An operator is a symbol thattells the compiler to perform specific mathematical or logical manipulations.
C++ is rich in built-inoperators and provides followingtype of operators: •Unary Operator •Arithmetic Operators •Relational Operators •Logical Operators •Bitwise Operators •Assignment Operators •Misc Operators
Unary Operator Requires single operanditem to perform operationAssume variable A holds 10 then:Operator Description Example A++ or ++A will give++ Adds two operands 11 Subtracts second operand-- A-- or --A will give 9 from the first
There are following arithmetic operatorssupported by C++ language:Assume variable A holds 10 and variable B holds20 then:Operator Description Example+ Adds two operands A + B will give 30 Subtracts second operand from the- A - B will give -10 first* Multiply both operands A * B will give 200/ Divide numerator by de-numerator B / A will give 2 Modulus Operator and remainder% B % A will give 0 of after an integer division
There are following relational operatorssupported by C++ language.Assume variable A holds 10 and variable B holds20 then:
Opera Description Exampletor Checks if the value of two operands is equal or not, if yes then (A == B) is== condition becomes true. not true. Checks if the value of two operands is equal or not, if values are not (A != B) is!= equal then condition becomes true. true. Checks if the value of left operand is greater than the value of right (A > B) is > operand, if yes then condition becomes true. not true. Checks if the value of left operand is less than the value of right (A < B) is < operand, if yes then condition becomes true. true. Checks if the value of left operand is greater than or equal to the (A >= B) is >= value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true. not true. Checks if the value of left operand is less than or equal to the value (A <= B) is <= of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true. true.
There are following logical operators supportedby C++ language. Assume variable A holds 1 and variable B holds 0 then: Operator Description Example Called Logical AND operator. If both the operands are non && (A && B) is false. zero then condition becomes true. Called Logical OR Operator. If any of the two operands is || (A || B) is true. non zero then condition becomes true. Called Logical NOT Operator. Use to reverses the logical ! state of its operand. If a condition is true then Logical NOT !(A && B) is true. operator will make false.
The Bitwise operators supported by C++ language are listed in the following table. Assume variable A holds 60 and variable B holds 13 then:Operator Description Example Binary AND Operator copies a bit to the result if it exists in both (A & B) will give 12 which is& operands. 0000 1100 (A | B) will give 61 which is| Binary OR Operator copies a bit if it exists in either operand. 0011 1101 Binary XOR Operator copies the bit if it is set in one operand but not (A ^ B) will give 49 which is^ both. 0011 0001 Binary Ones Complement Operator is unary and has the effect of (~A ) will give -60 which is~ flipping bits. 1100 0011 Binary Left Shift Operator. The left operands value is moved left by the A << 2 will give 240 which is<< number of bits specified by the right operand. 1111 0000 Binary Right Shift Operator. The left operands value is moved right by the A >> 2 will give 15 which is>> number of bits specified by the right operand. 0000 1111
There are following assignment operatorssupported by C++ language:
Oper Description Exampleator Simple assignment operator, Assigns values from right side operands to left side C = A + B will assign= operand value of A + B into C Add AND assignment operator, It adds right operand to the left operand and assign the C += A is equivalent to+= result to left operand C=C+A Subtract AND assignment operator, It subtracts right operand from the left operand C -= A is equivalent to-= and assign the result to left operand C=C-A Multiply AND assignment operator, It multiplies right operand with the left operand C *= A is equivalent to*= and assign the result to left operand C=C*A Divide AND assignment operator, It divides left operand with the right operand and C /= A is equivalent to/= assign the result to left operand C=C/A Modulus AND assignment operator, It takes modulus using two operands and assign C %= A is equivalent%= the result to left operand to C = C % A C <<= 2 is same as C =<<= Left shift AND assignment operator C << 2 C >>= 2 is same as C =>>= Right shift AND assignment operator C >> 2 C &= 2 is same as C =&= Bitwise AND assignment operator C&2 C ^= 2 is same as C =^= bitwise exclusive OR and assignment operator C^2 C |= 2 is same as C = C|= bitwise inclusive OR and assignment operator |2
There are few other operators supported by C++ Language.Operator Description Size of operator returns the size of a variable. For example size of(a), where a isSize of integer, will return 4. Conditional operator. If Condition is true ? then it returns value X : otherwiseCondition ? X : Y value Y Comma operator causes a sequence of operations to be performed. The value of, the entire comma expression is the value of the last expression of the comma- separated list.. (dot) and -> Member operators are used to reference individual members of classes,(arrow) structures, and unions. Casting operators convert one data type to another. For example, int(2.2000)Cast would return 2. Pointer operator & returns the address of an variable. For example &a; will give& actual address of the variable. Pointer operator * is pointer to a variable. For example *var; will pointer to a* variable var.
*Expression in C++ is form when we combineoperands (variables and constant) and C++Operators.“*Expression can also be defined as:"Expression in C++ is a combination ofOperands and Operators.“*Operands in C++ Program are those valueson which we want to perform performoperation.
"An expression in which arithmeticoperators are used is calledarithmetic expression“.For example an arithmetic expressionis look just like that a+b=5
"A relational operator with constants andvariables makes relational expression or Anexpressions in which relational operators are useis called relational expression.Points about relational operators :-1.Relational operators are use to compare values.2.All the expressions evaluates from left toright.3.There are six relational operators in C++programming (>,<,>=,<=,==,!=).4.These operators evaluates results true orfalse.5.False statement represent by 0 and Truestatement represent by 1.6.These operators evaluate at statement level andhas no preference.
1. There are three logical operators And( && ),or( || ) these twoboth are binary operator and not( ! ) is u nary operator.2. More than one relation expression are combine by using logical operators.3. The expression will evaluate from left to right if more than onerelation expression are use.
Example 1 . write the corresponding C++expression for the following mathematicalexpression ?1.2 – ye2y + 4y2.P + q /(r + s)4Solution = 1. 2-y*exp(2*y)+4*y = 2. p+q/ pow ((r+s),4)