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! Cavalleiro 1Steven CavalleiroMrs. April DavalaHonors English 12March 4, 2011Pastry Chef! “A pastry chef works to make desserts appeal to the eye as well as the taste.”(Craigmyle/Corbis) Due to peopleʼs increased interest and consumption of pastries,there has been much more coverage about creating and decorating pastries and cakes.Cake decorating offers a variety of different designs that catch peopleʼs eyes all aroundthe world.! It is very hard to put a date on when cake mixing, baking, and decorating began.It is thought to be around 1175 B.C.(“The Essential”) For centuries in Europe, familiespracticed bread baking and created their own deserts. The art of pasty was mademainly by artists who sold their pieces to the rich and wealthy (Boyce). The ancientGreeks created the art of baking by speciﬁc recipes and shapes of bread (MacLauch-lan). Babylonians taught the Egyptianʼs the art of baking (“The Essential”). Most pastrieshave Mediterranean roots, due to the Ottoman Empire. There is a legend that croissantswere created in Vienna and Austria to celebrate the successful repulsion of the Ottomaninvaders. The crescent shape of the croissant mimicked the crescent on the Ottomanﬂag (Boyce). Before cakes were served in weddings, they made their ﬁrst appearance inEngland during the reign of Elizabeth I (“The Essential”). Puff paste is an invention ofRenaissance cooks. Sicily has been one of the original providers of almond paste. For
! Cavalleiro 2centuries, almond paste was Sicilyʼs greatest export, prized as far north as the royalcourts of Scandinavia (Boyce).! Pastry chefs are on the front line of the culinary world. The career of a pastrychef has risen from a subordinate taskmaster to a prominent leader in Americaʼs ﬁnestcafes, restaurants and bakeries (MacLauchlan). Pastry chefs do not only make cakesand cookies, they also make bread (“Culinary”). A pastry chefʼs day may include, meet-ing with other chefs to discuss the menu as well as testing and evaluating new pastriesthey make and recipes and ordering supplies from various vendors. In addition, theyprepare a budget for the pastry department and provide training and educationalclasses on pastries are also part of a pastry chefʼs repertoire (“Job”).! Pastry chefs can work in restaurants, large hotels, bistros, casinos, and baker-ies. The Chef de Cuisine is the highest chef in his ﬁeld. They make the menu dishesand choose the food direction. An executive chef works directly under the Chef de Cui-sine. The executive chef creates the recipes, controls the cost of pastries, and performsother responsibilities. The second in charge is the Sous chef. He makes sure the food iscorrect and up to their standard, and he also makes sure it is delivered on time. A pastrychef is the highest person in the pastry section, and only reports to the executive orsous chef. A head chef makes sure everyone is doing his or her job properly. The chefthat oversees a section is called the Chef de Partie. The Commis chefs are the onesthat do the majority of cooking (“Job”).! Cakes, chocolates, pies and cookies have become a natural part of menus andcelebrations (“Culinary”). Most business and food industries consider the arts of pastryto be included in the world of chocolate, pastries, cookies, cakes and confections
! Cavalleiro 3(Boyce). French and Indian renaissance chefs are credited for perfecting puff pastry andchoux. In the 17th and 18th centuries, chefs introduced new recipes, such as Napole-ons, Cream Puffs, and Eclairs (Olver). A napoleon pastry is a french pastry that is madeof three layers; a vanilla layer, a cream layer, and a custard layer. It is then put all to-gether consisting of three different ﬁllings. The napoleon is then then topped with eitherfondant or icing. They then drizzle chocolate on top and make it look like a dripping ef-fect. It is a very elegant pastry that is quite tasty. Cream puffs are made out of puff pas-try. The special batter that renaissance chefs used made the puff hollow and elegant.After the puff was ﬁnished, they had to use a piping bag and make a hole to insert theﬁlling. The ﬁlling could then be made out of pastry cream or pudding. An eclair is a longpuff pastry, which is hollow inside, much like the cream puff. After it is done baking theyhad to pipe the ﬁlling inside of it. They used either pastry cream, whipped cream or cus-tard. It is then topped with icing, the icing is usually chocolate. After the chocolate issmeared onto the cake it is then drizzled with vanilla icing. Belgian chocolate is knownas the ﬁnest type of chocolate due to the ingredients (Boyce).! Cakes in the early twentieth century were raised in layers and pillars. Pillarsmake the tiered cakes even bigger; the pillars can sometimes make a cake almost 10feet tall. Wedding cakes have the longest tradition and how they changed the history ofcake decorating into an art. The tradition of the bride and groom cutting the cake to-gether came from New England. When British cakes were covered in several layers ofhard royal icing, they used a sword to cut the cake and the icing was extremely hard sothe groom used to have to help the bride cut the cake. Now specially decorated cakesare served to celebrate many different occasions, such as weddings, christenings, anni-
! Cavalleiro 4versaries, birthdays, engagements, and Christmas. Christmas cakes have a very longhistory; they were baked by the rich in the 18th century as Twelfth Night cakes (“TheEssential”). The Twelfth Night was a famous gathering in England. It was a Feast of theEpiphany, celebrating the arrival of the three kings from the Far East. Birthday cakesalso have a very long tradition. Everybody gets a cake for his or her birthday. Nowcakes have different toppings, including fondant, icing, dirty icing and sometimes evencustard. They have cool and elegant designs due to the new techniques that have beendiscovered.! Thousands of years ago the ancient Greeks were baking cakes and decoratingthem to appease their angry gods, and to celebrate special occasions. The ﬁve ﬁne artsof cake decorating are sculpture, painting, poetry, music, and architecture. (“The Essen-tial”). Sculpture is very important in the cake decorating ﬁeld. A pastry chef must usesculpture to draw designs and put all different patterns on a cake to make it appealing tothe eye. Painting is another very important part of cake decorating. A pastry chef mustuse painting to color the cake and make it the colors that people like and want. Poetrydisplayed on a cake can symbolize the art form of emotion, giving the cake a more ap-pealing stature. Architecture is a big key to building the cakes. A pastry chef has tomake sure that the cake is sturdy enough to hold all the tiers on it. A pastry chef has toknow what tools to use to make the cake straight and even. A pastry chef must knowhow to balance a cake properly and make it able to be steady and balanced. One alsoneeds architecture to build high tiered cakes. If you are making a six tiered cake it hasto be build properly so the tiers ﬂow into the all the other tiers and make sure it does notfall.
! Cavalleiro 5! Cake decorating calls for some special ingredients and equipment (“The Essen-tial”). Some equipment used in cake decorating consists of many different shapes anddesigns. They include pots, cake smoothers, brushes, ﬂower nails, icing colors, pipinggel, spatulas, stencils, turn tables, piping tips, fondant, rolling pin, cake lifter, cookie cut-ters and buttercream. A cake smoother is a plastic hand held tool to smooth the icing onthe cake and make everything even around the whole cake. It is also used to put icingon the cake in big piles. Brushes are a key tool to cake decorating, their are many dif-ferent sizes of brushes. Brushes are used to paint objects on to cakes and to color thewhole entire cake. A ﬂower nail is a big nail that rotates. It is a tool used to design aﬂower on to it. Icing colors are extremely important. It is used to color the entire cake. Itcolors all the icing and fondant that covers the cake. Piping gel is used to draw on the
! Cavalleiro 6cake. Piping gel is also used to write on the cake and draw objects. It is very sweet buteatable. Stencils are designs that basically get pushed onto the icing and it leaves theimpression of the design. Turntables are used to cover/ ice the whole cake quickly andevenly. Turntables provide a circular motion making it easier to smear icing on the cakeand level it off evenly. Piping tips are used for many different reasons. They are somany different piping tips that do many different designs and shapes. Piping tips areused to cover the borders of a cake and give it a unique design. They are also used formaking designs on the cake like grass or water. Piping tips are the biggest part to cakedecorating. There is not one cake that does not have to use piping in. Piping tips givethe cake nice designs. Fondant is what covers the cake to give it a professional lookand very appealing to the eye. Fondant is very easy to color and design, because fon-dant is hard, even and does not break easily. A rolling pin is used for many things; roll-ing pins are used to ﬂatten fondant, spread out the dough and do many other things. Arolling pin makes it very easy to ﬂatten things. It ﬂattens the fondant very easily, but ittakes time getting the fondant even, it takes a lot of time and patience. Cake lifters arevery self explanatory. It lifts cakes easily so one can move them around and place themon top of things. The tool is also used to scrape icing off of the cake easily and quickly. Itgives it a smooth ﬁnish and it makes it very appealing to the eye. It also saves a lot ofyour icing. Cookie cutters are an essential part to cake decorating. They are used toshape dough and all different kind of baking needs. There specially used to make coolshapes out of cookies that you can add to the cake and make it have more of a designand more appealing to the eye. Buttercream is a big essential to cakes and decorating
! Cavalleiro 7them. Buttercream is very simply to make but takes time. Buttercream is used to makerborders around the cake and a nicer design.! Now cakes can be eight feet tall and covered in ﬂowers, fountains of champagneand even ﬁgures of the bride and groom. Cake decorating is not difﬁcult; it requires a lotof patience, time, and attention to detail. Cake tins are lined to prevent cakes sticking tothem during baking and to give the cake protection from heat of the oven. Marzipan isused under icing to give it a good taste. Sugar sculpting began in Italy in the 17th cen-tury. Sugar paste gives the cake soft edges, and gives it modern delicate design. Sugarpaste is also known as soft icing or rolled fondant. Sugar paste is soft pliable, easilycolored and shaped. Fondant is a cream confection used for covering the cakes, andpastries. Fondant is easily shaped, colored, and designed. Royal icing starts off runningbut sets to a very hard ﬁnish. It is ideal for piping intricate lines, shapes, and even ﬁg-ures. Piping is a cone shaped hand held bag that holds icing inside. Piping is usedalong the edge of the cake and all the corners to make the design even. Todays fabu-lous cakes are spread with rich icings of chocolate, cream or eggs, including sugarﬂowers and tiny ﬁgures, covered in piping (“The Essential”).! According to Sarah Gasparre, her inspiration came from her mother teaching herhow to bake when she was very young. When she started to grow up she realized thatshe loved baking so much that she wanted to become a baker herself. She attendedculinary school at culinary academy of Long Island where she realized that “It was a lotof work.” According to Sarah, the techniques behind baking come mainly from havingthe right equipment. While working in a bakery her hours were all over the place. Shewould be there at 7:00pm at night and stayed till 2:00am in the morning. The perks of
! Cavalleiro 8the job and I quote “Seeing peopleʼs reactions after you spent hours on end making abeautiful creation is very rewarding and satisfying.” According to Sarah, “It is a very in-tricate process behind baking because you are not able to speed the process up, pa-tience is a virtue.” “Every cake and pastry needs preparation and time to fully bake andcool.” “Decorating can be a delicate process because you want everything to look per-fect and appetizing to your customers.”! There are many schools that offer training in the ﬁeld of culinary/pastryprofessions. Pastry chefs need to be able to bake. They have to pay close attention todetail. They also need an artistic ability and creativity to produce pastries and dessertsthat look and taste great (“Pastry Chef”). A number of chefs attend independent cookingschools or professional culinary institutes. They attend either a two or a four year col-lege with a hospitality or culinary arts department (“Bureau”). One of the most famousculinary arts school is Le Cordon Bleu. It was created in 1895 and is still around(Boyce). There are many different schools from state to state that offer this profession intheir schools. Some large hotels and restaurants actually offer their own training and jobplacement programs for pastry chefs and head cooks (“Bureau”). The things they teachthem in these schools are the daily activities that a pastry chef goes through. Which in-clude responsibility for creating baked goods and desserts. Also that they can preparedesserts and bread from scratch. They have a responsibility for cost control and inven-tory, and they are responsible for creating recipes (“Culinary”).! In conclusion, a pastry chef has come a long way in the ﬁeld of baking. Now thatthere are more techniques involved it has become more difﬁcult to join the ﬁeld ofculinary. A pastry chef is still growing and will always grow because the people will ﬁnd
! Cavalleiro 9new techniques that will challenge a pastry chef; Pastry chefs will have to become anexpert to these new techniques and ﬁnd out more of their own.