History of scouting


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Troop 109's PowerPoint on the history of scouting. Geared to help scouts earn the Scouting Heritage merit badge.

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History of scouting

  1. 1. The History of Scouting Troop 109 Phoenix, AZ
  2. 2. The Origins of Scouting <ul><li>Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Born 1857 in England </li></ul></ul><ul><li>At 18 he failed his college exams </li></ul><ul><li>Joined the British Army as an Calvary officer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sent immediately to India </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In 1880, sent to Afghanistan to quell tribal conflicts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>British pulled out within a year </li></ul></ul><ul><li>At 26, promoted to Captain and sent to S. Africa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Boers were fighting with the Zulu’s </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Learning the Trade <ul><li>In 1890, stationed in Malta </li></ul><ul><ul><li>promoted to Major </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sent on intelligence missions posing as a Butterfly Collector </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Participated in the Ashanti Expedition in 1895 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gold Coast of Africa (Ghana) where tribes were fighting over control of the slave trade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promoted to Lt. Colonel </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1897 promoted to full Colonel commanding the 5 th Dragoon Guards in India </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Known as B-P </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. BP - A Creative Thinker <ul><ul><li>While in India, B-P’s first military book entitled “Reconnaissance and Scouting was published. </li></ul></ul>British officers did not “rough it”. Each was assigned 7 servants to see to their every need.
  5. 5. Learning Leadership <ul><li>As commander of a Calvary regiment, B-P used his creativity to design new training techniques </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Training must be fun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Best if conducted in small groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Should encourage self-discipline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offer opportunities for accepting responsibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Handbooks work well </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advancement based on training achievement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Those that passed received the rank of “Scout” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emblem was a Fleur-de-lys </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Baden-Powell, the Hero <ul><li>In 1899 B-P sent to S. African Boer War </li></ul><ul><ul><li>B-P Commander-in-Chief of the Rhodesian Frontier Force </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dutch, British and native tribes fighting over land and sovereignty </li></ul></ul><ul><li>B-P defends the city of Mafeking from the Boers (Dutch) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Siege lasts 217 days </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>His book “Aids to Scouting” is published </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Covers outdoor skills needed for military personnel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B-P becomes a national hero </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promoted to Major-General </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Putting His Ideas into Practice <ul><li>B-P sets up a new S. African army </li></ul><ul><li>Designs uniforms himself </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Khaki shirt with soft collar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Round brimmed campaign hats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implements his training techniques </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Morale and enthusiasm so high, the soldiers adopted the slogan “Be Prepared” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each division divided into 4 “Districts” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Districts divided into “Troops” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Troops divided into “Patrols” of 6 men </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each has a “patrol leader” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Recognizing the Potential <ul><li>In 1904 B-P becomes Inspector General of Great Britain and Ireland </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tours England and finds many schools, YMCAs, and other youth military groups are using his book Aids to Scouting as a handbook </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Over 50,000 boys participating throughout England </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B-P believes participation could be much bigger if boys performed more fun, non-military type activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He envisions a movement that could help the impoverished youth of England </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Begins to modify his Aids to Scouting book to include outdoor camping skills and citizenship </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Boy Scouts Takes Form <ul><li>In 1906 B-P receives a book entitled The Birch-bark Roll of the Woodcraft Indians </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Authored by Ernest Thomson Seton </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An American boys group focused on Indian lore and frontier skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The two men meet in London and agree to merge their ideas to form a boy’s organization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Boy Scouts was born </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each area would be set up as a “Council” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Achievement awards were changed from feathers to merit badges </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. B-Ps Outlines His Scouting Ideas <ul><li>In 1907 B-P published his outline for the Boy Scouts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Received wide acceptance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Object: To make the rising generation, of whatever class or creed, into good citizens </li></ul><ul><li>Subjects: activities such as tracking, woodcraft, lifesaving, health, thrift, self-sacrifice, discipline, responsibility, chivalry, and patriotism </li></ul><ul><li>Organization: patrols, led by a Scoutmaster </li></ul>
  11. 11. Testing His Ideas <ul><li>On July 29, 1907 B-P held the first Boy Scout summer camp </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brownsea Island, off southern coast of England </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Invited 21 boys to attend </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Issued S. African army uniforms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Created patrol names (Wolves, Bulls, Ravens) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The first Boy Scout campfire was held on July 31, 1907 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>B-P told stories about his military career </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The last day of camp, the scouts played games </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scout planned, and led </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Early Scouting Uniforms <ul><li>Campaign hats </li></ul><ul><li>Neckerchiefs </li></ul><ul><li>Long-sleeved shirts </li></ul><ul><li>Short pants </li></ul><ul><li>Knee-high socks with garters </li></ul>
  13. 14. The Scouting Movement Skyrockets <ul><li>In 1908, a re-written handbook “Scouting for Boys” was published </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outlined the Scout Oath, Law, rank advancement to First Class and merit badges. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Created the official scout salute and uniform </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tens of thousands of boys joined within a few years </li></ul><ul><li>B-P always planned on Scouting to be a part of other organizations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Boys wanted to be Scouts, and only Scouts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Led to a stand-alone Boy Scout organization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>By 1909, scouting had spread to India and Canada </li></ul>
  14. 15. Gilwell Park <ul><li>In 1909, the King of England knighted B-P </li></ul><ul><li>In 1910 B-P initiated the Cub Scout program to prepare both boys and adults for scouting </li></ul><ul><li>In 1919, the King gave land at Gilwell Park to serve as the official Boy Scout training center </li></ul><ul><li>Site of the first Boy Scout Jamboree and Wood Badge leadership training course </li></ul><ul><li>In 1920, site of the first Boy Scout World Jamboree </li></ul><ul><ul><li>B-P named Chief Scout of the World </li></ul></ul><ul><li>B-P died in 1937 </li></ul>
  15. 16. Creation of the Boy Scout of America <ul><li>In 1909, William Boyce visited London and became lost </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A Boy Scout helped him find his way and would not accept a tip, for Scouts were expected to do a good turn daily </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boyce was so impressed, he wrote to B-P about bringing scouting the America </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The BSA was established in 1910 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>President Theodore Roosevelt was named Chief Scout Citizen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Merged with the Sons of Daniel Boone, a backwoods boys group founded by Daniel Carter Beard </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In 1912, the Boys Life magazine was created </li></ul><ul><li>Arthur Eldred becomes the first Eagle Scout </li></ul><ul><li>Scout dues were 25 cents </li></ul>
  16. 17. Other BSA Founding Fathers <ul><li>Waite Philips (1883-1964) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rich oilman from Tulsa, OK </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Donated his New Mexico ranch to the BSA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Became the 127,000 acre Philmont Scout Ranch </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Dr. James West (1876-1948) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The first Chief Scout Executive of the BSA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Served from 1911-1943 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instrumental in guiding the development of the BSA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conflicts between Seton and Beard over control of BSA </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 18. BSA Time Line <ul><li>1914 – 100,000 scouts nationwide </li></ul><ul><li>1920 – First World Jamboree held in London </li></ul><ul><li>1937 – First US Jamboree held </li></ul><ul><li>1939 – Philmont Scout Ranch established </li></ul><ul><li>1941 – Webelos established </li></ul><ul><li>1945 – 1 million scouts in the US </li></ul><ul><li>1982 – 1 million Eagle scouts </li></ul><ul><li>2000 – 100 million boys have been scouts </li></ul><ul><li>2010 – 17 th National Jamboree hold in Wash. D.C. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>National Hall of Leadership created </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ron McElhaney inducted </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 19. Eagle Scout is an American “Thing” <ul><li>The highest rank in British scouting is First Class, with the Chief Scout Gold Award earned by completing merit badges </li></ul><ul><li>The BSA ranks of Star, Life and Eagle were also initially merit badge awards available to First Class scouts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eagle became the highest rank in 1911 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The King of England wanted the highest rank in scouting to be the “Kings Scout” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1910, the highest BSA rank was “Wolf Scout” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>As of 2008, there have been 1.8 million Eagle scouts in the US – 2% of total scout membership </li></ul>
  19. 20. Famous Eagle Scouts <ul><li>President Ford </li></ul><ul><li>Sec. of Defense Robert Gates </li></ul><ul><li>Ross Perot </li></ul><ul><li>J.W. Marriott </li></ul><ul><li>Mike Rowe (Dirty Jobs) </li></ul><ul><li>Steven Spielberg </li></ul><ul><li>Sam Walton (Walmart) </li></ul><ul><li>Ken Whisenhunt (AZ Cards Head Coach) </li></ul><ul><li>Larry Abbott – AZ Chief Scout Executive </li></ul><ul><li>Russ Carpenter – Troop 109 </li></ul>
  20. 21. Other Famous Scouts <ul><li>Henry Aaron – Home run king </li></ul><ul><li>Walter Cronkite – TV newsman </li></ul><ul><li>Henry Fonda – actor </li></ul><ul><li>Pres. Kennedy </li></ul><ul><li>Bill Gates – Microsoft </li></ul><ul><li>Jimmy Stewart – actor </li></ul><ul><li>Tom Potter – Troop 109 Scoutmaster </li></ul>
  21. 22. Chief Scout of the World