General linguistics 1


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General linguistics 1

  1. 1. General Linguistics 1 Broad Overview
  2. 2. To be researched <ul><li>Comparative Method: Belén Garcés </li></ul><ul><li>Neogrammarians: Tabata Canales </li></ul><ul><li>Proto-Indo European Language: Luz Mª Ibieta </li></ul><ul><li>Grim’s Law: Mª Ivaca </li></ul><ul><li>Prague School:Nicol Muñoz </li></ul><ul><li>Structuralism and Saussure: Luis Valenzuela </li></ul><ul><li>Mr. Chomsky: Alvaro Sanhueza </li></ul><ul><li>Mr. Halliday: Anyela Vega </li></ul><ul><li>Typology: Katheryn Acuña </li></ul><ul><li>History of the English Language: Ximena Martinez </li></ul><ul><li>Applied Linguistics: Johanna Veloso </li></ul>
  3. 3. Review <ul><li>Language is… </li></ul><ul><li>cultural phenomenon that binds people together or divides them </li></ul><ul><li>tool for social interaction, </li></ul><ul><li>an artistic medium. </li></ul><ul><li>structured and accessible product of the human mind. </li></ul><ul><li>language offers a means to study the nature of the mind that produces it.. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Look at the diagram, </li></ul>Phonetics Phonology Sounds of language Linguistics Grammar Morphology Syntax Meaning Semantics Pragmatics
  5. 5. Historical linguistics <ul><li>How languages are related </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Language families </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Indo-European, Sino-Tibetan… </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Areal linguistics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Greek, Bulgarian </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly borrowed words; also shared grammatical features (any examples?) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chinese, Korean, Japanese </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>How language changes over time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sounds: poor vs paw, suit. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>vocab: skyscraper . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>grammar: Did you eat yet? Adversative passive </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Sociolinguistics <ul><li>Diglossia: “high” and “low” prestige languages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The role of Mandarin and Taiwanese in a bilingual society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The changing role of English in Chilean society: borrowing, or showing off? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tsunami and blackout : code-switching, or lexicalized Chilean words? </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Generative Grammar <ul><li>Generative grammar strives to develop a general theory that reveals the rules and laws that govern the structure of particular languages, and the general laws and principles governing all natural languages. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Areas of enquiry in Linguistics <ul><li>The basic areas of study include phonology (the study of the sound patterns of language), morphology (the study of the structure and meaning of words), syntax (the study of the structure of sentences), and semantics (the study of linguistic meaning) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Noam Chomsky <ul><li>(born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher , cognitive scientist , political activist , author, and lecturer. </li></ul><ul><li>In the 1950s, Chomsky began developing his theory of generative grammar </li></ul>
  10. 10. Chomsky asserts that: <ul><li>humans have an innate &quot;language faculty&quot; and that the universal principles of human language reflect intrinsic properties of this language faculty. In learning their native languages, children acquire specific rules that determine the sound and meaning of utterances in the language. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>These rules interact with each other in complex ways, and the entire system is learned in a relatively short time and with little or no apparent conscious effort. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Sistemic Functional Linguistics <ul><li>is a theory of language centred around the notion of language function. </li></ul><ul><li>While SFL accounts for the syntactic structure of language, it places the function of language as central (what language does, and how it does it), in preference to more structural approaches, which place the elements of language and their combinations as central. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>SFL starts at social context, and looks at how language both acts upon, and is constrained by, this social context. </li></ul><ul><li>A central notion is 'stratification', such that language is analysed in terms of four strata: Context, Semantics, Lexico-Grammar and Phonology-Graphology. </li></ul>Sistemic Functional Linguistics
  14. 14. Context: <ul><li>Context concerns the Field (what is going on), Tenor (the social roles and relationships between the participants), and the Mode (aspects of the channel of communication, e.g., monologic/dialogic, spoken/written, +/- visual-contact, etc.). </li></ul>
  15. 15. Semantics and Pragmatics <ul><li>Systemic semantics includes what is usually called 'pragmatics'. Semantics is divided into three components: </li></ul><ul><li>Ideational Semantics (the propositional content); </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal Semantics (concerned with speech-function, exchange structure, expression of attitude, etc.); </li></ul><ul><li>Textual Semantics (how the text is structured as a message, e.g., theme-structure, given/new, rhetorical structure etc. </li></ul>
  16. 16. JR Firth <ul><li>(June 17, 1890 – December 14, 1960) </li></ul>
  17. 17. MAK Halliday <ul><li>Michael Alexander Kirkwood Halliday (o M. A. K. Halliday ) ( 1925 - ) </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>SFL grew out of the work of JR Firth, a British linguist of the 30s, 40s, and 50s, but was mainly developed by his student MAK Halliday. He developed the theory in the early sixties (seminal paper, Halliday 1961) </li></ul>
  19. 19. Halliday’s view <ul><li>Some of Halliday's early work involved the study of his son's developing language abilities. This study in fact has had a substantial influence on the present systemic model of adult language, particularly in regard to the metafunctions. </li></ul><ul><li>This work has been followed by other child language development work, especially that of Clare Painter. Ruqaia Hasan has also performed studies of interactions between children and mothers. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Linguistic typology <ul><li>Very broadly speaking: </li></ul><ul><li>= is a subfield of linguistics that studies and classifies languages according to their structural features </li></ul>
  21. 21. Typology… <ul><li>Its aim is to describe and explain the common properties and the structural diversity of the world's languages. </li></ul><ul><li>Homework: Research this topic comprehensively. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Semantics <ul><li>It is the study of meaning, usually in language </li></ul><ul><li>BUT… </li></ul><ul><li>Let´s discuss about it </li></ul>
  23. 23. Semantics <ul><li>in linguistics , it is the study of interpretation of signs or symbols as used by agents or communities within particular circumstances and contexts. Within this view, sounds, facial expressions, body language, proxemics ( Edward T. Hall in 1966 ) have semantic (meaningful) content, and each has several branches of study. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Semantics in written language <ul><li>In written language, such things as paragraph structure and punctuation have semantic content; in other forms of language, there is other semantic content. </li></ul>
  25. 25. A note on proxemics
  26. 26. Pragmatics <ul><li>is a subfield of linguistics which studies the ways in which context contributes to meaning. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Pragmatics <ul><li>It studies how the transmission of meaning depends not only on the linguistic knowledge (e.g. grammar , lexicon etc.) of the speaker and listener, but also on the context of the utterance, knowledge about the status of those involved, the inferred intent of the speaker, and so on. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Pragmatics <ul><li>In this respect, pragmatics explains how language users are able to overcome apparent ambiguity , since meaning relies on the manner, place, time etc. of an utterance . </li></ul><ul><li>the ability to understand another speaker's intended meaning is called pragmatic competence . </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional Intelligence? </li></ul>