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Camera Evolution

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A Brief History and camera evolution

A Brief History and camera evolution


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  • 1. HISTORY OF PHOTOGRAPHY BY A.CHAYAPATHI 10020507
  • 2. PHOTOGRAPHY DEFINITION THE WORD PHOTOGRAPHY CAME FROM TWO GREEK WORDS THAT MEAN "WRITING WITH LIGHT." THE FIRST TIME THE WORD "PHOTOGRAPHY" WAS USED WAS IN 1839, THE YEAR THE INVENTION OF THE PHOTOGRAPHIC PROCESS WAS MADE PUBLIC, BY SIR JOHN HERSCHEL
  • 3. CAMERA OBSCURA GO IN THE A DARK ROOM ON A BRIGHT DAY, MAKE A HOLE IN THE WINDOW COVER AND THE OUTSIDE IS PROJECTED INSIDE BUT ITS UPSIDE DOWN THE PICTURE IS IN FULL COLOR. ITS EXPLAINED BY SOME LAWS OF PHYSICS, LIGHT TRAVELS IN A STRAIGHT LINE WHEN SOME OF THE RAYS REFLECTED FROM A BRIGHT SUBJECT PASS THROUGH A SMALL HOLE IN THIN MATERIAL THEY DO NOT SCATTER BUT CROSS AND REFORM AS AN UPSIDE DOWN IMAGE ON A FLAT SURFACE HELD PARALLEL TO THE HOLE. THIS LAW OF OPTICS WAS KNOWN IN ANCIENT TIMES. CAMERA = LATIN FOR “ROOM” OBSCURE = LATIN FOR “DARK”
  • 4. 4TH CENTURY ABOUT 2,400 YEARS AGO (4TH CENTURY B.C.) THE FAMOUS PHILOSOPHER ARISTOTLE TALKED ABOUT A PINHOLE IMAGE FORMATION IN HIS WORK. HE WONDERED WHY "WHEN LIGHT SHINES THROUGH A RECTANGULAR PEEP-HOLE, IT APPEARS CIRCULAR IN THE FORM OF A CONE?" HE DIDN'T FIND AN ANSWER TO HIS QUESTION AND THE PROBLEM WASN'T ANSWERED UNTIL ABOUT 1500S. 2,000 YEARS LATER IN THE
  • 5. 14TH CENTURY THE EARLIEST MENTION OF THE CAMERA OBSCURA WAS IN 5TH CENTURY BC BY A CHINESE PHILOSOPHER MO-TI. HE RECORDED THIS CREATION OF AN INVERTED IMAGE FORMED BY RAYS OF LIGHT PASSING THROUGH A PINHOLE VIN A DARK ROOM HE CALLED THIS DARKEN ROOM A "COLLECTING PLACE" OR THE "LOCKED TREASURE ROOM." IN 1490 LEONARDO DA VINCI GAVE TWO DESCRIPTIONS OF THE CAMERA OBSCURA IN HIS NOTEBOOKS. MANY OF THE FIRST CAMERA OBSCURAS WERE LARGE ROOMS LIKE THAT ILLUSTRATED BY THE DUTCH SCIENTIST REINERUS GEMMA-FRISIUS IN 1544 FOR USE IN OBSERVING A SOLAR ECLIPSE.
  • 6. 18TH CENTURY THIS IS THE FRENCH INVENTOR NICEPHORE NIEPCE WAS BORN IN 1765, HE WAS FASCINATED BY LITHOGRAPHY BUT UNSKILLED AT DRAWING. HE SOUGHT OUT AWAY TO TAKE IMAGES OF NATURE, IN 1826-27 HE CAPTURED AN IMAGE FROM HIS WORKROOM WINDOW USING LIGHT SENSITIVE CHEMICALS ON A PIECE OF METAL PERMANENT PHOTOGRAPH. THIS WAS THE FIRST HE KEPT HIS PROCESS A SECRET UNTIL 1829, WHEN HE PARTNERED WITH LOUIS-JACQUESMANDÉ DAGUERRE.
  • 7. THE FIRST PHOTOGRAPH ON A SUMMER 1827, NICEPHORE NIEPCE MADE THE FIRST PHOTOGRAPHIC IMAGE WITH A CAMERA OBSCURA. PRIOR TO NIEPCE PEOPLE JUST USED THE CAMERA OBSCURA FOR VIEWING OR DRAWING PURPOSES NOT FOR MAKING PHOTOGRAPHS. JOSEPH NICEPHORE NIEPCE'S HELIOGRAPHS OR SUN PRINTS AS THEY WERE CALLED WERE THE PROTOTYPE FOR THE MODERN PHOTOGRAPH, BY LETTING LIGHT DRAW THE PICTURE. NIEPCE PLACED AN ENGRAVING ONTO A METAL PLATE COATED IN BITUMEN, AND THEN EXPOSED IT TO LIGHT. WHEN HE PLACED THE METAL PLATE IN A SOLVENT EVENTUALLY AN IMAGE ,BEFORE THEN INVISIBLE, APPEARED. HOWEVER, HIS PHOTOGRAPH TOOK EIGHT DAY IN HOURS OF LIGHT EXPOSURE TO CREATE AND AFTER APPEARING WOULD SOON FADE AWAY.
  • 8. EXAMPLES OF CAMERA OBSCURAS
  • 9. 1834 HENRY TALBOT CREATES PERMANENT NEGATIVE IMAGE USING PAPER SOAKED IN SILVER CHLORIDE AND FIXED WITH A SALT SOLUTION. TALBOT CREATED POSITIVE IMAGES BY CONTACT PRINTING ONTO ANOTHER SHEET OF PAPER.
  • 10. DAGUERREOTYPE LOUIS DAGUERRE, A FRENCH ARTIST AND SCENIC PAINTER. DAGUERRE HAD BEGAN EXPERIMENTING WITH WAYS OF FIXING THE IMAGES FORMED BY THE CAMERA OBSCURA AROUND 1824, IN 1829 HE MADE A PARTNERSHIP WITH NIEPCE. AFTER THE DEATH OF HIS PARTNER HE CONTINUED TO EXPERIMENT WITH COPPER PLATES COATED WITH SILVER IODIDE TO PRODUCE DIRECT POSITIVE PICTURES. HE DISCOVERED THE LATENT IMAGE ON AN EXPOSED PLATE COULD BE "DEVELOPED" WITH THE FUMES FROM WARMED MERCURY. THE USE OF MERCURY VAPOR MEANT THAT PHOTOGRAPHIC IMAGES COULD BE PRODUCED IN TWENTY TO THIRTY MINUTES RATHER THAN HOURS. IN 1837, DAGUERRE FOUND A WAY OF "FIXING" THE PHOTOGRAPHIC IMAGES WITH A SOLUTION OF COMMON SALT. TWO YEARS LATER, HE GOT A SUGGESTION FROM SIR JOHN HERSCHEL AND USED THIOSULPHATE OF SODA AS THE FIXING AGENT
  • 11. 1841 TALBOT PATENTS HIS PROCESS UNDER THE NAME CALOTYPE ALSO KNOWN AS TINTYPES
  • 12. 1846 ASSOCIATED PRESS:
  • 13. 1851 FREDRICK SCOTT ARCHER, A SCULPTOR IN LONDON, IMPROVES PHOTOGRAPHY RESOLUTION BY SPREADING A MIXTURE OF COLLODION AND CHEMICALS ON SHEETS OF GLASS. WET PLATE COLLODION PHOTOGRAPHY WAS MUCH CHEAPER THAN DAGUERREOTYPES THE NEGATIVE/ POSITIVE PROCESS PERMITTED UNLIMITED REPRODUCTIONS.
  • 14. 1855-57 DIRECT POSITIVE IMAGES ON GLASS (AMBORTYPES) AND METAL (TINTYPES OR FERROTYPES) WERE POPULAR IN THE US 3 MILLION TINTYPES PRODUCED IN THE MID 1800S.
  • 15. 1861 SCOTTISH PHYSICIST JAMES MAXWELL DEMONSTRATES A COLOR PHOTO SYSTEM WHICH INCLUDED 3 BLACK AND WHITE PHOTOS EACH TAKEN THROUGH A GREEN, BLUE AND RED FILTER. THE PHOTOS WERE TURNED INTO LANTERN SLIDES AND PROJECTED IN THE SAME COLOR FILTER.
  • 16. 1871 AN ENGLISH DOCTOR, RICHARD MADDOX, PROPOSES THE USE OF EMULSION OF GELATIN AND SILVER BROMIDE ON A GLASS PLATE (THE DRY PLATE)
  • 17. 1877 EDWARD MUYBRIDGE WHO ENGLAND THEN MOVED TO AMERICA. HE BEGAN AS A LANDSCAPE PHOTOGRAPHER ACQUIRING A SUITABLE REPUTATION. HE WAS THEN REQUESTED BY THE FORMER GOVERNOR OF CALIFORNIA HE BEGAN TO TAKE PHOTOS OF HORSES TO SEE HOW THEY MOVED. HIS EARLY WORK REQUIRED FOR HIM TO TAKE A PICTURE AT PRECISELY THE RIGHT TIME, HOWEVER IN 1878 HE CONDUCTED AN EXPERIMENT TO TAKE A SEQUENCE OF IMAGES IN QUICK SUCCESSION . WAS BORN IN
  • 18. KODAK AN INSTANT CAMERA IS A TYPE OF CAMERA THAT GENERATES A DEVELOPED FILM IMAGE. THE MOST POPULAR TYPES TO USE SELF DEVELOPING FILM FORMERLY MADE BY POLAROID CORPORATION. THESE WERE INVENTED BY A LOT OF PEOPLE BUT THE CREDIT GOES TO AN AMERICAN SCIENTIST EDWIN LAND, WHO UNVEILED THE FIRST COMMERCIAL INSTANT CAMERA THE LAND CAMERA. IN FEBRUARY 2008, POLAROID ANNOUNCED IT WOULD DISCONTINUE PRODUCE OF FILM AND SHUT DOWN FACTORIES. 3
  • 19. EARLY 35MM CAMERAS THE FIRST PATENT FOR ONE WAS GIVEN TO LEO, AUDOBARD AND BARDOT IN ENGLAND IN 1908. THE FIRST FULL SCALE PRODUCTION CAMERA WAS THE HOMES (A STEREO CAMERA) PRODUCED BY JULES RICHARD IN 1903. IT TOOK STEREO PAIRS 18X24 WITH 2 TESSAR LENSES IT WAS SOLD UNTIL 1920. THE FIRST 35MM BIG SELLER WAS THE AMERICAN TOURIST MULTIPLE, ALSO APPEARING IN 1913, THIS CAMERA COST $175 IN 1913 (WHICH BY TODAYS STANDARDS IS THE EQUAL OF $3000 LECIA)IT TOOK EITHER 800 HALF FRAME OR 400 FULL FRAME SHOTS ON 50FT ROLLS.
  • 20. INSTANT CAMERA AN INSTANT CAMERA IS A TYPE OF CAMERA THAT GENERATES A DEVELOPED FILM IMAGE. THE MOST POPULAR TYPES TO USE SELF DEVELOPING FILM FORMERLY MADE BY POLAROID CORPORATION. THESE WERE INVENTED BY A LOT OF PEOPLE BUT THE CREDIT GOES TO AN AMERICAN SCIENTIST EDWIN LAND, WHO UNVEILED THE FIRST COMMERCIAL INSTANT CAMERA THE LAND CAMERA. IN FEBRUARY 2008, POLAROID ANNOUNCED IT WOULD DISCONTINUE PRODUCE OF FILM AND SHUT DOWN FACTORIES. 3
  • 21. DIGITAL CAMERA THE FIRST TRUE DIGITAL CAMERA THAT RECORDED IMAGES AS A COMPUTERIZED FILE WAS MOST LIKELY THE FUJI DS-1P OF 1988 WHICH RECORDED TO A 16 MB MEMORY CARD THAT USED A BATTERY TO KEEP THE DATA IN MEMORY.( THIS CAMERA WAS NEVER MARKETED IN THE US AND HASN’T BEEN CONFIRMED TO HAVE SHIPPED TO JAPAN.)
  • 22. SLR AND DSLR
  • 23. THANK YOU • A.CHAYAPATHI • 10020507