-job training;
  • 7. Page 7 of 60(Decenzo & Robbins; 2006)Table 2:1 Off the training methodsThere are some cross-cultural training methods that is mainly important for MNCs
  • 8. Page 8 of 60Table 2:2 Cross-cultural training methodsSource: Treven, Sonja. 2003.According to Davies (2001) there are some factors that Influences on training design
  • 9. Page 9 of 60Figure 2:9 Influences on training designSource: Davies (2001)Before selecting training methods organization should concern about these factors.5.2 Importance of TrainingNonaka and Takeuchi (1995) stated that training is used to improve employee performancewhich leads to improved business results. Various authors pointed out many advantages oftraining. Summary of which are as follows: i. Supply of talent: Training is a way to create a supply of talent within the organization through structured but flexible long-term individual development plans (Dubois and Rothwell, 2000). It creates a pool of qualified applicants in the right numbers and with the right skills for higher-level jobs inside an organization. ii. Equipping individuals with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes: training is an important and useful tool for equipping individuals with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes. It is geared to helping managers and workers see and even experience why changes stemming from strategic objectives are needed (Rothwell & Kazanas, 2003).iii. Implementation of a new strategy: training can help an organization that is moving toward implementation of a new strategy in a changing environment. Training can
  • 10. Page 10 of 60 serve as a medium for simulating artificial experience to anticipate future events so it helps people understand what knowledge and skills they might need in the future, thereby motivating those to learn to meet future rather than past needs (Rothwell & Kazanas, 2003). iv. Potential tool: training is a potential tool for giving individuals the skills they need to think strategically (Rothwell & Kazanas, 2003). v. Retention of potential talent: Basically, retention of employees, and the retention of valued skill sets, is important for continued business achievements (Mak and Sockel, 1999). Employee switching may lead to a loss of human resources weakening competitive positions. Training reduces employee‟s switching. vi. Increase ability: Job-related training increases an employees ability to perform job related tasks. As Job satisfaction is an important motivator for employee performance and is negatively related to turnover so to satisfy employees through training is really very important (Mak and Sockel, 1999).vii. Help to meet commitment: Ranft and Lord (2000) stated company commitment to the training needs of its employees positively influences employee satisfaction, leading to an increase in employee motivation and an increase in retention and such commitment culminates in employee exposure to quality job-related training, leading to better employee morale, an increased sense of employee achievement and accomplishment (Elizur, 1996). For example, global organizations committed to employee development (e.g., Proctor & Gamble, Intel, Boeing, Cisco, Dell, PepsiCo) attract highly qualified candidates (OToole & Lawler, 2006).viii. Good sign of future economic: dArcimoles (1997) examined the effects of employee training upon the financial performance of 61 French firms and found that there were significant immediate and lagged effects as expenditure on training by firms was associated with immediate and permanent improvements in productivity and profitability so: "substantial training expenses seem to be a good sign of future economic performance." ix. Lead to productivity: Bartel (1994) had used a value-added measure of productivity
  • 11. Page 11 of 60 and found that the introduction of new training programs led to a productivity gain of 18.86% over three years and this gain applied across the board to low performing and high performing companies. x. Employee loyalty: Training employees leads to increased employee satisfaction, facilitates the updating of skills, leads to an increased sense of belonging and benefit, increased employee loyalty to the organization (Bushardt et al., 1994). Finally, training has a direct effect on productivity, internal quality and financial outcomes for firms by raising the general level of skills and enhancing the human capital of the firm. It is a standalone practice that leads to effective task performance on the part of employees and this is reflected in enhanced firm performance. Horwitz (1999) showed the Levels of human resource development how individual effectiveness converts to organizational effectiveness in the following figuresFigure 2:3 Levels of human resource developmentSource: Horwitz (1999)The world‟s top companies for instance IBM, Accenture, Intel and Lockheed Martin aloneeach spend in excess of $300 million a year on employee training (Robbins: 2005 Cited inTraining March 2003, p20).
  • 12. Page 12 of 602.5 Disadvantages of trainingIneffective implemented training may disadvantageous for employee and organization both: Training can be a financial drain on resources; Ineffective training may expensive for development and testing, expensive to operate. It often takes people away from their job for varying periods of time so it may create irregularity Equips staff to leave for a better job: trained people may leave the job to join in another better job (Rothwell et al., 2000).Canadian industry is not making adequate investments in training (Betcherman, 1992).2.6 A systems model of the training cycleCole (2005) states that to contribute to the organization‟s overall goals training programsshould be developed systematically. There is an Instructional Systems Design (ISD) howthe organization recover its haphazardness and failure possibilities of training. The modelshows four steps; 1) needs assessment; 2) design & development of training; 3) delivery oftraining; and 4) evaluation of training (Fisher et al, 2005).
  • 13. Page 13 of 60Figure 2:4 an instructional Systems Design ModelSource; Fisher et al., 2005 pp. 372Step 1; Assess needs: Needs should only be systematically identified when the cause of aperformance problem is lack of knowledge, skill, or appropriate attitude (Rothwell et al.,2000). There are three levels of needs assessment; Organizational analysis, Job & taskanalysis, and Person analysis.Develop training objectives translates the identified needs by the organization, task andindividual analysis into computable objectives that can guide the training effort (Fisher et al.,2005).For training needs analysis, potential tools are: observation, questionnaire, usingconsultants, interviews, group discussions, using of tests and using of business records(Erdoğmuş, 1997, pp. 307-11).Step 2 Design & development: this step includes selecting appropriate training methods anddeveloping training materials. This phase covers planning, design and development ofmagistrate training. The following activities should be done in this step; o Select training methods o Develop detailed content o Develop training materials o Pilot test training programme o Train trainers (Fisher et al., 2005).Step 3; DeliverThis stage ensures that the delivery of the training is effective and provides opportunities forthe trainee to learn. This will involve choosing the most appropriate design for meetingtraining needs, and taking advantage of different training methods (Fisher et al.,; 2005).Step 4; EvaluateFor a thorough evaluation four levels of evaluation should be collected; reaction, learning,behaviors and results. Finally, the effectiveness of a training program can be calculated by
  • 14. Page 14 of 60assessing its costs and putting a dollar value on its benefits to the organization (Fisher et al,2005). According to Davies (2001) there are also three stagesAll Line Managers are responsible for ensuring that the competence of their workforce meetsthe requirements of Ericsson and its commitments to customers. EBL encourages eachemployee to develop his/her potential to the maximum. Training is provided based on theEricsson‟s Competence Management Process. Development needs are identified as part of theIPM process. Individual Performance Management is an annual ongoing process, whichnormally includes at least three IPM discussions over the period of 12 months. The processis: Training needs assessment • Validate all the section • Value and Behaviors • Final performence & • Performence Goal • Leadership Behavior development • Operational needs evulation • Individual • performence feed competence gape back review Setting Individual Goals Annul Performance SummeryFigure 2:6 EBLs training processSetting Individual Goals:The managers start the discussions with employees to set their individuals goals for thecoming year and first review period. This step takes place in the beginning of the year, whenthe target setting for the unit is finalized. The individual goals are usually set for a period ofone year.Training needs assessment:
  • 15. Page 15 of 60During the year further discussions holds to review and follow up results and provideconstructive feedback to support the employee to meet or exceed the goals and expectations.Regular feedback has also proven to increase the employee motivation. Value and Behaviors Leadership Behavior Operational needsAnnul Performance Summary:Summarizing all sections in the IPM discussions during the year is discussed. This normallytakes place at the end of the year or may early in the next coming year.It is a final performance & development evaluation and feedback session but can also becombined with the start of a new IPM discussion cycle with goal setting for the new reviewperiod.2.10 Training and job satisfaction: Fisher et al. (2004) claim that job satisfaction includesthe positive feelings associated with the rewarding aspects of a job that can intuitively lead toimproved work performance. Currie (2001) suggests that satisfaction is related to the degreeto which an individual is satisfied with the terms and conditions of employment. Rowdenand Conine (2005) propose that training may be used as a tool to increase job satisfactionand trained employees will better satisfy the needs of their customers. job satisfaction hasbeen linked to improved job performance (Wright et al (2002) if it can be shown that anorganizations training program increases job satisfaction, then a bridge from training andimproved employees performance can be established.2.11 Training, employees‟ performances and organizational performance: According toHarrison (2000), learning (training) is a variable that may have a positive effect onorganizational performance and is considered to be a key element to the attainment oforganizational goals. This becomes clearer by examining Bramleys individual model oftraining:
  • 16. Page 16 of 60Figure 2:10 Bramleys individual model of trainingThe model dictates that the organization should recognize that its employees are not effectiveand a change should be attempted in their knowledge, attitudes and skills. According toSwart et al. (2005) an individual improvement will be contingent on the quality of thetraining program, the motivation of the individual and the individuals needs. The modelgenerally assumes that employee knowledge, skills and attitudes will change by the adoptionof a training program and if the employee believes, there is an improvement in his knowledgeand skills; it may be safe to also assume that, there will be an increase in the personsindividual performance. As a result, according to the model, there will be an increase inthe overall performance of the organization.2.12 Training effectiveness and employee commitment: Mathews and Shepherd (2002)stated commitment is an internalized employee belief often associated with “soft HRM” anda high-trust organizational culture and is frequently associated with an exchange relationshipbetween the employer and employee. Organizational commitment has also been linked toimproved performance within an organizational context (Bozeman & Perrwe, 2001).Ahmad and Bakar (2003) tested the relationship between implementing training and
  • 17. Page 17 of 60organizational commitment, came across various findings concerning all three aspects ofcommitment, affective, normative and continuance. They found that various dimensions oftraining are related with all three aspects of commitment, which is consistent to a large extentwith the findings of Kim (2006).2.13 Training motivation and training effectivenessTraining motivation is an individuals desire to engage in training activities and fully embracethe training experience (Facteau et al., 1995). The more motivated the trainee, the morelikely he/she are to reap the intended benefits from the training experience (Noe and Wilk,1993). Generally individuals who are highly motivated to attend the training program and togive due attention to the contents of the training program are more likely to score higherpoints on the post-training test. Also they are more likely to see the training as a means toobtain some future benefits. These benefits will only be fully realized if the trainees caneither utilize what they learned on the job (i.e. training transfer), in a new setting (i.e. trainingmaintenance), and/or to more complex task situations (i.e. training generalization) (Chiaburuand Marinova, 2005). Training motivation plays a more determinant role than otherindividual factors in regard to training performance (Quiñones, 1997).
  • 18. Page 18 of 60 6. Methodology Validity & Reliability Research Research Research Data Sample Data Purpose Approach Strategy Collection Selection AnalysisFigure 3:1 Methodology OverviewSource: Foster, 1998 Pp, 813.1 Research PurposeAccording to Saunders et al (2003) the most commonly used classification of purpose ofresearch is; exploratory, descriptive and explanatory. Descriptive and exploratory types ofresearch are for quantitative method while explanatory research is for qualitative method(Mcnabb, 2002).  Descriptive Research: Descriptive research design is used to develop snapshot of a particular situation. Generally things are described by providing measures of an event or activity. It focuses to describe a particular situation (Mcnabb, 2002).  Exploratory Research: Exploratory research includes exploring or searching through problem or solution to provide insights and understanding. In exploration researcher are more interested to search out data from those sources that give in depth information (Emory & Cooper, 1991).  Explanatory Research: According to Saunders et al (2003) an explanatory study aims to establish casual relationships between variables. Typical objectives of the research include explaining why some phenomenon occurred, interpreting a cause- and-effect relationship between two or more variables, and explaining the differences in two or more group‟s responses (Mcnabb, 2002).The study is mainly descriptive because descriptive data has been collected through detailedinterviews and library studies. But it will also move into the exploratory and explanatory
  • 19. Page 19 of 60stages as the study is done to gain a deeper understanding the effectiveness of human resourcetraining to enhance employees‟ performances in Ericsson Bangladesh Limited.3.2 Research Approach:Here, different research approaches will be presented and the research approach of this studyand related reasons will be given. First, deductive versus inductive research approaches will bediscussed and secondly qualitative and quantitative research will be explained. According toMaxwell (1996) the qualitative or quantitative approaches are used for the collection andanalysis of the empirical data.  Qualitative Method: According to Patel and Davidson (1994) a qualitative approach is used to find a deeper understanding of the area studied. A qualitative method‟s purpose is to create a holistic view of the problem (Gustavsson, 1998).  Quantitative Method: Patel and Davidson (1994) state a quantitative approach involves a statistical analysis of the collected data. Data used in this approach is based on numbers and variables and as a result it is easier to communicate the results (winter, 1992). In this approach researchers are generally concerned with deductive testing of the theories and hypothesis (Alvesson & Sköldberg, 1994).For the study combining the quantitative and the qualitative methods has used. A qualitativeresearch is suitable to understand which variables affect employees performance and why thisis the case. A quantitative research is suitable to support the qualitative research and give themajor characteristics and patents of a population. The qualitative research will serve as apreparation for the quantitative research. The quantitative element will help to supportimplicit/explicit claims to generalization.3.3 Research StrategyResearch strategy will be a general plan of how researcher will go about answering theresearch questions that have been set by researcher (Thornhill et al, 2003). According to Yin(1994) there are five primary research strategies, in the social sciences: experiments, surveys,archival analysis, histories, and case studies;
  • 20. Page 20 of 60Strategy Form of research Requires control over Focuses on Question behavioural events? contemporary events?Experiment How, why Yes YesSurvey Who, what where, how No Yes many, how muchArchival analysis Who, what where, how No Yes/No many, how muchHistory How, why No NoCase study How, why No YesSource: Yin, 1994Table 3:1: Summery of research strategiesSince the type of the study is combining of exploratory, descriptive and explanatory and theaim of the study was to collect answers from large scales of sample (senior level managers,general employees and trainer) among EBL in order to formulate the answer of theinvestigated problem, so the study mainly conducted by survey. Meanwhile, survey is moreappropriate method in order to gain a better understanding of the research area in quantitativestudy.3.4 Data CollectionTwo types of data can be collected, primary and secondary data. Primary data is recognizedas data that is gathered for a specific research in response to a particular problem throughinterviews, questionnaires or observations. Whereas secondary data information can beobtained through various kinds of documents, e.g., research reports, annual reports, books, andarticles (Wiedersheim-Paul and Eriksson, 1999). Different sources of data are showed in thefigure;
  • 21. Page 21 of 60 •Sampling, Surveys, Personal interviews, Observations, Que stionnaires and Official Primary records (Saunders data et.al,.2003) observation, interviews and/or questionnaires (Hair et. al., 2003). Sources of data •Journals, Books, Reports, Mag azines, from personal communication, Newspaper Secondary and online (Saunders et. data al, 2003) governmental publications, personal records, census (Kumar, 1996).Figure 3:4 Different Sources of dataIn this work both type of data have been used. A questionnaire has been used as the mainsource of data collection (primary data). The questionnaire is filled by the sample populationwhich consists of staffs of Ericsson‟s and who are Ericsson‟s trainee. For this literaturereview secondary has been gathered from various books, news articles, surveys done bydifferent agencies, news paper.3.5 Sample SelectionSampling is selecting some of the elements in a population; researchers may draw conclusionsabout the entire population. There are several compelling reasons for sampling, including:lower cost, greater accuracy of result, greater speed of data collection and availability ofpopulation selection (Cooper & Schindler 2003). Traditional sampling method can bedivided into two broad categories: probability and non-probability sampling (Samouel et al,2003).
  • 22. Page 22 of 60 Probability Convenience Sampling sampling Sampling method Non-probability Judgment sampling sampling Quota SamplingFigure 3:5 sampling MethodsSource: Samouel et al, 2003Probability: In probability sampling, sampling elements are selected randomly and theprobability of being selected is determined ahead of time by the researcher (Hair et. al.,2003).3.5.2 Non-probability: the aim of being statistically representative of the population(Samouel , 2003). According to Samouel et al., (2003) most common non-probabilitysampling methods are i. Convenience sampling: Convenience sample involves select sample members who can provide required information and who are more available to join in the study (Hair et al, 2003). ii. Judgment sampling: Researcher‟s judgment is used to select sample element and it involves for a specific purpose. Group of people who have knowledge about particular problem they can be selected as sample element (Hair et. al., 2003). iii. Quota Sampling: In quota sampling the researcher defines the strata of the target population, determines the total sample size and set a quota for the sample elements from each stratum (Samouel, 2003).For the study sample has been selected from the Ericsson‟s staffs because it took less time toconduct research. Sample was selected by using judgment because is more convenience andlow cost involvement.
  • 23. Page 23 of 603.5.3 Sample SizeThe larger the sizes of the sample the greater its precision or reliability, but there areconstraints to be dealt with .The constraint are time, staff and cost. In this study population arethe human resources (staffs) of Ericsson Bangladesh limited (EBL) and the samples aresenior level managers, general employees and trainers of EBL. Samples sizes are; Samples Size Senior level managers 20 General employees 100 Trainers of EBL 4 Total samples 124Table 3:2 Sample sizeThe choice of company was based on the fact they operate in different countries whichwill further increase validity. The choice of respondents was based on the assumptionthat they were the most appropriate people to be interviewed in regards to the purposeand research questions of the study.3.6 Data AnalysisAccording to Yin (2003, p.109) “data analysis consists of examining, categorizing, tabulating,testing or otherwise recombining qualitative evidence to address the initial propositionsof a study”. There are different strategies of how to analyze the data collected: i. Understanding the characteristics of language ii. Discovering regularities iii. Comprehending the meaning of text or action iv. Reflection (Saunders et al, 2003)For quantitative data analysis, statistical software‟s for analysing data SPSS 13.0 for windowsand Microsoft Office Excel 2007 were used for data input and analysis. The statistics resultswere presented by graphical form with detail descriptions.
  • 24. Page 24 of 60 Data Analysis4.1 General information of the respondentsIn this section the data related to general specifications of respondents such as sex, income,position in the company. APPENDIX H provides a table 4:1 of Demographic Informationof the respondents4.2 Analysis the Questionnaire of senior level managers (sample size 20)Question 1: General questions to senior level managers……..Table 4:2 General questions to senior level managersGeneral questions to Senior level managers Responsesa. Approximately how many employees does your organization have? 800 employeesb. How much money EBL budget for the T&D? 5 millionc. Approximately how many employees are trained yearly? Almost 400d. Does HR department conduct briefing and debriefing sessions for Yesemployees sponsored for training?e. Is the companys management is committed to training and Yesdevelopment?Employees Training programmes of a company are crucial for organizational operation, andorganizational advancement (Mak and Sockel, 1999). As any company‟s success depends onits manpower so the company has to utilize their skills through training. EBL has 800employees and it funds a huge amount to develop them yearly. The company utilizes itspersonnel skills, capacity and capability through local and foreign training. It funds BDT 5million yearly for its human resources‟ development. It provides training almost 400employees yearly. For managing people properly the organization is conducted by Human
  • 25. Page 25 of 60Resource Management. In EBL, HR department conducts briefing and debriefing sessions foremployees sponsored for training. But it may do not conduct 100% so the organizationshould concern on their HR department that it conducts briefing and debriefing sessions foremployees sponsored for training properly. And Ericsson is committed with its staffs that itwill help them make the most of their potential by providing a rich learning environment anda structured framework for their career development.Question 2; do you feel EBL has adequate facilities to develop its human resources? Figure 4:1 Do you feel EBL has adequate facilities to develop its human resources? No 10% Yes 90%Here 90% of respondents said- yes EBL has adequate facilities to develop its humanresources but 10% respondents said that it does not have enough facilities it should considermany other facilities for its human resources development. Ericsson believes employees areits greatest asset. So EBL provides the better facilities to its human resources development toutilize employees‟ skills and talent. The employees are provided with training anddevelopment programs on a regular basis in a multi-technology environment.Question 3; do you feel there is adequate emphasis on developing managerialcapabilities of the managerial staff through training?
  • 26. Page 26 of 60 Figure 4:2 Do you feel there is adequate emphasis on developing managerial capabilities of the managerial staff through training? 12 10 Values 8 6 4 2 0 Neither Strongly Strongly Agree agree nor Disagree agree disagree disagree Series1 8 10 0 2 0Here 40% respondents strongly claimed that there is adequate emphasis on developingmanagerial capabilities of the managerial staff through training and 50% respondents agreedwith them but 10% respondents were totally disagree with them and said EBL does not haveadequate emphasis on developing managerial capabilities of the managerial staff throughtraining. Basically managers supervise other personnel of the organization so they shouldhave adequate managerial capabilities. They also support and assist employees‟ developmentby discussing, documenting and implementing their development plan. So the managers haveto be trained in a way that they may work as proactive, innovative, trustworthy, andresponsive and also supervise the personnel very effectively. EBL has adequate importanceon developing managerial capabilities of the managerial staff through training. It provideslocal and foreign training to its managers. But sometimes it may not provide training inspecial circumstance.Question 4; Do you think that employees are sponsored for training programmes on thebasis of carefully identified development needs?
  • 27. Page 27 of 60To answer this question, 60% respondents strongly stated that employees are sponsored fortraining programmes on the basis of carefully identified development needs and 20%respondents also supported them but 10% were not agreed with them. And other 10%respondents could not answer of the question and they did not give any clear opinion. Theysaid it varies on basis of different cases.Basically there are four steps of any training process in most of the organization; 1) needsassessment; 2) design & development of training; 3) delivery of training; and 4) evaluation oftraining(Fisher et al, 2005). Like other organization EBL‟s employees are also sponsored fortraining programmes on the basis of carefully identified development needs. But sometimes itmay not occur in special circumstance.Question 5; How true is that induction training is given adequate importance in EBL?Here 80% respondents claimed that it is somewhat true that induction training is givenadequate importance in EBL and 10% of respondents said it is true to a great extent butanother 10% alleged that it is a little true. Induction training is absolutely vital for newpersonnel at organization. Good induction training ensures new personnel are retained, andthen settled in quickly and happily to a productive role. Its about the basics that experiencedemployees all take for granted: what the shifts are; where the notice-board is; what theroutine is for holidays, sickness; where the canteen is; what the dress code is; where thetoilets are. That is why induction training is given adequate importance in EBL. Colleaguesand senior level managers generally help during induction training.Question 6; Is it true that senior managers take interest and spend time with the newstaffs during the On-the-Job training?
  • 28. Page 28 of 60On-the-job training (OJT) is one of the greatest training methods because it is planned,organized, and conducted at the employees worksite. OJT is provided at the worksite soevery staff has to be helpful towards trainee to train him effectively (Beardwell, Holden &Claydon; 2004). In EBL, senior managers take interest and spend time with the new staffsduring the On-the-Job training if it is needed. To answer this, question 80% respondentsclaimed it is somewhat true that senior managers take interest and spend time with the newstaffs during the On-the-Job training and another 20% said it is a little true.Question 7; How would you rate the quality of training programs in your organization? Figure 4:3 How would you rate the quality of training programs in your organization? bad 0 very bad 0 Neither 1 Good 10 Very good 945% respondents stated that EBL‟s training programmes are very good and 50% also supportthem to claim that the programmes are good but another 5% stated that the programmes areneither good nor bad.To ascertain the quality of training program every company has to evaluate the trainingprocess. When they EBL evaluates its training programmes then it ascertain training feedbackor quality. It provides quality training programmes to its personnel and it is a world-leadingsupplier of telecommunications equipment and related services to mobile and fixed networkoperators globally because of its expert human resources and hi technology.Question 8; Do you believe that external training programmes are carefully chosen aftercollecting enough information about their quality and suitability?
  • 29. Page 29 of 60To answer this question, 96% respondents stated that EBL‟s external training programmesare always carefully chosen after collecting enough information about their quality andsuitability and 4% said EBL do it sometimes. To justify the quality and suitability of theprogrammes EBL takes some actions such it send its agent to know about the training andreview the programmess‟ history. And EBL funds a huge amount for T&D so it‟s externaltraining programmes are carefully chosen after collecting enough information about theirquality and suitability.Question 9; How would you indicate a training area most important to yourdevelopment over the next two years? Figure 4:4 How would you indicate a training area most important to your development over the next two years? 20 15 Values 10 5 0 Market Managem Presentat Foreign training Technical ent ion skills language /professio developm training training nal ent training Series1 0 4 16 0 0To indicate a training area most important to EBL development over the next two years 20%respondents suggested that the organization needs technical/professional training more but80% suggested that they should management development more for future. In anyorganization management development should be the main focus of training programmes. Asorganized management can reach the company‟s goal or vision so EBL has to focus onmanagement development as well as technical training in future.Question 10: How would you rate the effectiveness of EBL training programs toenhance organizational performances?
  • 30. Page 30 of 60Here 50% respondents rate the effectiveness of EBL training programs to enhanceorganizational performances as very good and 50% also rate as saying good. According toHarrison (2000), training is a variable that may have a positive effect on organizationalperformance and is considered to be a key element to the attainment of organizational goalsQuestion 11; How satisfied are you with your overall experience of working in EBL toenhance your performance or skills? Figure 4:5 How satisfied are you with your overall experience of working in EBL to enhance your performance or skills? 0% 0% Very satisfied 10% Satisfied 50% 40% Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied Dissatisfied Very DissatisfiedHere, 40 % respondents are satisfied with their overall experience of working in EBL toenhance your performance or skills. However 50 % are very satisfied with their overallexperience of working in EBL to enhance your performance or skills. Ericsson TrainingPrograms is value-for-money training that enhances internal competence, giving personnel astrong base of in-house, leading-edge skills and expertise. Stay up to date with the skills andcompetence needed to address the latest technology and business scenarios. The companygenerates profits satisfying its personnel. But another 10% are either satisfied or dissatisfiedwith their overall experience of working in EBL to enhance your performance or skills.4.3 Analysis the Questionnaire For general employees or line managers (sample size 100persons)
  • 31. Page 31 of 60Question 1; How would you rate the training process of the company for employees? Figure 4:6 How would you rate the training process of the company for employees? 90 80 80 70 60 50 40 Series1 30 20 20 10 0 0 0 0 Very good Good Neither very bad badTo answer the question 80% respondents stated that the training processes of the company foremployees are very good and another 20% supported them saying that the processes aregood.EBL delivers different training programmes to all its employees based on their needs.Usually, on the job trainings help them to develop their knowledge on the ongoing businessscenarios and internal work processes. Formal trainings and workshops enhance knowledgemore on general level such as products, skills such as communication skills; excelknowledge, VAT & tax knowledge etc. To attract and retain motivated professionals whoperform to their full potential, EBL offers a unique employee value proposition such as onethat encourages individual drive and achievement while also focusing on how everyemployee can contribute to, and benefit from, their collective strengths. So it is clear thatEBL‟s training program is really good according to its employees.Question 2; do you agree with the following statement “By receiving training, one canenhance his/her performances and also overall company‟s performance very well”?
  • 32. Page 32 of 60 Figure 4:7 Do you agree with the following statement “By receiving training, one can enhance his/her performances and also overall company’s performance very well”? 1% 2% 0% 35% Strongly agree Agree Uncertain 62% Disagree Strongly disagreeAbout 62% respondents were agree with the statement “By receiving training, one canenhance his/her performances and also overall company‟s performance very well”, 35%strongly agreed with the statement, 2% were uncertain to answer the question but 1%respondents claimed disagree with the statement.Training leads to increased employee satisfaction, facilitates the updating of skills, leads to anincreased sense of belonging and benefit, increased employee loyalty to the organization(Bushardt et al, 1994), and also strengthens the organization‟s competitiveness (Burdenand Proctor, 2000). It also cuts employees‟ turnover and help to retain skilled employees.Basically employees‟ capabilities or productivities are improved by training anddevelopment. Employees are encouraged to drive their career forward and to try new ideas.They are supported by clear expectations and goals. Working in teams across organizationaland national boundaries, employees will utilize the wealth of knowledge around personnel tofind creative ways to succeed in an ever-changing business environment. EBL believes that“By receiving training, one can enhance his/her performances and also overall company’sperformance very well”.Question 3; How important training affect your performance towards your job?
  • 33. Page 33 of 60 Figure 4:8 How important training affect your performance towards your job? 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Highly Less Not Important Average important important important Series1 75 22 2 1 0To anwer this question, 75% respondents claimed that training affect our performancetowards our job highly important, 22% stated it as important, 2% said as average and 1%stated as less important.Job-related training increases an employees ability to perform job-related tasks. As Jobsatisfaction is an important motivator for employee performance and is negatively related toturnover, so to satisfy employees T&D is really very important (Mak and Sockel, 1999). AsEBL provide training based on needs assessment of employee so the training enhances jobrelated knowledge and employees can work properly. Learning available to meet personnelspecific needs Ericsson offers:  28 Education Centres worldwide  400 experienced learning consultants and instructors  800 courses in the standard portfolio  Students from over 160 countries  Over 300000 student days per year  Latest Talent and Learning Management systemsQuestion 4; Are you satisfied with the quality of training and development that youreceive for your current position in the company?
  • 34. Page 34 of 60 Figure 4:9 Are you satisfied with the quality of training and development that you receive for your current position in the company? Strongly dissatisfied Dissatisfied Neither satisfied … Satisfied Very satisfied 0 20 40 60 80 Neither satisfied Strongly Very satisfied Satisfied Dissatisfied nor dissatisfied dissatisfied Series1 76 20 2 2 0 76% respondents are very satisfied with the quality of training and development that they receive for their current position in the company and 20% are satisfied. However 2% are neither satisfied nor dissatisfied on the other hand 2% are dissatisfied with the quality of training and development that they receive for their current position in the company. Employees receive training identifying their development needs. EBL utilizes their resources globally, promote global networking, and anticipate employees to work across organizational and national boundaries. It encourages international careers and job rotation to reinforce EBL‟s global approach. That begins with an environment that energizes personnel‟s efforts to build success. As EBL relentlessly invest a huge amount in employees‟ competence so it tries to provide them better training programme. It makes every effort to ensure that they are offered challenges and are able to grow and develop in his role.Question 5; Do you agree with the following statement that “On-the-job Training isbetter than off-the-job training”?
  • 35. Page 35 of 60 Figure 4:10 Do you agree with the following statement that “On-the-job Training is better than off-the-job training”? 100 Values 0 Strongly Agree Series1 agree Uncertain Disagree Strongly disagree Strongly Strongly agree Agree Uncertain Disagree disagree Series1 98 2 0 0 098% respondents strongly agreed with the following statement that “On-the-job Training isbetter than off-the-job training” and another 2% also agreed with them.On-the-job training (OJT) is one of the greatest training methods because it is planned,organized, and conducted at the employees worksite. It will generally be the crucial methodused for broadening employee skills and increasing productivity. It also provides a valuableemployee at no cost or obligation. As the name implies off-the-job training is the trainingdone on behalf of employers, usually away from their premises or may be near to theworksite, at a special training centre or resort (Fisher et al, 2005). This enables the trainee tostudy theoretical information or be exposed to new and innovative ideas (Beardwell et al,2004). As OJT provides practical knowledge about the job so we can say “On-the-jobTraining is better than off-the-job training”.Question 6; Do you agree that EBL”s training are implemented, including culturalawareness, communication and conflict resolution?
  • 36. Page 36 of 6013% respondents are strongly agreed that EBL”s training is implemented, includingcultural awareness, communication and conflict resolution, 85% are agreed but 1% isuncertain about this and another 1% claimed as disagree. Ericsson is a truly global companyand therefore has to communicate globally, and so its employees have the opportunity towork with different cultures and travel to all sorts of wonderful places. EBL‟s people fromEricsson, the Swedes and the ex-pats working in Japan, really had such a willingness to learntheir culture and values, and to respect them, and unique. Ericsson is less hierarchical anorganization and is very informal compared to lots of other companies - there are no barriersto communication. To cope up with multi-cultural challenges the company offer some specialtraining programme so EBL”s training are implemented, including cultural awareness,communication and conflict resolutionQuestion 7; Are you satisfied with how your supervisor has worked with you to create adevelopment plan for a future position at the company? Figure 4:11 Are you satisfied with how your supervisor has worked with you to create a development plan for a future position at the company? Very satisfied 5% 2% 7% Satisfied Neither satisfied nor 20% dissatisfied Dissatisfied 66% Very DissatisfiedManagers are very focused on development and the next stage in each persons career -theyre not scared to lose an individual; theyre focused on how they can move him or herforward and benefit the whole company. Here, 66% respondents are very satisfied with how
  • 37. Page 37 of 60your supervisor has worked with you to create a development plan for a future position at thecompany, 20% are also satisfied, 7% did not comment specifically on it and they just said weare neither satisfied nor dissatisfied but 5% are dissatisfied and 2% respondents are verydissatisfied.Question 8; Are Human relations competencies adequately developed in yourorganization through training in human skills? Figure 4:12Are Human relations competencies adequately developed in your organisation through training in human skills? 100 80 Values 60 40 20 0 Strongly Agree Uncertain Disagree Strongly agree disagree Series1 84 11 2 2 1Here 84% respondents confidently stated that Human relations are competencies adequatelydeveloped in our organization through training in human skills and 11% were agreed withthem. But another 2% were disagreed and 1% was strongly disagreed however 2% wereindecisive about the response.At EBL, there are some training programmes in human skills. Human relations competenciesare adequately developed in EBL through training in human skills. Any company‟s successdepends on its manpower so human relationships have to be cooperative in any organization.At EBL, there are some training programmes in human skills. Human relations competenciesare adequately developed in EBL through training in human skillsQuestion 9; what do you feel that “Employees prefer being trained or they preferfinding out things with themselves”?
  • 38. Page 38 of 60 Valid Cumulativ Frequency Percent Percent e Percent Valid Strongly agree 90 70.9 90.0 90.0 Agree 6 4.7 6.0 96.0 Uncertain 1 .8 1.0 97.0 Disagree 2 1.6 2.0 99.0 Strongly disagree 1 .8 1.0 100.0 Total 100 78.7 100.0 Missig System 27 21.3 Total 127 100.0Table 4:3 Frequency & Percent responsesAs employees are sponsored for training programmes on the basis of carefully identifieddevelopment needs so they prefer being trained then prefer finding out things withthemselves. Here 90% respondents are strongly agreed with the following statement“Employees prefer being trained or they prefer finding out things with themselves”. And 6%also agree with statement but 1% was uncertain, 2% disagree and 1% was stronglydisagreeing with the statement “Employees prefer being trained or they prefer finding outthings with themselves”.Question 10; Do you agree with the following point “Training development is positivelysignificant with your (employee) satisfaction”?
  • 39. Page 39 of 60 Figure 4:13 Do you agree with the following point “Training development is positively significant with your (employee) satisfaction”? 100 values 0 Strongly Agree agree Uncertain Disagree Strongly disagree Strongly Strongly agree Agree Uncertain Disagree disagree Series1 15 74 5 6 0To answer this question, 15% answerers were strongly agreed and 74% were agreed with thefollowing point “Training development is positively significant with our satisfaction”.However 6% respondents claimed as disagree and 5% are vague. In EBL employees aresponsored for training programmes on the basis of carefully identified development needs soemployees can improve their weaknesses or lacking through training. So employees believethat Training development is positively significant with their satisfaction.Question 11: Does training increase your level of commitments towards organization?Here 98% answerer said yes training increase our level of commitments towards organizationbut 2% were disagree with them. career development, employee evaluation of appraisalpractices, and assessment of the benefits offered by the organization have an effect on bothaffective and normative commitment, while training was found not to contribute to theincrease in employee commitment.Question 12: How would you rate the training motivation of EBL?
  • 40. Page 40 of 60 Figure 4:14 How would you rate the training motivation of EBL? bad 25 very bad 0 Neither 25 Good 50 Very good 050% respondents stated their training motivation is good but 25% stated bad, another 25%neither good nor bad. So organization should more concern on training motivation as themore motivated the trainee, the more likely he/she are to reap the intended benefits from thetraining experience (Noe and Wilk, 1993).4.4 Analysis the Questionnaire For trainer (sample size 4)Question 1; what are the training methods does EBL deliver to its employees andmanagers?EBL delivers on the job trainings, local seminars, workshops, foreign seminars andworkshops to all its employees. Generally, on the job trainings help people to develop theirknowledge on the ongoing business scenarios and internal work processes. Formal trainingsand workshops enhance knowledge more on general level such as products, skills such ascommunication skills; excel knowledge, VAT & tax knowledge etc. Providing training is acontinuous process which the company believes help employees to grow as professionalswith the organization.Question 2; is training delivered at both employee and executive levels?
  • 41. Page 41 of 60 Figure 4:15 Is training delivered at both employee and executive levels? 4.5 4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 Yes NoEvery respondents said EBL delivers training at both employee and executive levels.Question 3; what are the draws back of the training process?On the job training has more scope of interaction and feedback whereas formal trainings maynot have that. In EBL formal training is proposed for an employee when other forms ofdevelopment are deemed ineffective.Question 4; Are there any other training areas EBL should consider? Please list:EBL should consider; Organizational attachments, Job rotationJob rotation usually aims to give trainee managers a „feel‟ for the organization by providingexperience of working in different departments. It provides the employees with opportunitiesto widen the horizon of knowledge, skills, and abilities by working in different departments,business units, functions, and countries (Beardwell et al., 2004).
  • 42. Page 42 of 60Conclusion7.1 Research QuestionsThe majority of employees today expect to be trained and they trust that training is very mucheffective to enhance their skill and satisfy them. In this chapter the research questions wouldbe answered:Question 1; does training enhance employees‟ performances?Training is a variable that may have a positive effect on organizational performance and isconsidered to be a key element to the achievement of organizational goals as organizationalperformance is depends on its human resources performance. However EBL adopt a trainingactivity as a solution to lagging performance presupposes that this performance problem, i.e.this gap between the desired and the actual performance, is due to lack of training. Itsmanagement ought to adopt training interventions to bridge this gap. Bridging theperformance gap involves adopting a particular training intervention aiming at changingspecific skills and attitudes of the employees. As the employee believes, there is animprovement in his knowledge and skills; it may be safe to also assume that, there is anincrease in the persons individual performance. Through training the persons competencieswill be reinforced and will enable him to execute the tasks assigned effectively andefficiently. As a result there will be an increase in the overall performance of theorganization. In EBL about 97% employees believe that “By receiving training, one canenhance his/her performances and also overall company‟s performance very well”. As EBLprovide training based on needs assessment of employee so the training enhances job relatedknowledge and employees can work properly.Question 2: How employees could be utilized for the betterment of the organization viaeffective training?To the extent that employee training programs are effective, organizations are able to avoidwasteful spending and improve performance and productivity. It is clear that training improveemployees‟ performance so training is also effective to utilize other inputs as humanresources are run or work the other inputs of the organization. For betterment of theorganization the employees who perceived training utilize other management resources veryefficiently.
  • 43. Page 43 of 60Figure 7:1 Key management resourcesSource: Davies (2001)When an employee perceived training effectively then he can apply it in its new orcomplicated methods. They can use job materials as skilled. Within a short time (Minutes)they can perform his job even in low cost (Money) than other employees who did notperceive training. An effective worker can work more and in an organized way. EBL knowhow to help employees to utilize other management resources for betterment of theorganization. People are the controller of other factors. So, if organization can develop, trainor utilize its human resources then they can work others elements very efficiently andeffectively.7.2 Justification of research objectivesIn this part it would be revealed that how the research objectives are metResearch objective 1: to evaluate the effectiveness of training in EBLAccording to the respondents EBL provides very good training to its senior level manageressand also employees and that affect their job performance very much. EBL utilizes its humanresource‟s talent and increase productivity providing different training programs to its staffs.EBL training program is very much effective as it evaluates every employee‟s performance
  • 44. Page 44 of 60through IPM process and provides proper training to resolution staff‟s SKAs lacking. EBL‟straining helps them reduce their anxiety or frustration, brought on by work demands, that theyare not familiar with, and they are lacking the skills to handle effectively. So it is employeesthat perceive their training beneficial will be more satisfied than those who get no training ortraining of no value.Research objective 2: Assessing the effectiveness of training motivation in EBLGenerally motivation is a characteristic of an individual willing to expend efforts toward aparticular set of behavior. From a training context, motivation can influence the willingnessof an employee to attend the training program and to transfer what they learn in the programonto the job. Thus, it is likely that trainees cannot reap the full benefits of training withoutconsidering training motivation. Trainees who possess higher training motivation willdemonstrate more training effectiveness than those who have low motivation. EBL motivateits employees through training, its personnel prefer being trained then they prefer finding outthings with themselves. EBL should concern on training motivation more because only 50%employees are happy with their training motivation.Research objective 3: Scrutinize the relationship between employee perceived trainingeffectiveness and job satisfaction in EBLJob satisfaction is an important motivator for employee performance and is negatively relatedto turnover, so to satisfy employees training is really very important in EBL. And results ofhypothesis 1 also revealed a significant and coefficient relationship between employees‟perceived training effectiveness and their job satisfaction in EBL. As the P value = .000 thatis < .05 that is mean their relationship is significant. About 90% managers are satisfied withtheir overall experience of working in EBL to enhance their SKAs.Research objective 4: To identify the EBL‟s training strategies for enhancingemployees‟ performances?EBL delivers on the job trainings, local seminars, workshops, foreign seminars andworkshops to all its employees. It delivers training based on its Individual PerformanceManagement process where every employee has an individual performance goal. And theresult of regression analysis depicts that the organizational performances was positively andsignificantly coefficients with quality of the training of EBL as the P‟s value is .000.
  • 45. Page 45 of 60EBL”s training is implemented, including cultural awareness, communication and conflictresolution. So EBL‟s training strategies for enhancing employees‟ performances are verymuch effective.EBL provides effective training to employees that is co efficiently related with employeeperformance, job satisfaction, employee commitment and training motivation etc. accordingto respondents it should be more concerned on training motivation. But overall trainingprocess is very good and satisfactory to enhance employees‟ performances.Recommendations8.1 Recommendations for EBLWithin the framework and limitations of this study and based upon the findings andconclusions of this study, the following recommendations are specifically directed to the EBLin terms of effective employee training development process design.  EBL should introduce updated programs such Organizational attachments and Job rotation to get higher outputs from its human resources concerning on training costs.  Enhance the scope of interaction and feedback of its formal training.  The supervisors and senior managers should act as a team leader in the directing subordinates  More concern on training motivation  EBL”s training program may concern more on cultural awareness, communication and conflict resolution  More importance should be given on management and technical training programs.  Induction training should be given adequate importance in EBL  Refine the criteria for approval of training classes to ensure consistency and fairness for all employees.  EBL may open a university like Motorola University that created a new internal institute named College of Learning Technologies (CLT) to develop employees‟ educational delivery systems through satellite, Internet and virtual classrooms.  EBL may modify its training process for additional benefits as following process:
  • 46. Page 46 of 60 Step 3: Training needs assessment Step 1: Setting Step 2: Assessment of • Organizational individual individual goal analysis peroformance goal through appraisal • Person analysis • Task analysis Step 4: Micro Step 5: Ensuring organizational transfer of training training level Analysis Step 6: Selecting • Self-management •Place training methods strategies •Product • Peer and manager •Promotion support •Price Step 7: Annual performance summery •Validate all the section •Final performence & = established training development evulation process of EBL •performence feed back review = Recommended training process for EBLFigure 8:1 Recommended training process for EBLFrom the recommended framework it is evident that managers should define individualperformance goal precisely for each employees. In the next recommended phase managershould make sure that all employees are assessed to ensure ongoing competence through thetrust‟s Appraisal Review process. The purpose of this is to provide positive feedback onperformance and can also highlight every individual problem that can be supported throughongoing training needs. In the next phase the training needs should only be systematicallyidentified when the cause of a performance problem is lack of SKAs.
  • 47. Page 47 of 60 Chapter 10 References lists10.1 Chapter 110.1.1 Books 1. BEARDWELL, IAN; HOLDEN, LEN; & CLAYDON, TIM. (2004). Human Resource Management; A contemporary Approach. 4th edition. Prentice Hall; New York. 2. Campbell, David and Butterworth-Heinemann, Tom, Craig. (2005). Organisations and the Business Environment. 2nd edition. 3. Decenzo, David, A; & Robbins, Stephen, P; (2006). Human Resource Management. 7th edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc; Asia. 4. Vloeberghs, Danie¨ l & Faes, Erik. (2003). “The role of human resource management in implementing a „new agreement‟ between employers and employees”. AI & Soc10.1.2 Journals & Articles 1. Baldwin, T.T., Magjuka, R.J. (1991), "Organizational training and signals of importance: linking pre-training perceptions to intentions to transfer", Human Resource Development, Vol. 2 2. Burden, R. and Proctor, T. (2000). Creating a sustainable competitive advantage through training. Team Performance Management 6(5,6) 3. Collings, D. G., & Moreley, M.J. (2004). Contemporary Debates and New Directions in HRM in MNCs: Introduction. International Journal of Manpower, Vol.25, No.8, 4. Cosh, A, Duncan, J & Hughes, A 1998, „Investing in training and small firm growth and survival: an empirical analysis for the UK 1987 – 1997‟, DfEE research report RR36, HMSO, London 5. Tung-Chun Huang 2001, „The relation of training practices and organizational performance in small and medium size enterprises‟, Education & Training, vol. 43, no. 8/9,
  • 48. Page 48 of 6010.2 Chapter 210.2.1 Books 1. Beardwell, Ian. Holden, Len. Claydon, Tim. (2004). Human Resource Management; a contemporary approach. 4th edition. Prentice Hall: Financial Times 2. Brief, A. P. (1998). Attitudes In and Around Organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. 3. Cascio, Wayne. F. (2003). Managing Human Resource. 6th edition. Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Limited; New Delhi. 4. Cole, G.A. (2005). Management Theory and Practice. 6th edition. Thomson; United Kingdom. 5. Currie, D. (2001), Managing Employee Well-Being, Chandos Publishing (Oxford) Limited, Oxford, 6. Davies, Eddie. (2001). The Training Managers Desktop Guide. Thorogood. 7. Decenzo, David, A; & Robbins, Stephen, P; (2006). Personnel / Human Resource Management. 3rd edition. Prentice Hall of India Private Limited; New Delhi. 8. Dessler, Gary. (2005). Human Resource Management. 10th edition. Prentice Hall of India Private Limited; New Delhi. 9. Dessler, Gary. (2007). Human Resource Management. 10th edition. Prentice Hall of India Private Limited; New Delhi. 10. Dubois, D. and W. Rothwell. 2000. The competency toolkit. 2 vols. Amherst, Mass.: Human Resource Development Press. 11. Fisher, Cynthia. D. Schoenfeldt, Lyle. F. & Shaw, James. B. (2005). Human Resource Management. 5th edition. Biztantra; New Delhi-110002 12. Harrison, R. (2000), Employee Development, Beekman Publishing, Silver Lakes, Pretoria, 13. Huszczzo, G. E. (1996). Tools for Team excellence. Palo Alto, CA; Davies-Black. 14. Kirkpatrick, D.L. (1976), "Evaluation of training", in Craig, R.L. (Eds),Training and Development Handbook, 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, NY,. 15. McConnell, John H.( 2005). How to Develop Essential HR Policies and Procedures. AMACOM .
  • 49. Page 49 of 60 16. Noe, R. A. (1999). Employee Training & Development. Burr Ridge, IL: McGraw- Hill Irwin. 17. Nonaka .I. and Takeuchi, H., (1995).The Knowledge Creating Company (New York: Oxford University Press, 18. OToole, J., & Lawler, E.E. III. (Eds). (2006). The new American workplace. New York: Palgrave MacMillan. 19. Quiñones, M.A. (1997), "Contextual influences: on training effectiveness", in Quiñones, M.A., Ehrenstein, A. (Eds),Training for a Rapidly Changing Workplace: Applications of Psychological Research, American Psychological Association, Washington, DC. 20. Robbins, Stephen P. (2005). Organizational Behavior. 11th edition. Prentice-Hall of India Private Limited: New Delhi- 110001 21. Rothwell, W.,C. Hohne, and S. King. 2000. Human performance improvement: Building practitioner competence. Houston, Texas: Gulf Publishing. 22. Rothwell, William J. and Kazanas, H.C. (2003). Planning and Managing Human Resources: Strategic Planning for Human Resources Management, Second Edition. HRD Press 23. Sirota, Alper. & & Pfau, Inc. (1989). Report to respondents; Survey pf views toward corporate education and training practices. New York; Auther. 24. Swart, J., Mann, C., Brown, S., Price, A. (2005), Human Resource Development: Strategy and Tactics, Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann Publications, Oxford,10.2.2 Journals & Articles 1. Ahmad, Z.K., Bakar, R.A. (2003), "The association between training and organisational commitment among the white-collar workers in Malaysia", International Journal of Training and Development, Vol. 7 No.3, 2. dArcimoles, C-H. (1997), "Human Resource Policies and Company Performance: A Quantitative Approach Using Longitudinal Data", Organization Studies, Vol. 18 No. 5, 3. Bartel, A. P. (1994), "Productivity Gains from the Implementation of Employee Training Programs", Industrial Relations, Vol. 33 No. 4, 4. Betcherman, G. (Fall, 1992):.Are Canadian firms under investing in training?Canadian Business Economics 1, no. 1 25-33.
  • 50. Page 50 of 605. Bozeman, D. P. & Perrwe, P. L. (2001). "The effect of item content on organizational commitment questionnaire-turnover cognitions relationships." Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 161-173; Grunberg, L., Anderson-Connolly, R., & Greenberg, E. S. (2000). "Surviving layoffs: the effects on organizational commitment and job performance." Work & Occupations, 27,6. Bushardt, S. C., Fretwell, C. et al. (1994). Continuous Improvement through Employee Training: A Case Example from the Financial Services Industry. The Learning Organization: An International Journal 1(1)7. Carnevale, A. P.( November 1990,) “America and the New Economy,” Training and Development Journal,8. Chiaburu, D., & Tekleab, A. G. (2005). Individual and contextual influences on multiple dimensions of training effectiveness. Journal of European Industrial Training, 29, 604-623. (Received Outstanding Paper Award from EMERALD).9. Chiaburu, D.S., Marinova, S.V. (2005), "What predicts skill transfer? An exploratory study of goal orientation, training self-efficacy and organizational supports", International Journal of Training and Development, Vol. 9 No.2,.10. Elizur, D. (1996). Work values and commitment. International Journal of Manpower 17(3):11. Erdoğmuş, N. (1997), "İnsan Kaynaklarının Geliştirilmesinde Eğitim İhtiyaç Analizlerinin Kullanılması", 3. Verimlilik Kongresi, Milli Prodüktivite Merkezi Yayınları, Mert Matbaası, Ankara,12. Facteau, J.D., Dobbins, G.H., Russell, J.E.A., Ladd, R.T., Kudisch, J.D. (1995), "The influence of general perceptions of the training environment on training motivation and perceived transfer of training", Journal of Management, Vol. 21 No.1,13. Fisher, C., Harris, L., Kirk, S., Leopold, J., Leverment, Y. (2004), "The dynamics of modernisation and job satisfaction in the British National Health Service", Review of Public Personnel Administration, Vol. 24 No.4,14. Horwitz, Frank M.( 1999). The emergence of strategic training and development: the current state of play. Journal of European Industrial Training. Volume: 23. Number: 4/5.15. Kim, S. (2006), "Public service motivation and organizational citizenship behavior in Korea", International Journal of Manpower, Vol. 26 No.8
  • 51. Page 51 of 6016. Mak, B. and Sockel, H. (1999). A confirmatory factor analysis of IS employee motivation and retention. Information and Management 38:17. Manpower Services Commission set up by training Act at 1981a18. Mathews, B.P., Shepherd, J.L. (2002), "Dimensionality of Cook and Walls (1980) British Organisational Commitment Scale revisited", Journal of Occupational and Organisational Psychology, Vol. 7519. Meyer, P.J., Smith, A.C. (2000), "HRM practices and organisational commitment: test of a mediation model", Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, Vol. 17 No.4,20. Miller, D (1996). “A Preliminary Typology of Organizational Learning: Synthesizing the Literature,” Strategic Management Journal 22, pp. 484–505; ed., S. Jackson, M. Hitt, and A. DeNisi, Managing Knowledge for Sustained Competitive Advantage (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2003).21. Noe, R.A., Wilk, S.L. (1993), "Investigation of the factors that influence employees participation in development activities", Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 7822. Ranft, A. and Lord, M. (2000). Acquiring new knowledge: the role of retaining human capital in acquisitions of high-tech firms. The Journal of High Technology Management Research 11(2):23. Read, C. W. and Kleiner, B. H. (1996). Which training methods are effective? Management Development Review 9(2):24. Rodgers, R. Hunter, J. E. & Rogers, D.L. (1993). Influence of top management commitment on management programme success. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78.25. Rowden, R.W., Conine, C.T. Jr (2005), "The impact of workplace learning and job satisfaction in small US commercial banks", Journal of workplace Learning, Vol. 17 No.4,26. Ruiz, G., (2006), Shaking up the Toyshop, Workforce Management, Vol 85, Iss 12, pp 1-8, Crain Communications, Incorporated, Detroit27. Tennant, Charles. Boonkrong, Mahithorn & Roberts, Paul A.B. (2002). The design of a training programme measurement model.Journal of European Industrial Training. Volume: 26. Number: 5.28. Teresa, Kirkwood. Sunday, December 1 2002. Systematic strategies: measuring the return on investment of your training programs, beyond the...CMA Management
  • 52. Page 52 of 60 Available at http://www.allbusiness.com/human-resources/careers-job- training/392850-1.html 29. Treven, Sonja. 2003. International training: the training of managers for assignment abroad. Education + Training. Volume 45 · Number 8/9 · Emerald Group Publishing Limited. 30. Wright, T. A., Cropanzano, R., Denney, P J. & Moline, G. L. (2002). "When a happy worker is a productive worker: a preliminary examination of three models." Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 34, 146-150; Hochwarter, W. A., Perrewe, P L., Ferris, G. R. & Brymer, R. A. (1999). "Job satisfaction and performance: the moderating effects of value attainment and affective disposition." Journal of Vocational Behavior, 54,10.2.3 Magazine & Newspaper articles 1. Business Wire. Monday, February 24 2003. Top 100 Training Organizations Spent $6 Billion on Employee Development and Training. Available at http://www.allbusiness.com/education-training/employee-training-assistance- employee/5682927-1.html at 14 January 2009, 00:08:23 2. October issue of Training Magazine. Copyright 2000. Lakewood Publications, Minneapolis, MN. Cited by Fisher et al, 200510.2.4 Websites 1. http://www.icmrindia.org/casestudies/catalogue/Human%20Resource%20and%20Org anization%20Behavior/Employee%20Training-Motorola- Human%20Resource%20Management%20Case%20Studies.htm [Accessed at 10-01- 2009] 2. www.nokia.com, August 22, 2003; L. Masalin, “Nokia Leads Change through Continuous Learning,” Academy of Management Learning and Education 2 (2003), pp. 68–72 [Accessed at 08-01-2009]
  • 53. Page 53 of 6010.3 Chapter 310.3.1 Books 1. Alvesson M. and Sköldberg K.(1994) Tolkning och reflektioner: vetenskapsfilosofi och kvalitativ metod. Lund : Studentlitteratur. 2. Cooper, D.R., & Schindler, P.S., (2003), Business Research Methods 8th edition, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc 3. Ejvegård, R. (1996). Vetenskaplig Metod (2nd ed.). Lund: Studentlitteratur. 4. Emory W. C., & Cooper R. D., (1991), “Business Research Methods” 4th Edition, 5. Ericsson, I., Wiederheim-Paul, F. (1997). Att utreda, forstak och rapportera. Malmö: Liber ekonomi 6. Gorard S., (2001)., “Quantitative Methods in Educational Research” Edition one 7. Foster,T. (1998), " Industrial Marketing Communication ", Lulea University of Technology Publications 8. GUSTAVSSON, K.( October 1998) Applied Mathematics for Industrial Flow Problems Conference, San Feliu de Guixols, Spain, 9. Hair, J.F., Babin, B., Money, A.H., Samouel, P., (2003), Essentials of Business Research Methods, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 10. Kumar,R. (1996), "Research Methodology: A Step by Step Guide for Beginners." Melbourne: Longman. 11. Likert, R. (1932). “A Technique for the Measurement of Attitudes” Archives of Psychology ,140, 12. Mcnabb E. D., (2002), “Research Methods in Public Administration and nonprofit Management”, 13. Miles, M.B., and Huberman, A.M., (1994), Qualitative Data Analysis: An expanded sourcebook (2nd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 14. Patel,R. and Davidson,B. (1994), "Forskningsmetodikens grunder: Att planera, genomföra och rapportera en undersökning", Studentlitteratur, Lund. 15. Remenyi D., Money A., Williams B., Swartz E., (1998) “Doing research in Business and Management: An introduction to process” Sage Publication, 16. Ruane, J.M. 2005. Essentials of research methods: a guide to social science research. Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub. 17. Samouel,P. (2003), " Essentials of Business Research Methods ." USA. Wiley and
  • 54. Page 54 of 60 Sons. 18. Saunders,M., Lewis,P. and Thornhill,A. (2003), "Research methods for business students " 3rd ed. Harlow: Prentice Hall 19. Yin,R.K. (2003), "Case Study Research Design and Methods" 3rd edition Sage: Thousand Oaks 20. Yin,R.K. (1994), "Case study Research Design and Methods." Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. 21. Zikmund, W.G. 1994. Business Research Methods. Fourth Edition ed. Fort Worth: The Dryden press10.3.2 Journals & Articles 1. Howell, J.; Miller, P, Park, H., Sattler, D., Schack, T., Spery, E, Widhalm, S. and Palmquist, M.(2005). “Reliability and Validity”. Colorado State University. Available from http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/research/relval [Accessed 18 January, 2008] 2. Malhotra, R. 1996. The phase space structure near Neptune resonances in the Kuiper Belt. Astron. J. 111: 3. Maxwell J. A. (1996), “Qualitative design research” Sage publications applied Social research Methods series Vol. 41 4. Thornhill, R., Gangestad, S.W., Miller, R., Scheyd, G., McCollough, J.K., & Franklin, M. (2003). Major histocompatibility complex genes, symmetry, and body scent attractiveness in men and women. Behavioral Ecology, 14, 5. Wiedersheim Paul, F. and Eriksson, L.T. (1999).ATT Utreda, Forska och Rapportera. Malmo, Sverige: Liber Ekonomi 6. WINTER (1992). RECENT ARTICLES IN THE FIELD OF PUBLIC OPINION RESEARCH. Journal of Official Statistics, 8:2, 1992,10.5 Chapter 610.5.1 Books 1. Sirota, Alper. & & Pfau, Inc. (1989). Report to respondents; Survey pf views toward corporate education and training practices. New York; Auther.
  • 55. Page 55 of 60 2. Swart, J., Mann, C., Brown, S., Price, A. (2005), Human Resource Development: Strategy and Tactics, Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann Publications, Oxford,10.5.2 Journals & Articles 3. Gaertner, K.N., Nollen, S.D. (1989), "Career experiences, perceptions of employment practices and psychological commitment to the organisation", Human Relations, Vol. 42 4. Meyer, P.J., Smith, A.C. (2000), "HRM practices and organisational commitment: test of a mediation model", Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, Vol. 17 No.4, 5. Noe, R.A., Wilk, S.L. (1993), "Investigation of the factors that influence employees participation in development activities", Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 78 pp.291-302. 6. Pool, S., Pool, B. (2007), "A management development model", Journal of Management Development, Vol. 26 No.4, 7. Tai, W.T. (2006), "Effects of training framing general self-efficacy and training motivation on trainees training effectiveness", Personnel Review, Vol. 35 No.1, Chapter 12 APPENDICESAPPENDIX G: QuestionnaireFor senior level managers (sample size 20)Question 1: General questions to senior level managers…….. a. Approximately how many employees does your organization have? b. How much money EBL budget for the T&D? c. Approximately how many employees are trained yearly?
  • 56. Page 56 of 60 d. Do you feel EBL has adequate facilities to develop its human resources? e. Is the company‟s management is committed to training and development? a. Yes b. NoQuestion 2; do you feel EBL has adequate facilities to develop its human resources? a. Yes b. NoQuestion 3: Do you feel there is adequate emphasis on developing managerial capabilitiesof the managerial staff through training? a. Strongly agree b. Agree c. Uncertain d. Disagree e. Strongly disagreeQuestion 4; Do you think that employees are sponsored for training programmes on thebasis of carefully identified developmental needs? a. Strongly agree b. Agree c. Uncertain d. Disagree e. Strongly disagreeQuestion 5; How true is that Induction training is given adequate importance in EBL? a. Not at all true b. A little true c. Somewhat true d. True to a great extent e. Very trueQuestion 6 ;Is it true that senior manager’s takes interest and spends time with the newstaff during the On-the-job training? a. Not at all true b. A little true c. Somewhat true d. True to a great extent e. Very trueQuestion 7; How would you rate the quality of training programmes in your organisation? a. Very good b. Good c. Neither d. very bad e. badQuestion 8; Do you believe that external training programmes are carefully chosen aftercollecting enough information about their quality and suitability? a. Always b. Sometimes c. Most frequently
  • 57. Page 57 of 60 d. Not necessarilyQuestion 9; How would you indicate a training area most important to your developmentover the next two years? a. Market training b. Technical/professional training c. Management development d. Presentation skills training e. Foreign language trainingIf others please mention that…………..Question 10: How would you rate the effectiveness of EBL training programs to enhanceorganizational performances? a. Very good b. Good c. Neither d. very bad e. bad Question 11; How satisfied are you with your overall experience of working in EBL to enhance your performance or skills? a. Very satisfied b. Satisfied c. Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied d. Dissatisfied e. Very DissatisfiedFor general employees or line managers (sample size 100 persons)Question 1; How would you rate the training process of the company for employees? a. Very good b. Good c. Neither d. very bad e. badQuestion 2; Do you agree with the following statement “By receiving training, one canenhance his/her performances and also overall company’s performance very well”? a. Strongly agree b. Agree c. Uncertain d. Disagree e. Strongly disagreeQuestion 3; How important training affect your performance towards your job? a. Highly important b. Important c. Average d. Less important e. Not importantQuestion 4; Are you satisfied with the quality of training and development that you receivefor your current position in the company?
  • 58. Page 58 of 60 a. Very satisfied b. Satisfied c. Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied d. Dissatisfied e. Very DissatisfiedQuestion 5; Do you agree with the following statement that “On-the-job Training is betterthan off-the-job training”? a. Strongly agree b. Agree c. Uncertain d. Disagree e. Strongly disagreeQuestion 6; Do you agree that EBL”s training are implemented, including culturalawareness, communication and conflict resolution? a. Strongly agree b. Agree c. Uncertain d. Disagree e. Strongly disagreeQuestion 7; Are you satisfied with how your supervisor has worked with you to create adevelopment plan for a future position at the company? a. Very satisfied b. Satisfied c. Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied d. Dissatisfied e. Very DissatisfiedQuestion 8; Are Human relations competencies are adequately developed in yourorganisation through training in human skills? a. Strongly agree b. Agree c. Uncertain d. Disagree e. Strongly disagreeQuestion 9; What do you feel that “Employees prefer being trained or they prefer findingout things with themselves”? a. Strongly agree b. Agree c. Uncertain d. Disagree e. Strongly disagreeQuestion 10: Do you agree with the following point “Training development is positivelysignificant with your (employee) satisfaction”? a. Strongly agree b. Agree c. Uncertain d. Disagree e. Strongly disagree
  • 59. Page 59 of 60 Question 11 ; Does training increase your level of commitments towards organization? a. Very good b. Good c. Neither d. very bad e. badQuestion 12: How would you rate the training motivation of EBL? a. Very good b. Good c. Neither d. very bad e. bad For trainer (sample size 4) 1. What are the training methods does EBL deliver to its employees? 2. Is training delivered at both employee and executive levels? a. Yes b. No 3. What are the draws back of the training process? 4. Are there any other training areas EBL should consider? Please listAPPENDIX H:Demographic Information of the respondents
  • 60. Page 60 of 60 Questions for Senior level ManagersVariables Measuring Frequency Percentage % GroupGender Male 18 18 Female 2 2 Total 20 20Age 30-40 13 13 40-50 7 7Total 20 20Income 100000-150000 5 5 150000-250000 15 15Total 20 20 Questions for general employees (Sample 100)Variables Measuring Frequency Percentage % GroupGender Male 85 85 Female 15 15Total 100 100Age 25-35 70 70 36-48 30 30Total 100 100Income 20000-50000 51 51 50000-100000 49 49Total 100 100 For Trainer (Sample 4)Variables Measuring Frequency Percentage % GroupGender Male 4 4 Female 0 0Total 4 4Age 27-35 2 2 35-45 2 2Total 4 4