Substance abuse assignment


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Substance abuse assignment

  1. 1.  Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse, refers to a maladaptive pattern of use of a substance that is not considered dependent. The term "drug abuse" does not exclude dependency, but is otherwise used in a similar manner in nonmedical contexts. The terms have a huge range of definitions related to taking a psychoactive drug or performance enhancing drug for a non-therapeutic or nonmedical
  2. 2.  Drug misuse is a term used commonly for prescription medications with clinical efficacy but abuse potential and known adverse effects linked to improper use, such as psychiatric medications with sedative, analgesic, or stimulant properties
  3. 3. Alcohol is the major substance commonly abused nowadays. It is a colorless liquid, contained in drinks such as beer, wine, spirit, etc. that make people drunk.
  4. 4.    Alcohol is a CNS suppressant. It exerts this suppressant effect in a descending manner, where higher cortical centers are inhibited first, resulting in euphoria and then disinhibiting. In larger doses, lower vital centers are inhibited, leading to hypotension and respiratory depression.
  5. 5.    It is found that ion channel activities associated with acetyl choline, serotonin and GABA receptors are enhanced by alcohol. Ion channel activities associated with glutamate receptors are inhibited. * Death is due to central respiratory depression or inhalation of vomitus
  6. 6. * Alcohol abuse and dependence. * Alcohol withdrawal * Alcohol induced dementia. * Alcohol induced amnestic disorders. *Alcohol induced psychotic disorders * Alcohol related mood disorder.
  7. 7.      The classic signs of alcohol withdrawal are due to sympathetic over activity and tendency to develop epileptic convulsions. Symptoms include tremulousness, sweating, restlessness and even excitement. They may include psychotic symptoms (such as delusions and hallucinations). Seizures and symptoms of delirium tremens may eventually develop. Treatment is Benzodiazepines.
  8. 8.    It occurs when fetuses are exposed in utero to alcohol by their mothers' drinking alcohol. This syndrome is the leading cause of mental retardation in the United States. Women with alcohol related disorders have a 35 percent risk of having a child with deficits.
  9. 9. • Most of substances known to be amenable for abuse and dependence (Addiction) can be grouped into the following classes: 1. Alcohol. 2. Sedatives, hypnotics or anxiolytics. 3. Cannabinoids [e.g. Bango - Hashish - Marijuana]. 4. Opioids [e.g. Heroin, Opium, Morphine, Codeine and Codeine-containing cough sedatives]. 5. Cocaine
  10. 10. . Amphetamines and other stimulants. 7. Tobacco. 8. Caffeine. 9. Hallucinogens [e.g. LSD, Anticholinergic, Mescaline 10. Phencyclidine [e.g. Ketamine] 11. Volatile solvents.  N.B. Poly-substance abuse and dependence is common. Substances may be mixed with others.
  11. 11. Death is the primary adverse effect of cigarette smoking.  Causes of death include: * Chronic bronchitis. * Emphysema. * Bronchogenic cancer. * Cerebrovascular disease. * Cardiovascular disease. 
  12. 12. In pregnant women, nicotine crosses the placenta freely and is in the amniotic fluid and umbilical cord blood of neonates.  Sustained exposure of the fetus causes: *Slow growth in utero and lower than average birth weights. *Increased incidences of newborns with persistent pulmonary hypertension. 
  13. 13. This is an adaptive psychological, physiological and biochemical state caused by the repeated exposure to a drug. Continued use of the drug becomes necessary for the wellbeing of the organism. Sometimes the word "dependence" is used as a synonym of addiction.
  14. 14.  it is a strong subjective drive to use the substance. It is likely to be experienced by most (if not all) individuals with substance dependence.
  15. 15.  The diagnosis of addiction implies the use of a drug with the following clinical criteria: * The use of the drug is not upon medical indication * Tolerance * Withdrawal
  16. 16.    Drug abuse, including alcohol and prescription drugs can induce symptomatology which resembles mental illness. Drug abuse makes central nervous system (CNS) effects, which produce changes in mood, levels of awareness or perceptions and sensations. These signs and symptoms cannot be fully stated as it varies in individual.
  17. 17.    Substance abuse can be prevent in two major ways. These are: Educating the society. The government should make a policy against the selling of unprescribed drugs.
  18. 18. •   Two major goals: the first is abstinence from the substance; the second is physical, psychiatric, and psychosocial well-being of the patient
  19. 19.      Inpatient or outpatient settings. * Detoxification, * Rehabilitation. * Throughout treatment, individual, family, and group therapies (alcoholic & narcotic anonymous) can be effective. * Any underling psychiatric disorder should be diagnosed and appropriately treated
  20. 20. Because substance abuse/dependence is in part a neuropharmacological phenomenon, there is at present an aggressive search for agents that may: decrease the reinforcing properties of substances (block the drug euphoric effect) decrease craving associated with substances function as replacements for the drug of abuse 
  21. 21.    Naltrexone (an opiate receptor blocking agent) decreases alcohol consumption and relapse in alcoholic patients, also in opiate abuse. * Nicotine replacement using nicotine gum, patch, spray and inhalation have been used with successful results in nicotine dependence. * Methadone - an opiate receptor agonist proved to be highly effective in abstinence from opiate use.
  22. 22.       Halaesayyah, January 2014. Substance Abuse and Dependence.( Accessed 2014-03-07) Lauragosnell, January 2014. Substance Abuse Disorders. ( Accessed 201403-07) OsuntokiIbukunoluwa, August 2013.Basic knowledge about substance abuse.( Accessed: 2014-03-07)