I have been a presenter in many countries, and I have always found many things in common with teachers I met all over Latin America, Europe or Asia. Teachers are caring professionals who love what they do and really want the best for their students, who are usually overworked and underpaid, who struggle to find solutions to a variety of challenges. I like interactive presentations, so let’s do a little experiment here. I’m going to show you a few statements. You will decide to what extent they reflect the concerns you have in your professional life today. For each sentence, decide whether this is something that you never think about, or that you sometimes, often or always think about. Just take notes of the numeric score associated with each response. Ready? Here are the statements. Take one minute to think about your answers. This information is only for you. You don’t have to share it with anyone – unless you want to, of course. So now add up all your 5 scores. Ready?
Are you within the first group, with scores from 0 to 5? Or are you at the other end of the continuum, from 11 to 15? My guess is that we have a small group on both ends and a larger group in between. These perceptions about our work are very dynamic and change often, but today this is how you feel. Do these descriptions reflect how you see yourself and your profession? What do we do as teachers to monitor how we feel about ourselves? How we feel about the impact of our work on us and on others? I’ve been interested in this for some time, and I’ll show you what some teachers like you have been doing about this.
Who doesn’t really need professional development? I’m preaching to the choir, since you are here for a reason. Lange describes professional development as the process of continual intellectual, experiential and attitudinal growth of teachers. Really! Who wouldn’t want to keep growing?
Professional development is a process that evolves over time. It’s a journey rather than a destination. …. (read the rest of the bullet points)
These are some reasons why teachers engage in professional development activities. There are other reasons why institutions promote PD among their teachers.
And as Christison and Stoller say, PD is at the heart of a quality ELT program.
We have to recognize that ‘personal professional development results from a commitment to students and the acknowledgment that there is room for improvement at every stage of a person’s career . This quote is taken from the TESOL Standards for ESL/EFL teachers of adults, published in 2008.
We believe standards can be a valuable instrument to help us find the direction for our professional development. Standards provide a framework for all of us to understand educational processes and to improve educational results. - You can make comments about the dynamic systems -
The TESOL standards for ESL/EFL teachers of adults are organized in this way. Students’ learning is at the heart of teachers’ performance. The core standards are planning, instructing and assessing, all together as a circle that focuses on students’ learning. There are 5 additional standards in the outer circle: Language proficiency Learning Identity and context Content And professionalism and commitment
The book is an excellent resource for ESL and EFL teachers of adults. After defining each standard, several performance indicators are described to show what can be expected if the standard is met. A self-assessment checklist is provided at the end of the book with a rubric to evaluate our performance (approaches/meets/exceeds criteria defined by the performance indicator). In addition, vignettes illustrate how each standard can be implemented in different ESL/EFL contexts with adult learners.
In order to find out how standards can be used for professional development, Fernando conducted an investigation involving 9 EFL teachers The focus of this investigation was to see if standards can be practical tools that teachers can use for their PD.
These are the steps that were followed during a 2-3 week reflective process.
After completing an initial self-assessment based on the 8 standards and performance indicators, teachers reflected on the two questions mentioned on this slide.
Initial self reflections were divided into two main groups: some teachers tended to see their main strengths reflected in the standards. The second group saw their weaker areas. It’s similar to the glass that is half filled with water. Some of us see a glass that is half full and others see a glass that is half empty.
This table shows the standards with the average self-assessment scores for all 9 teachers. This is just a summary of teachers’ individual scores (on a scale from 1 to 3). The standards are ordered according to the average scores, with the highest on top and the lowest at the bottom. We will see what called the teachers’ attention about this distribution of results.
Here is another example. This is standard #2 on Instruction.
This teacher used the performance indicators to reflect on her class and see how she was doing in relation to this standard. Her general assessment was very positive.
These are the questions that teachers answered after completing 2 or 3 weeks using the standards as a reference.
What did teachers learn from the experience? It was valuable for all of them. One of the important results was the higher awareness they had about what they do in relation to what other teachers in the world do. Knowing they adhere to these standards in some way gave them a sense of belonging. It helped them feel less isolated and improve their self-esteem. And of course, they could identify strong areas and weaker areas in their daily work.
Some of these findings were expected by many but other results were unexpected. All of them were experienced teachers, so they felt they were doing a good job planning their classes and teaching. However, many of them still didn’t feel well prepared in the area of assessment. Being EFL teachers, they don’t always have the opportunity to work on their language proficiency, so this didn’t call their attention either. However, Standard 4, identity and context, was unexpectedly high for this group of teachers. Perhaps it is a concept that applies more to ESL contexts than to EFL situations, especially when it says that “ Teachers recognize how context contributes to identity formation and therefore influences learning. Teachers use this knowledge of identity and settings in planning, instructing and assessing.” Still, these EFL teachers felt very well about integrating their adult learners’ background information into their teaching. None of these EFL teachers worked at schools. They worked at language centers, so they didn’t teach content classes. That is why Content is not a priority for them. Standard 8, Commitment and Professionalism, may need some editing to consider EFL contexts more appropriately. While the first performance indicators deal with gaining and using knowledge and developing skills as teachers, the last one encourages teachers to be advocates for their adult students, which is much more relevant for ESL teachers than for EFL contexts. We know how committed and professional EFL teachers are all over the world.
These are some of the opinions teachers had about participating in this project and about using standards for their PD.
These are some of the teachers’ comments on what they felt would empower them to take ownership of their PD. If there are supervisors in the audience, there are some suggestions that may apply to your teachers’ context as well.
Using Tesol Standards for Personal and Professional Development Boston 2010 Slideshare Version
USING TESOL STANDARDS FOR PERSONAL AND PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT TESOL's 44 th Annual Convention, Boston 2010 Lic. Silvia Laborde Academic Director Alianza Pocitos-Pta Carretas Montevideo, Uruguay [email_address] Dr. Fernando Fleurquin Director English Language Center University of Maryland, Baltimore County [email_address]
SESSION OUTLINE <ul><li>General introduction to professional development & standards </li></ul><ul><li>TESOL Technology Standards Framework </li></ul><ul><li>Standards for ESL/EFL Teachers of Adults </li></ul><ul><li>Research project with Standards for ESL/EFL Teachers of Adults </li></ul><ul><li>Practical application of Tech Standards </li></ul><ul><li>Workshop section </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing group work </li></ul><ul><li>Closing remarks </li></ul>
“ I wish I’d chosen another profession.” “ My supervisor has no idea how hard I work.” “ I get bored of teaching the same courses.” “ I don’t have time to plan my classes.” “ I don’t know if what I do in my class is right.” Self Assessment Scale: 0 = Not me! 1 = Sometimes 2 = Often 3 = All the time
Highly motivated and satisfied with your work; Recognized for what you do Plan and manage your time well Have the support and guidance you need Your score Need to find motivation Not fully satisfied with your work Not enough recognition Looking for changes Not enough time Need more support and resources 1-5: 6-10: 11-15:
Who doesn't need professional development? “ process of continual intellectual, experiential, and attitudinal growth of teachers”. (Lange, 1990)
PD <ul><li>is a process, a journey </li></ul><ul><li>involves a conscious decision </li></ul><ul><li>requires active cognitive involvement </li></ul><ul><li>is different for each teacher </li></ul><ul><li>takes place throughout the teacher’s career </li></ul><ul><li>varies according to the stage of the teacher’s career </li></ul><ul><li>is easier if colleagues work together </li></ul><ul><li>requires time </li></ul><ul><li>can be self-initiated or promoted by the institution </li></ul><ul><li>requires a supportive environment </li></ul>
Reasons to engage in PD to acquire new knowledge and skills, to accept change, to increase income and/or prestige, to have power, to combat negativity and burnout, to interact with colleagues to create networks Bailey, Curtis and Nunan (2001) to ensure accountability to improve instructional results to improve morale to improve working conditions England (1998)
Reasons why an institution may promote PD To keep the organization growing, To create communities of language teachers, learners and administrators, To prevent burnout Curtis (2008) PD is at the heart of a quality ELT program Christison and Stoller (1997)
Personal professional development... ... results from a commitment to students and the acknowledgment that there is room for improvement at every stage of a person’s career. TESOL Standards for ESL/EFL Teachers of Adults, 2008
Standards provide <ul><li>a framework for all stakeholders to understand educational processes and results </li></ul><ul><li>instruments to improve educational results </li></ul>A dynamic profession requires dynamic systems.
Teachers and technology <ul><li>Technology increases and evolves too fast. </li></ul><ul><li>Digital-immigrant teachers are overwhelmed </li></ul><ul><li>Digital-native teachers might not know how to integrate technology and teaching </li></ul>
Why tech standards? <ul><li>What tech should we invest in? </li></ul><ul><li>How do we help teachers coherently incorporate that tech into their teaching? </li></ul><ul><li>How can we keep up with the impossibly fast changes? </li></ul><ul><li>Are sts ready to learn using varied technology? If not, how do we help them? </li></ul>
Who needs tech standards? “ Teachers will always be a part of the language learning environment, but their role will change...[While] computers will not replace teachers, teachers who use computers will eventually replace teachers who don't." Ray Clifford,Defense Language Institute, keynote address at CALICO, 1987, Monterey https://www.calico.org/a-349-The+Status+of+ComputerAssisted+Language+InstructionOpening+Keynote+Address+CALICO87+in+Monterey.html
TESOL Technology Standards Framework Written by the TESOL Standards Project Team: Deborah Healey, University of Oregon Volker Hegelheimer, Iowa State Univ. Phil Hubbard, Stanford University Sophie Ioannou-Georgiou Greg Kessler, Ohio University Paige Ware, Southern Methodist Univ. Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages, Inc. ( TESOL). (2008). TESOL Technology Standards Framework . Alexandria, VA: Author .
Purpose of the Teacher Standards <ul><li>For Teachers </li></ul><ul><li>to recognize the need for integrating technology in their teaching </li></ul><ul><li>to know what is expected of them in terms of knowledge, skills, and curriculum implementation </li></ul><ul><li>to understand the need for continual learning throughout their professional carrers </li></ul><ul><li>to challenge themselves to reach a higher level of proficiency in using technology in their teaching </li></ul>Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages, Inc. ( TESOL). (2008). TESOL Technology Standards Framework . Alexandria, VA: Author .
<ul><li>For Institutional Administrators </li></ul><ul><li>to recognize the importance of integrating technology in their [sic] teaching </li></ul><ul><li>to develop and monitor suitable implementation of technology in their programs </li></ul><ul><li>to set qualifications when employing new staff </li></ul><ul><li>to set reasonable goals when training existing staff. </li></ul>Purpose of the Teacher Standards Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages, Inc. ( TESOL). (2008). TESOL Technology Standards Framework . Alexandria, VA: Author .
How the standards are organized Technology standards for language learners <ul><li>4 larger goals </li></ul><ul><li>each with a set of standards totaling 14 </li></ul><ul><li>each standard has performance indicators </li></ul><ul><li>some vignettes (in low, mid, and high resource settings) </li></ul>Purchased online at the TESOL website. Five-month long online discussion for new vignettes Full volume with online companion Technology standards for language teachers
GOAL STANDARD Performance Indicato rs (wide range of settings) Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages, Inc. ( TESOL). (2008). TESOL Technology Standards Framework . Alexandria, VA: Author .
Vignettes For low, mid, high resource settings Depicting varied settings and learner variables Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages, Inc. ( TESOL). (2008). TESOL Technology Standards Framework . Alexandria, VA: Author .
Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages, Inc. (TESOL). (2009). Standards for ESL/EFL teachers of adults. Alexandria, VA: Author.
Standards and teachers' performance STANDARD: Title and description Performance Indicators Rubrics Interview or discussion question
Can standards contribute to my professional development? An Investigation with EFL Teachers
An investigation with 9 EFL teachers <ul><li>Teachers: </li></ul><ul><li>used the standards for self-evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>reflected on their teaching practice </li></ul><ul><li>communicated with the investigator </li></ul><ul><li>completed a final self-evaluation </li></ul>
1 st reflective task <ul><li>Initial self-assessment with the Standards/Performance Indicators </li></ul><ul><li>Reflections: </li></ul><ul><li>What are the main conclusions you reached from your initial self-assessment? </li></ul><ul><li>How useful do you think the standards and the performance criteria can be to help you to improve your awareness, knowledge, and skills as a teacher? </li></ul>
Initial reflections on their self-assessment: “ Considering the initial self-assessment, I have to recognize that I haven’t been doing it so badly.” “… as I kept working on it, I realized that we follow similar standards here as well. I was really surprised by this fact, and it helped me understand how we are connected to the teaching experts everywhere.”
More initial reflections...: “ I should spend more time considering all these aspects that TESOL considers as standards.” “ Observing the matrix I can easily identify that some of my professional weaknesses are related to Language Proficiency and Assessing”
Teachers' self-assessment Standard Average Standard 2: Instructing 2.06 Standard 4: Identity and context 2.06 Standard 1: Planning 1.93 Standard 6: Learning 1.89 Standard 5: Language proficiency 1.83 Standard 7: Content 1.78 Standard 3: Assessing 1.73 Standard 8: Commitment and professionalism 1.59
Standard 2: INSTRUCTING Teachers create supportive environments that engage all learners in purposeful learning and promote respectful classroom interactions. (TESOL 2009)
T’s comments on Instructing: Regarding the question of performance indicators I’m going to focus on Standard 2 in this opportunity. The indicators that were relevant to me on the first and second day of classes were: creating an environment that engaged all learners . Both first and second day of classes flew by, and I could perceive that all students were engaged. We also made effective use of classroom time , and at the end of the class we even had time to wrap it up by checking the objectives that had been achieved . I focused on giving clear instructions before the tasks or activities. In some cases, I checked comprehension by asking them to rephrase what they were supposed to do before starting the activity to ensure that all students knew what to do.
Final reflection <ul><li>What have you become aware of about your performance as an EFL teacher by participating in this project? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the main differences you found between the initial and final self-assessment you completed? </li></ul><ul><li>What can you tell other teachers about how to use the standards and their performance indicators for personal and professional development? </li></ul>
What did teachers learn form the experience? <ul><li>Enriching experience </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforced awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Increase self-esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of belonging: international community </li></ul><ul><li>Identify strengths and areas for growth </li></ul><ul><li>Useful at different stages of a teacher's career </li></ul>
Teachers' stronger and weaker areas Stronger: Planning Instructing Learning Stronger: Identity and context EXPECTED UNEXPECTED Weaker: Assessing Language proficiency Weaker: Content Commitment and professionalism
Teachers' opinions “ It’s very important to question your own practice.” “ I could identify areas for improvement, and I was proud to see how much I have grown professionally.” “ The standards can help you when you lose motivation, to identify what to do to regain self-confidence.” “ You can easily break down big challenges into manageable pieces.” “ The standards are excellent instruments to know how to help other teachers.”
Conditions to empower EFL teachers to take ownership of their PD Respect for teachers’ work and individual needs Recognition of the many roles they play Definition of expectations: achievable goals Opportunities for collaboration Time Working conditions that encourage experimentation and continuous development Access to technology Align PD with performance evaluation policies
<ul><li>Language teachers acquire and maintain foundational knowledge and skills in technology for professional purposes </li></ul><ul><li>Language teachers integrate pedagogical knowledge and skills with technology to enhance language teaching and learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Language teachers apply technology in record-keeping, feedback, and assessment. </li></ul><ul><li>Language teachers use technology to improve communication, collaboration, and efficiency. </li></ul>The Four Goals in the Technology Teacher Standards Section
Practical application of Tech Stds . TECH DIAGNOSIS 1. Operational competence a ) Write the name next to all the items that you are familiar with. About Linux: I know which application is used to: write text documents _________________ chat _________________ talk to someone through the PC _________________ make presentations _________________ make a spreadsheet _________________ surf the net _________________ make podcasts _________________ listen to podcasts _________________ make video podcasts (vodcasts) _________________ watch video podcasts _________________
b) Put a check mark next to all the items that are true for you. About the Open Office suite: I can open, modify, and save a text document open, modify, and save a presentation open, modify, and save a spreadsheet cut, copy, and paste within these applications insert images, audio, and video within these applications c) Put a check mark next to all the items that are true for you. About xsite email: I can read messages create a new message carbon copy and blind carbon copy other people change password send an attachment add an image add a background get reader confirmation activate vacation responder
2. Technology support for language learning a) Name the tech tools that are available for you to teach and students to learn b) If you use a tech tool with your students for any of the following, write the name and briefly explain how you use it (if possible mention how often): practice speaking practice writing practice reading practice listening practice grammar build lexis work collaboratively and cooperatively build a sense of community self assess achievement develop critical thinking other: c) How does the technology you use in your lessons impact on students' learning? How do you assess it? Do students have a say in how tech is integrated into lessons? If so, how?
<ul><li>3. E valuating, adopting and adapting emerging technologies </li></ul><ul><li>a) How do you keep informed about new tech </li></ul><ul><li>resources? </li></ul><ul><li>b) What online resources do you use most often? </li></ul><ul><li>c) Do you participate in any online communities, forums, mailing lists related to teaching? How are they useful? </li></ul><ul><li>d) How do you decide to try out some new technology/application in your class? </li></ul>
Highlights: Survey Results 13 teachers answered 1. Operational competence a) Write the name next to all the items that you are familiar with. About Linux: 100% write text, surf 30% talk, make a spreadsheet 23% chat, make a presentation 15% make a podcast, vodcast, watch a vodcast
1. Operational competence b) About the Open Office suite: 100% write text and perform most basic functions 38% make a presentation 23% make a spreadsheet c) About xsite mail: 100% read, create, cc, add attachment 70% add image 62% change password 0% reader confirmation, vacation responder
2. Technology support for language learning a) tech tools available to teach 100% DVD, TV set, CD player (always) 54% PC lab, audio lab (rarely) 0% cell phones, digital camera, mp3s b) explain how you use the tech you use: 100% gave examples of classic use of DVDs, CD players for listening practice, pronunciation work, build lexis 46% PC lab: online listening exercises, grammar exercises, vocabulary building, games with kids 15% PPT presentations in the DVDs (USB port) to introduce vocabulary 0% cooperative & collaborative work, build sense of community, self assess, develop critical thinking
<ul><li>c) impact of tech and assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Students like it. Not assessed </li></ul><ul><li>3. E valuating, adopting and adapting emerging tech </li></ul><ul><li>a) keep informed about new tech </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>85% colleagues </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>30% visiting specific portals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>15% mailing lists </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>b) online resources used most often </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>100% dictionaries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>77% sites for gr, list., or exam practice </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>c) online communities, forums, mailing lists </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>15% mailing lists </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>d) decision process to try out new technology </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>38% a colleague suggests </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>30% see something and try it </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>15% transfer from areas outside of teaching </li></ul></ul></ul>
Tech standards as a tool for decision making Operational compt. Very few ts can talk, chat, make podcasts, vodcasts, ppts Mail: ok in general, some details not clear Data analysis Conclusions Need to motivate, instruct, show the pedag. impact Instruction needed
Tech support for LL Still in the 80's PC lab used for mechanical work, edutainment (& even so rarely) Couple of Ts show drive, enthusiasm, & risk taking Data analysis Conclusions Classrooms need to change “look” Work on “trust” Understand the role of tech in education today Explore options Some Ts are already ahead of the rest. They are “insiders”
Tech not used as sts use it outside No assessment of what little is being done Adopting & adapting Ts rely on each other as sources of info Resources used for mechanical work Data analysis Conclusions Waste of comm potential. Collab & coop work needed Need to know sts perceptions of the impt of tech in LL Vicious circle Better resources, better uses
Very few Ts participate in online communities or know where to find info Very little knowledge about resources and how to use them Few Ts take risks, try out new things, experiment Data analysis Conclusions Raise awareness about online communities. Raise awareness and learn how to use available materials & resources Encourage risk taking, show benefits, assess
<ul><li>One PC per classroom: internet conn., webcam, mic, DVD burner, enhanced audio system, all in an intranet </li></ul>Decisions <ul><li>Instruction in the use of available software during paid PD sessions </li></ul><ul><li>PD sessions to discuss & understand the role of digital tech in LL </li></ul><ul><li>Paid techie role for a teacher with special skills and high motivation: research sources, assist colleagues, explore possibilities of our mid-resource, mid-access setting </li></ul>
<ul><li>Added several titles to our PD library on tech </li></ul>Decisions <ul><li>Creation of an online community to interact with each other asynchronously </li></ul><ul><li>Institutional wiki where sts & ts can participate in projects, build a sense of community, work collaboratively & cooperatively </li></ul><ul><li>(2010) Creation of a task force (teacher mentor, techie, & materials organizer). Meet once a week as a think tank: optimize tech impact in LL </li></ul>
<ul><li>The techie, mentor & materials organizer started a personal project in 2009 & invited colleagues to participate: </li></ul>And then some... ONLINE PLANNING WIKI 100% of the teachers plan their classes there in a collaborative & cooperative fashion powerful PD tool in itself alignment sense of belonging teacher task less lonely
Are the standards a practical tool to promote PD? Standards can be used… for personal and professional growth as a checklist to plan lessons for self-assessment for peer observation to monitor our teaching to measure our results to optimize our performance to promote action research as rubrics for teacher evaluation as topics of discussion for teachers’ meetings to meausre and appreciate our accomplishments to confirm beliefs to regain confidence to fight burnout to organize our reflections to help our students to improve our profession