Effective treatment for Drug addiction at hoemoapthic Clinic, MumbaiDefinition:-Compulsive and repetitive use of alcohol o...
"An emotional fixation (sentiment) acquired through learning, which intermittently orcontinually expresses itself in purpo...
Reward circuit mesolimbic system, is characterized by the interaction of several areas of the brain.   •   The ventral teg...
AllostasisAddiction to drugs can cause damage to a brain and body as an organism enters thepathological state this altered...
For most people, addiction becomes chronic, with relapses possible even after longperiods of abstinence.addiction may requ...
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Homeopathic Doctor - Dr. Anita Salunke homeopathic clinic for Drug Addiction homeopathic treatment

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Homeopathic Doctor Anita Salunke practices in Chembur, Mumbai, India in her homeopathic clinic Mindheal. Find more information about homeopathic treatment at Mindheal. Welcome to safe, sure and effective homeopathic treatment Drug Addiction

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Homeopathic Doctor - Dr. Anita Salunke homeopathic clinic for Drug Addiction homeopathic treatment

  1. 1. Effective treatment for Drug addiction at hoemoapthic Clinic, MumbaiDefinition:-Compulsive and repetitive use of alcohol or drug or other substances may result intolerance to the effect of the drug and withdrawal symptoms when use is reduced orstopped. This, along with substance abuse is considered Substance Use Disorders.Substance dependence can be diagnosed with physiological dependence, evidence oftolerance or withdrawal, or without physiological dependence.Drug addiction is a pathological or abnormal condition which arises due to frequentdrug use.There is progression of acute drug use to the development of drug-seeking behaviorcausing decreased, slowed ability to respond to naturally rewarding stimuli. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) has categorizedthree stages of addiction: 1. Preoccupation/anticipation, 2. Binge/intoxication, 3. Withdrawal/negative affects.There is (i) an overpowering desire or need (compulsion) to continue taking the drugand to obtain it by any means; (ii) a tendency to increase the dose; (iii) a psychic(psychological) and generally a physical dependence on the effects of the drug; and (iv)detrimental effects on the individual and on society.Drug habituation (habit): repeated consumption of a drug characterized by(i) a desire(but not a compulsion) to continue taking the drug for the sense of improved well-beingwhich it engenders; (ii) little or no tendency to increase the dose; (iii) some degree ofpsychic dependence on the effect of the drug, but absence of physical dependence andhence of an abstinence syndrome [withdrawal], and (iv) detrimental effects, if any,primarily on the individual.Addiction is a primary, chronic, neurobiologic disease, with genetic, psychosocial, andenvironmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. It is characterizedby behaviors that include one or more of the following: impaired control over drug use,compulsive use, continued use despite harm, and craving.A definition of addiction proposed by Professor Nils Bejerot:
  2. 2. "An emotional fixation (sentiment) acquired through learning, which intermittently orcontinually expresses itself in purposeful, stereotyped behavior with the character andforce of a natural drive, aiming at a specific pleasure or the avoidance of a specificdiscomfort.Causes • Stimulants (psychic addiction, moderate to severe; withdrawal is purely psychological and psychosomatic): o Amphetamine and methamphetamine o Cocaine o Nicotine • Sedatives and hypnotics (psychic addiction, mild to severe, and physiological addiction, severe; abrupt withdrawal may be fatal): o Alcohol o Barbiturates o Benzodiazepines, particularly flunitrazepam, triazolam, temazepam, and nimetazepam o Methaqualone and the related quinazolinone sedative-hypnotics • Opiate and opioid analgesics (psychic addiction, mild to severe, physiological addiction, mild to moderately severe; abrupt withdrawal is unlikely to be fatal): o Morphine and codeine, the two naturally occurring opiate analgesics o Semi-synthetic opiates, such as heroin (diacetylmorphine), oxycodone, buprenorphine, and hydromorphone o Fully synthetic opioids, such as fentanyl, meperidine/pethidine, and methadoneFollowing are developmental circumstances for addiction : • life circumstances change • social Milestones are met or missed • New social roles are created while old ones are abandoned. • Adolescence or young adulthood • But surprisingly a significant amount of cocaine users may not initiate use until middle adulthood. • However, some people enter these roles earlier or later than their same age peers.PathophysiologyAcute effectsrelease and prolonged action of dopamine and serotonin within the reward circuit.
  3. 3. Reward circuit mesolimbic system, is characterized by the interaction of several areas of the brain. • The ventral tegmental area (VTA) :dopaminergic neurons - respond to glutamate. - increase the dopamine release in the mesolimbic pathway • The nucleus accumbens (NAc) :GABA neurons.- conditioned behaviors and involved in the increased sensitivity to drugs as addiction progresses. • The prefrontal cortex, more specifically the anterior cingulate and orbitofrontal cortices - a behavior -motivation originates • Hippocampus - learning and memory - alters dopamine levelsRole of dopamineNearly all addictive drugs target the brain’s reward system by flooding the circuit withdopamine. As a result, the chemical’s impact on the reward circuit is lessened, reducingthe abuser’s ability to enjoy the things that previously brought pleasure. This decreasecompels those addicted to dopamine to increase the drug consumption in order to attemptto bring their "feel-good" hormone level back to normal —an effect known as tolerance.Unfortunately, this blocking can also cause relapses in depression, and can increaseaddictive behaviors.Stress response the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) and other stress systems in the extended amygdala. This activationinfluences the dysregulated emotional state associated with drug addiction.enkephalin as a product of HPA Effect is an endogenous opioid peptide that regulatespain.Behaviorstrong, drug seeking behaviors in which the addict persistently craves and seeks outdrugs, despite the knowledge of harmful consequences.Addictive drugs produce a reward, which is the euphoric feeling.this behavior is most likely a result of the synaptic changes which have occurred due torepeated drug exposure. The drug seeking behavior is induced by glutamatergic projections from the prefrontalcortex.
  4. 4. AllostasisAddiction to drugs can cause damage to a brain and body as an organism enters thepathological state this altered stability of changed behaviour from normal physiologicallimits is also known as allostatic load.Thus the ability to overcome the depressed state following drug use begins to decrease.This creates a constant state of depression. These people are always in the state of stress.Thus the presence of environmental stressors may induce heightened responses.NeuroplasticityNeuroplasticity is the acknowledged change in learning and memory. There is physicalchange in the synapse between two communicating neurons, characterized by increasedgene expression, altered cell signaling, and the formation of new synapses between thecommunicating neurons. addictive drugs hijack this mechanism in the reward system sothat motivation is geared towards procuring the drug rather than natural rewards.behavior gears towards seeking the drug,SensitizationSensitization is the increase in sensitivity to a drug after prolonged use.Individual mechanisms of effectThe basic mechanisms by which different substances activate the reward system are asdescribed above, but vary slightly among drug classes.DepressantsDepressants such as alcohol, barbiturates, and benzodiazepines : increase the affinity ofthe GABA receptor : facilitate relaxation and pain relief.StimulantsStimulants such as amphetamines, nicotine, and cocaine : increase dopamine signaling inthe reward system or directly stimulating dopamine release, or by blocking : cause apleasant feeling in the body and euphoria, known as a high. Once this high wears off, theuser may feel depressed. This makes them want another dose of the drug, and can worsenthe addiction.ManagementAddiction is a complex but treatable condition.
  5. 5. For most people, addiction becomes chronic, with relapses possible even after longperiods of abstinence.addiction may require continued treatments to increase the intervals between relapses anddiminish their intensity.Through treatment tailored to individual needs, people with drug addiction can recoverand lead fulfilling lives.CBT (cognitive behavioral therapy ) sees addiction as a behavior rather than a diseaseand subsequently curable.Anti-addictive drugsAs per the type of addictive substance taken by the patient the treatment plan ismanaged.Behavioral programming(1) Behavioral marital therapy(2) Community reinforcement approach(3) Cue exposure therapy(4) Contingency management strategies. Social skills training adjunctive to inpatient treatment of alcohol dependence is probablyefficacious.Document Source: http://www.mindheal.orgMindheal Homeopathy is a leading homeopathic treatment center in Mumbai,India.

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