CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS
LAKME
Page1
PROJECT REPORT
NAME OF THE ORGANISATION : LAKME UNILEVER PR...
CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS
LAKME
Page2
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I would like to extend my sincere thanks to...
CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS
LAKME
Page3
To whomsoever it may concern
This is to certify that
Miss S...
CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS
LAKME
Page4
INDEX
CHAPTER PAGE NO
1.EXECUTIVESUMMARY«««««««««««««««««««...
CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS
LAKME
Page5
e). HOW LAKME IS INFLUENCING ITS CONSUMERS?...................
CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS
LAKME
Page6
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Cosmetics and toiletries are not just the...
CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS
LAKME
Page7
Next part explains about the research methodology. With the...
CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS
LAKME
Page8
INTRODUCTION TO CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR
Consumer behaviour
Consu...
CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS
LAKME
Page9
BLACK BOX MODEL
The black box model shows the interaction o...
CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS
LAKME
Page10
The relevant internal psychological process that is associ...
CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS
LAKME
Page11
4. Postpurchase evaluation
It is common for customers to e...
CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS
LAKME
Page12
 Sub Culture :-
A group of people with shared value system...
CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS
LAKME
Page13
03. Personal Factors :-
It includes
Age and life cycle sta...
CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS
LAKME
Page14
 Motivation :-
Motive (drive) a need that is sufficiently ...
CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS
LAKME
Page15
INTRODUCTION TO PERCEPTION
Human beings may differ because...
CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS
LAKME
Page16
PERCEPTUAL PROCESS :
Perception process is explained by in...
CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS
LAKME
Page17
PERCEPTUAL SELECTIVITY
Perception is a selective process. ...
CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS
LAKME
Page18
7. CONTRAST : Contrast is a kind of uniqueness which can b...
CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS
LAKME
Page19
5. INTEREST : If a person is interested in something he wi...
CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS
LAKME
Page20
Review of Literature
When consumers perceive an advertisem...
CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS
LAKME
Page21
INTRODUCTION TO COSMETICS INDUSTRY IN INDIA
India, with a ...
CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS
LAKME
Page22
cosmetics market in terms of volume.
Nail enamels and lips...
CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS
LAKME
Page23
market.
The prices of most foreign brands have been fairly...
CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS
LAKME
Page24
to introduce small pack sizes. Revlon introduced its small...
CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS
LAKME
Page25
the skin-care segment.
To promote the growth of their prod...
CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS
LAKME
Page26
INTRODUCTION TO HINDUSTAN UNILEVER PRIVATE LIMITED
Hindust...
CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS
LAKME
Page27
Forbes list of World¶s Most Reputed companies in 2007.
His...
CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS
LAKME
Page28
shampoos, Vim dishwash, Ala bleach, Domex disinfectant, Re...
CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS
LAKME
Page29
INTRODUCTION OF LAKME UNILEVER PRIVATE LTD
³Lakme is the I...
CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS
LAKME
Page30
y We will develop new ways of doing business that will all...
CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS
LAKME
Page31
business principles, comprises ten principles covering bus...
CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS
LAKME
Page32
y Community Involvement Unilever strives to be a trusted c...
CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS
LAKME
Page33
or other form of abuse. Wages and working hours will, as a...
CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS
LAKME
Page34
2. Lakme (versatile eye shadow collection): rich, long las...
CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS
LAKME
Page35
The following factors of Lakme's personality help in diffe...
CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS
LAKME
Page36
 CONCEPT OF PERCEPTUAL SELECTION: On the basis of perceptu...
CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS
LAKME
Page37
Lakme Nail Polish.
Lakme Eyeliner.
Lakme Kajal.
Lakme Stra...
CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS
LAKME
Page38
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research methodology is a careful inv...
CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS
LAKME
Page39
SOURCES OF DATA
Primary Source of Data
Primary data are th...
CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS
LAKME
Page40
employed women.
LIMITATION OF STUDY
1. An underlying assum...
CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS
LAKME
Page41
TESTING OF HYPOTHESIS
The test of hypothesis begins with a...
CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS
LAKME
Page42
Procedure for Testing Hypothesis
1. Set up a null hypothes...
CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS
LAKME
Page43
No theoretical cell frequency should be less than 5. In ca...
CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS
LAKME
Page44
Ho : consumers are satisfied.
Ha: consumers are not satisf...
CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS
LAKME
Page45
1. Which company¶s cosmetics are you using?
Table showing ...
CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS
LAKME
Page46
From the above table it can be inferred that:
 Out of the ...
CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS
LAKME
Page47
From the following table these points can be inferred:
 12...
CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS
LAKME
Page48
From the following table we can infer:
 58% of the people ...
CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS
LAKME
Page49
From the following table we can infer that:
 35 respondent...
CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS
LAKME
Page50
From the following table we can infer the following points...
CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS
LAKME
Page51
NOT SURE 10 10%
From the following table we can infer that...
CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS
LAKME
Page52
SUNSCREEN LOTION 59 59%
HAIR BOUNCERS CREME 15 15%
MOISTUR...
CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS
LAKME
Page53
MANICURE / PEDICURE 14 14%
FACIAL/ MASSAGE 44 44%
HAIR SER...
CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS
LAKME
Page54
MEASURABLE RESULTS 2O 33.33%
ECONOMICAL 18 30%
EASILY AVAI...
CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS
LAKME
Page55
PARTICULARS FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE
SUNSCREEN LOTION 34 56.66...
CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS
LAKME
Page56
Table showing the level of information of respondents on L...
CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS
LAKME
Page57
Table showing the purpose for which the respondents buy th...
CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS
LAKME
Page58
Table showing the rating of the lakme products by its user...
CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS
LAKME
Page59
Table showing the satisfaction level of the lakme responde...
CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS
LAKME
Page60
15. Are you satisfied with the products offered by the com...
CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS
LAKME
Page61
16. Is the site www.lakmeindia.com site useful to you?
Tab...
CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS
LAKME
Page62
17.Approximately how much do you invest on lakme products ...
CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS
LAKME
Page63
18.Do you think that lakme is a leader in a cosmetic indus...
CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS
LAKME
Page64
19.Would you continue to buy Lakme products even if its pr...
CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS
LAKME
Page65
CONCLUSION, FINDINGS AND SUGGESTIONS
FINDINGS
1. Lakme is ...
CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS
LAKME
Page66
SUGGESTIONS
1. Affordable cosmetic products must be launch...
Consumer-beahviour-and-perception-of-women-towards-Lakme
Consumer-beahviour-and-perception-of-women-towards-Lakme
Consumer-beahviour-and-perception-of-women-towards-Lakme
Consumer-beahviour-and-perception-of-women-towards-Lakme
Consumer-beahviour-and-perception-of-women-towards-Lakme
Consumer-beahviour-and-perception-of-women-towards-Lakme
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Consumer-beahviour-and-perception-of-women-towards-Lakme

32,589 views
32,235 views

Published on

When a women is buying cosmetic, what all are the points that she keeps in mind?

Read and you will know!

A brief study on the consumer behavior when it comes to cosmetics.

Published in: Business, Technology
0 Comments
16 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
32,589
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
29
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
1,718
Comments
0
Likes
16
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Consumer-beahviour-and-perception-of-women-towards-Lakme

  1. 1. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS LAKME Page1 PROJECT REPORT NAME OF THE ORGANISATION : LAKME UNILEVER PRIVATE LTD. PLACE : BADI, SOLAN FIELD OF STUDY :Marketing TOPIC OF RESEARCH : CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS LAKME Submitted To Institute of Engineering and Emerging Technology, Baddi. In partial fulfillment of the Requirements for the award of Degree of Masters of Business Administration. SUBMITTED BY: SAPNA SOOD 98/08 MBA
  2. 2. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS LAKME Page2 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to extend my sincere thanks to my advisor, Ms. Neha for providing me with continuous support and guidance which was vital for the successful completion of the project. I would like to take this opportunity to express my gratitude to my project guide, Ms Neha, for a significant contribution made by her towards my learning, by way of making herself available, providing leads in course of the project and most importantly for the tremendous source of encouragement and inspiration she has bestowed on me throughout the project. I express my sincere gratitude to Mr. Vishal kalia for their timely guidance and in providing the required facilities and information for completing the project. I am also very indebted to my parents and my brother who have been with me at every moment of my life.for his kind help and support during the tenure of the project. I also want to take this opportunity to express my sincere gratitude to my friends and all the people who encouraged me throughout the project. I am also thankfull to god for always being there.
  3. 3. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS LAKME Page3 To whomsoever it may concern This is to certify that Miss SAPNA SOOD, a student of INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES, BADDI (IMS) has successfully completed her project work of marketing entitled ³ CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS LAKME´ under the guidance of her project supervisor Miss.Neha. It is her individual research work done on consumer behavior and perception. I wish her good luck for her career. Authorized signatory Name : NEHA (Project supervisor)
  4. 4. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS LAKME Page4 INDEX CHAPTER PAGE NO 1.EXECUTIVESUMMARY«««««««««««««««««««.........«..6-7 2. INTRODUCTION TO CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR««««««..«««...«..8-14 a). CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR«««««««««««««.«««..«8 b). BLACK BOX MODEL«««««««««««««««««««......9 c). SELECTIVE PERCEPTION MODEL««««««««««.««....10 d). FACTORS WHICH INFLUENCE CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR««.11-14 3. INTRODUCTION TO PERCEPTION««««««««««««««...15-19 a). WHAT IS PERCEPTION, DEFINITION, FEATURES««««««15 b). PERCEPTUAL PROCESS«««««««««««««««««16 c). PERCEPTUAL SELECTIVITY«««««««««««««««...17-18 d). PERCEPTUAL ORGANISATION«««««««««««««...«19 4. REVIEW OF LITERATURE ««««««««««««««««..«««20 5. INTRODUCTION TO COSMETIC INDUSTRY IN INDIA«««««««..21-25 6. INTRODUCTION TO HINDUSTAN UNILEVER PRIVATE LIMITED««26-28 a). INTRODUCTION OF HUL««««««««««««««««««26 b). HISTORY«««.«««««««««««««««««««««...27 c). COMPETITORS««..«««««««««««««..««««««.28 7. INTRODUCTION TO LAKME UNILEVER PRIVATE LIMITED«««.««29-35 a). INTRODUCTION, KEY FACTS AND VISION«.«««..«««««.29 b). PURPOSE AND PRINCIPLES«««««««««.«««««««30 c). CODE OF BUSINESS PRINCIPLES«««««««««««««.31-32 d). LAKME¶S POSITIONING IN TERMS OF PERSONALITY««««..33-34
  5. 5. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS LAKME Page5 e). HOW LAKME IS INFLUENCING ITS CONSUMERS?......................35 8. PROFILE OF THE ORGANISATION««««««««««««««««36 9. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY««««««««.««««««««««37-39 a). OBJECTIVES«««««««««««.««««««««««.«..37 b). SOURCES OF DATA«««««««««««««««««««...38 c). RESEACH DESIGN«««««««.«««««««««««««38 d). SAMPLING DESIGN««««««««««««.««..«««««..38 e). SAMPLE SIZE«««««.«««««««««.««««««««..38 f). SAMPLE DESCRIPTION«««««««««««««..«««««38 g). LIMITATION OF STUDY«««««««««««««..«««««39 10. DATA ANALYSIS«««««««««««««««««««««««40-43 a). TESTING OF HYPOTHESIS«««««««««........«««««««..40 b). PROCEDURE FOR TESTING HYPOTHESIS«««««««««...«.41 c). CHI SQUARE TEST««««««««««««««««..««««««41-43 11. DATA INTERPRETATION«««««.««««««««««««««.44-62 12. FINDINGS«««««....««««««««««««««««««««.63 13. SUGGESTIONS««««..«««««««««««««««««««.64-65 14. CONCLUSION «««««««««««««....««««««««««.66 15 ANNEXURES«««««««««««««««««««««««««.67-68 16. BIBLIOGRAPHY««««««««««««««««««««««««69
  6. 6. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS LAKME Page6 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Cosmetics and toiletries are not just the domain of women any longer and Indian men too are increasingly taking to the use of more and more body sprays, perfumes and other cosmetics and toiletries. With rising demand from men, the Indian market is getting enlarged and many players are coming out with cosmetic products especially skin care products for men. Globalization will certainly increase cosmetic products penetration and all professionals shall equip themselves to exploit opportunities offered by this sector. The consumers are the largest economic group in any country and the present day business activities are because of consumers only. Thus, consumers are the pillars of the economy. The consumers are not only the heart of marketing system, but also the controller of marketing functions. But it the modern marketing system consumers sovereignty has become a myth on account of the variety of problems in the process of merchandising. The study of consumer behavior enables marketers to understand and predict consumer behavior in the market place; It also promote understanding of the role that consumption plays in the lives of individual. This gives me an opportunity to work on with this endeavor focusing on the Consumer behavior and perception of women towards cosmetics with special reference to the Lakme¶s cosmetics products¶. The primary objective of the study is to understand the consumer behavior and perception of women by studying the awareness of the financial products within the consumers and the number of consumers who take the products from Lakme. The introductory chapter gives and insight to the cosmetic industry. It briefly explains about the history of cosmetic sector. It also contain the organizational profile of Lakme, stating about its mile stones, vision, products, protection solutions, advertising effectiveness and finally about its marketing strategies and challenges. The second chapter gives a glimpses idea about the area of dissertation i.e. theoretical background of the study. This part clearly explains the theoretical part of consumer behavior in general. It also includes statement of the problem, need and impotents of the present study and focal objectives of the dissertation undertaken. The third chapter explains about literature review. It briefly describes what all are the information source for the present study and what benefits has derived from the reference of those literatures.
  7. 7. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS LAKME Page7 Next part explains about the research methodology. With the basic understanding of the study research design was formulated. To collect the data, questionnaires was prepared. The necessary data were collected through personal interviews and interaction with users of Lakme products. This chapter specifically explains about the type of research, sample technique, sample size, actual collection of data and the tools used for the testing of hypothesis. The last but one chapter contains the analysis and interpretation of data collected. The collected data was coded through tally bars and presented in percentage wise and depicted in the form of graphical representation. It also includes the hypothesis test about the overall result of the present study. The last chapter is entirely the exploration of the research study giving all respondents opinion in nutshell as findings i.e. stating that around percentage of customers behave positively towards the Lakme,s products. The dissertation ends up with the suggestions in order to modify the current system for a higher growth and progress.
  8. 8. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS LAKME Page8 INTRODUCTION TO CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR Consumer behaviour Consumer behaviour is the study of when, why, how, and where people do or do not buy product. It blends elements from psychology, sociology, social anthropology and economics. It attempts to understand the buyer decision making process, both individually and in groups. It studies characteristics of individual consumers such as demographics and behavioural variables in an attempt to understand people's wants. It also tries to assess influences on the consumer from groups such as family, friends, reference groups, and society in general. Customer behaviour study is based on consumer buying behaviour, with the customer playing the three distinct roles of user, payer and buyer. Relationship marketing is an influential asset for customer behaviour analysis as it has a keen interest in the re- discovery of the true meaning of marketing through the re-affirmation of the importance of the customer or buyer. A greater importance is also placed on consumer retention, customer relationship management, personalisation, customisation and one-to-one marketing. Social functions can be categorized into social choice and welfare functions. Each method for vote counting is assumed as a social function but if Arrow¶s possibility theorem is used for a social function, social welfare function is achieved. Some specifications of the social functions are decisiveness, neutrality, anonymity, monotonocity, unanimity, homogeneity and weak and strong Pareto optimality. No social choice function meets these requirements in an ordinal scale simultaneously. The most important characteristic of a social function is identification of the interactive effect of alternatives and creating a logical relation with the ranks. Marketing provides services in order to satisfy customers. With that in mind, the productive system is considered from its beginning at the production level, to the end of the cycle, the consumer. Belch and Belch define consumer behaviour as 'the process and activities people engage in when searching for, selecting, purchasing, using, evaluating, and disposing of products and services so as to satisfy their needs and desires'.'
  9. 9. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS LAKME Page9 BLACK BOX MODEL The black box model shows the interaction of stimuli, consumer characteristics, decision process and consumer responses. It can be distinguished between interpersonal stimuli (between people) or intrapersonal stimuli (within people). The black box model is related to the black box theory of behaviourism, where the focus is not set on the processes inside a consumer, but the relation between the stimuli and the response of the consumer. The marketing stimuli are planned and processed by the companies, whereas the environmental stimulus are given by social factors, based on the economical, political and cultural circumstances of a society. The buyers black box contains the buyer characteristics and the decision process, which determines the buyers response. The black box model considers the buyers response as a result of a conscious, rational decision process, in which it is assumed that the buyer has recognized the problem. However, in reality many decisions are not made in awareness of a determined problem by the consumer. y Information search Once the consumer has recognised a problem, they search for information on products and services that can solve that problem. Belch and Belch (2007) explain that consumers undertake both an internal (memory) and an external search. y Sources of information include: Personal sources Commercial sources Public sources Personal experience Marketing Stimuli Environmental Stimuli Buyer characteristics Decision problem Buyer response Product economic attitudes Problem recognition Product choice Price Place technological political cultural motivation perceptions personality Information search Alternative evaluation Brand choice Dealer choice Purcahse timing Promotion demographic lifestyle Purchase decision Purchase amount
  10. 10. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS LAKME Page10 The relevant internal psychological process that is associated with information search is perception. Perception is defined as 'the process by which an individual receives, selects, organises, and interprets information to create a meaningful picture of the world'. THE SELECTIVE PERCEPTION PROCESS: 1. Stage Description - Selective exposure consumers select which promotional messages they will expose themselves to. - Selective attention consumers select which promotional messages they will pay attention to - Selective comprehension consumer interpret messages in line with their beliefs, attitudes, motives and experiences - Selective retention consumers remember messages that are more meaningful or important to them The implications of this process help develop an effective promotional strategy, and select which sources of information are more effective for the brand.CV 2. Information evaluation At this time the consumer compares the brands and products that are in their evoked set. How can the marketing organization increase the likelihood that their brand is part of the consumer's evoked (consideration) set? Consumers evaluate alternatives in terms of the functional and psychological benefits that they offer. The marketing organization needs to understand what benefits consumers are seeking and therefore which attributes are most important in terms of making a decision 3. Purchase decision Once the alternatives have been evaluated, the consumer is ready to make a purchase decision. Sometimes purchase intention does not result in an actual purchase. The marketing organization must facilitate the consumer to act on their purchase intention. The organisation can use variety of techniques to achieve this. The provision of credit or payment terms may encourage purchase, or a sales promotion such as the opportunity to receive a premium or enter a competition may provide an incentive to buy now. The relevant internal psychological process that is associated with purchase decision is integration.Once the integration is achieved, the organisation can influence the purchase decisions much more easily.
  11. 11. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS LAKME Page11 4. Postpurchase evaluation It is common for customers to experience concerns after making a purchase decision. This arises from a concept that is known as ³cognitive dissonance´. The customer, having bought a product, may feel that an alternative would have been preferable. In these circumstances that customer will not repurchase immediately, but is likely to switch brands next time. To manage the post-purchase stage, it is the job of the marketing team to persuade the potential customer that the product will satisfy his or her needs. Then after having made a purchase, the customer should be encouraged that he or she has made the right decision.it is not effected by advertisement. FACTORS WHICH INFLUENCE CONSUMER BEAHVIOUR: Internal influences Consumer behaviour is influenced by: demographics, psychographics (lifestyle), personality, motivation, knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and feelings. consumer behaviour concern with consumer need consumer actions in the direction of satisfying needs leads to his behaviour of every individuals depend on thinking. External influences Consumer behaviour is influenced by: culture,sub-culture, locality, royalty, ethnicity, family, social class, reference groups, lifestyle, and market mix factors Consumer purchases are influenced strongly by or there are four factors. The following are the certain factors which influence the consumer behavior: 01. Cultural Factor :- Cultural factor divided into three sub factors (i) Culture (ii) Sub Culture (iii) Social Class Culture:- The set of basic values perceptions, wants, and behaviours learned by a member of society from family and other important institutions. Culture is the most basic cause of a person¶s wants and behaviour. Every group or society has a culture, and cultural influences on buying behaviour may vary greatly from country to country.
  12. 12. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS LAKME Page12 Sub Culture :- A group of people with shared value systems based on common life experiences and situations. Each culture contains smaller sub cultures a group of people with shared value system based on common life experiences and situations. Sub culture includes nationalities, religions, racial group and geographic regions. Many sub culture make up important market segments and marketers often design products. Social Class:- Almost every society has some form of social structure, social classes are society¶s relatively permanent and ordered divisions whose members share similar values, interests and behaviour. 02. Social Factors :- A consumer¶s behaviour also is influenced by social factors, such as the (i) Groups (ii) Family (iii) Roles and status Groups :- Two or more people who interact to accomplish individual or mutual goals. A person¶s behavious is influenced by many small groups. Groups that have a direct influence and to which a person belongs are called membership groups. Some are primary groups includes family, friends, neighbours and coworkers. Some are secondary groups, which are more formal and have less regular interaction. These includes organizations like religious groups, professional association and trade unions. Family:- Family members can strongly influence buyer behaviour. The family is the most important consumer buying organization society and it has been researched extensively. Marketers are interested in the roles, and influence of the husband, wife and children on the purchase of different products and services. Roles and Status :- A person belongs to many groups, family, clubs, organizations. The person¶s position in each group can be defined in terms of both role and status.
  13. 13. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS LAKME Page13 03. Personal Factors :- It includes Age and life cycle stage (ii) Occupation (iii) Economic situation (iv) Life Style (v) Personality and self concept. Age and Life cycle Stage:- People changes the goods and services they buy over their lifetimes. Tastes in food, clothes, furniture, and recreation are often age related. Buying is also shaped by the stage of the family life cycle. Occupation :- A person¶s occupation affects the goods and services bought. Blue collar workers tend to buy more rugged work clothes, whereas white-collar workers buy more business suits. A Co. can even specialize in making products needed by a given occupational group. Thus, computer software companies will design different products for brand managers, accountants, engineers, lawyers, and doctors. Economic situation :- A person¶s economic situation will affect product choice Life Style :- Life Style is a person¶s Pattern of living, understanding these forces involves measuring consumer¶s major AIO dimensions. i.e. activities (Work, hobbies, shopping, support etc) interest (Food, fashion, family recreation) and opinions (about themselves, Business, Products) Personality and Self concept :- Each person¶s distinct personality influence his or her buying behaviour. Personality refers to the unique psychological characteristics that lead to relatively consistent and lasting responses to one¶s own environment. 04. Psychological Factors :- It includes these Factors. i) Motivation (ii) Perception (iii) Learning (iv) Beliefs and attitudes
  14. 14. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS LAKME Page14 Motivation :- Motive (drive) a need that is sufficiently pressing to direct the person to seek satisfaction of the need Perception :- The process by which people select, Organize, and interpret information to form a meaningful picture of the world. Learning:- Changes in an individuals behaviour arising from experience. Beliefs and attitudes :- Belief is a descriptive thought that a person holds about something Attitude, a Person¶s consistently favourable or unfavourable evaluations, feelings, and tendencies towards an object or idea
  15. 15. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS LAKME Page15 INTRODUCTION TO PERCEPTION Human beings may differ because of their differences uniqueness. People often see the same situation/ phenomenon differently within the organization outside the organization. For example: when there is an accident in the factory, the supervisor may treat it as the carelessness of worker while the worker may treat it as lack of adequate provision of security measures. Thus the situation remaining the same, cause has been assigned differently by different group of people. In order to understand why people see the same situation differently, one has to understand PERCEPTION its different aspect. WHAT IS PERCEPTION ? Perception is a congnitive process. Cognition is basically bit of information; cognitive process involves the way in which people process/understand that information. Perception process involves selecting, organising and interpreting the stimulus. Thus perception is the process selecting, organizing and interpreting or attaching meaning to the events happening in the environment. However, what one can perceive can be different from objective reality. Their need not be but there is often, disagreement. For example: it¶s possible that all the employee in a firm may view it as a great place to work favorable working conditions, interesting job assignment, good pay and excellent benefit but as most of us know, it¶s very unusual to find such agreement. DEFINITION ³PERCEPTION may be defined as a process by which individual organize and interpret their sensory impression in order to give meaning to their environment.´ FEATURES OF PERCEPTION Perception is the intellectual process through which a person selects the data from the environment, organizes it, and obtains meaning from it. Perception is a psychological process also. The manner in which people perceive the environment affects his behavior. Perception, being an intellectual and psychological process, becomes a subjective process and different people may perceive the same environmental event differently.
  16. 16. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS LAKME Page16 PERCEPTUAL PROCESS : Perception process is explained by input-throughput-output approach. This approach emphasizes that there is input which is processed and gives output. Perceptual process present three elements of perception. These are: existence of stimuli (objects, event, people) perceptual mechanism (selecting, organising, interpretation) and perceptual outputs (attitude, opinion, values). Perceptual output along with other determinant of human behavior affects and shape behavior. Let us see how perceptual process works in terms of its three basic elements. 1. PERCEPTUAL INPUT: The stimuli in the environment- objects, events, or people- can be considered as the perceptual inputs. Thus everything in the setting where the events occur, or which contributes to the occurrence of the events, can be treated as perceptual input. When the perceiver interacts with a stimulus, sensation take place which starts perceptual process. (Sensation is described as the response of a physical sensory organ. The physical senses are vision, hearing, touch, smell, and taste.) 2. PERCEPION MECHANISM: Perceptual mechanism involves three elements- selection of stimuli, organization of stimuli, and interpretation of stimuli. 3. SELECTION OF STIMULI: After receiving the stimuli from the environment, some are selected for further processing while others are screened out because it is not possible for a person to select all stimuli which he see in the environment. There are two types of factors which affects the selection of stimuli. These are external and related to stimuli and internal related to the perceiver. 4. ORGANISATION OF STIMULI : After the stimuli are selected these are organized in some form of in order to make sense out of that. The various forms of organizing stimuli are figure-ground, perceptual grouping, simplification and closure. 5. INTERPRETATION OF STIMULI: The perceptual inputs that have been organized will have to be interpreted by the perceiver to extract some meaning of what is going on in the situation. People interpret the meaning of what they have selected and organized in term of their own assumption of people, things and situations. They interpret the things as good/bad, beautiful/ugly, and so on. Interpretation of stimuli is affected by situation under which perception take place and characteristics of perceiver. 6. PERCEPTUAL OUTPUT : Based on perceptual mechanism which ends with interpretation of stimuli, perceptual output emerges. The output may be in the form of attitudes, opinions, beliefs, impression about the stimuli. This output along with other factors affecting human behavior may result in overt behavior.
  17. 17. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS LAKME Page17 PERCEPTUAL SELECTIVITY Perception is a selective process. While selection, certain aspects of stimuli are screened out and others are admitted. For example: when people read a newspaper, they do not read the entire newspaper but read only those news which interest them. This is known as perceptual selectivity. This is caused by variety of factors which may be grouped into two categories: 1. Extrenal factor 2. Internal factor EXTERNAL FACTORS The external factors are Nature, Location, Size, Intensity, Repetition, Novelty Familiarity, Contrast And Motion. Their impacct on the perceptual selectivity is as follow: 1. NATURE : By nature we mean, whether the object is visual or auditory, and whether it involves pictures, peoples or animals. It is well known that pictures attract attention more readily than words. 2. LOCTION : The best location of a visual stimulus for attracting attention is in the center of the page. When this position is not available in the newspaper or a magazine, a position in the upper portion of a page is more favourable than on in the lower portion and left hand side receive more attention than the right hand side. 3. SIZE : Generally objects of larger or bigger size attract more attention than the smaller ones. For Example: in an advertisement in newspaper full page spread attract more attention than a few lines in the classified section. 4. INTENSITY : The intensity principle states that more intentse the external stimulus is, the more likely is to be perceived. A loud sound, or bright light is noticed more as compared to soft sound, or dim light. For Example: advertisement on televisions are slightly louder than the regular programmes to gain customer¶s attention. 5. REPETITION : The repetition principle states that a repeated external environment is more attention- getting than a single one. Repetition increase people¶s alertness to the stimulus. For example: Advertisers use this principle by repeated advertisement of the same product to attract people¶s attention. 6. NOVELTY FAMILIAIRTY :Novelty familiarity principle state that either a novel or a familiar external situation can serve as attention-getter. New objects or events in a familiar setting, or familiar objects or events in new setting draw better attention.
  18. 18. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS LAKME Page18 7. CONTRAST : Contrast is a kind of uniqueness which can be used for attention getting. Letters of bold types, persons dressed differently than others, buildings of different colors in the same locality,etc. get more attention. 8. MOTION : Motion principle states that a moving object draws more attention as compared to a stationary object. For Example: commercial on televisions (moving ones) get more attention than print media. INTERNAL FACTORS While external factors are related to environment stimuli, internal factors are related to the individual¶s complex psychological makeup or oneself. People generally select those stimuli and situation which are compatible to their personality, motivation, and other personal factors. Such factors are- self-concept, inner- needs, response disposition, individual attitude, interest, learning, and experience. A brief description of their impact on perception selectivity is as follow: 1. SELF-CONCEPT : The way a person views the world depends a great deal on the concept or image he has about himself. Knowing oneself makes it easier to see others accurately. People¶s own characteristics affect the characteristics which they are likely to see in others. They select only that aspects which they find match with their characteristics. 2. INNER NEEDS : People¶s perception is determined by their inner needs. The need is feeling of tension or discomfort when one thinks him missing something or when he feels he has not quite closed a gap in his knowledge. People with different needs select different items to remember or respond to. When people are not able to satisfy their needs¶ they are engaged in wishful thinking, which is a way to satisfy the needs not in real world but imaginary world , the day dreaming. 3. RESPONSE DISPOSITION : Response disposition refers to a person¶s tendency to perceive familiar stimuli rather than unfamiliar ones. Thus, a person perceives the things with which he is familiar. For Example: persons having dominant religious value took lesser time in recognizing such related word as µpriest¶ whereas they took longer time in recognizing words related with economic value such as µcost¶ or µprice¶. 4. INDIVIDIAL ATTITUDE : The person tries to fit his attitude (whether positive or negative) in the situation and perceive something. For Example: if a person always thinks negative, he thinks that whatever is happen in his life will be negative, he will perceive everything in the negative way. On the contrary if he thinks positive, he is an optimistic, he will perceive everything in a positive way.
  19. 19. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS LAKME Page19 5. INTEREST : If a person is interested in something he will perceive that thing in better way. On the other hand, if the person is not interested in that thing, he will not perceive that thing in a better way. For Example: children watch television with the good interest and curiosity, so they perceive quickly whatever is shown in TV. 6. LEARNING EXPERIENCE : People perceive many things differently according to their learning and experience of the past. If a person has wrong impression or bad past experience of something, he see the things negative and he perceive that thing in only negative way because it is his experience that forces him to perceive in this way. PERCEPTUAL ORGANISATION People tend to organize the stimuli rather than perceiving it as a whole. Following ways: Figure and ground relationships: The figure represents what catches your attention as distinct and unique, while the ground indicates what you perceive as routine. Grouping helps individuals break up information and register it in their memory. That way, even use of multiple stimuli can work and create several associations. Closure is a need of consumers as well. They want to take the message to its logical conclusion if the stimulus does not give complete information. Teaser ads take advantage of this. Does the consumer perceive the stimuli as intended? Perceptual distortion can occur due to a variety of reasons: Physical appearance: The kind of people you are using in advertisements will distort perceptions, which has to be used to your benefit. Stereotypes that develop can distort perception First impressions of a product/service get carried on for a long time. Jumping to conclusions: If you cannot present yourself differently, the prospect can jump to conclusions before you even make a presentation, e.g. tele calling Halo effect: One or two dimensions of the stimuli will create broad perceptions on the product. Brand extension can be an example.
  20. 20. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS LAKME Page20 Review of Literature When consumers perceive an advertisement for a certain brand as promoting another, it is not only ineffective, but even counterproductive (Kamen, 1987; Poiesz and Verhallen, 1989): it produces an effect that the advertiser specially wants to avoid. Therefore, perception, although seldomly studied, is a phenomenon that has an impact over its consumers, and researchers. unremitting attention, and measures of consumer behavior and perception should be added to the more conventional measures to increase the sales of a product(Poiesz and Verhallen, 1989). Consumer behavior is studied so that we can come to know that how perception and attitude of a person decides that what should be the buying pattern of the consumers (Poiesz and Verhallen, 1989). A. Sengupta and Noopur Agrawal Not only the consumer behavior but the perception of consumers, may be the subject of people buying the products of lakme (Poiesz and Verhallen, 1989). Correct identification and confusion are not perfectly related. It is possible that the recipient of the message cannot attribute any particular brand to an advertising message, in which case he/she is not really confused, but simply does not have any idea. A consumer confusing brands thinks he/she recognises the brand. Depending upon what is the perception of the consumers, it can be positive or negative. (Häcker and Verhallen, 1988; Poiesz and Verhallen, 1989). Negative perception refers to the extent to which the respondents will not buy the product. Positive brand perception refers to the degree to which the other respondents are willing to buy the product. Positive Brand perception is an advantage for a brand. Negative brand perception may be a threat to a clear positioningof the product amongst the women. Brengman et al. (2001) found that Consumers most vulnerable to brand perception generally have higher level of knowledge about the products which they are using. Products are becoming more and more objectively similar with respect to their functionality and product presentation (Poiesz and Verhallen, 1989). Ha (1996) refers to the degree of similarity and proximity of advertisements. (De Pelsmacker and Geuens, 1997a).the more the proximity the more consumers are prone to buy the products. Successful advertising techniques get imitated and waves of similar advertising arise. It can be expected that a higher DOSS leads to more brand confusion. In parallel, similarity in visual appearance of products has also been found to be a major reason for confusion in advertising (Loken and Ross, 1986; Ward and Loken, 1986). Furthermore, in a study of brand perception of consumers cited the product or the packaging. as a primary reason for recognition and buying of the product. (De Pelsmacker and Van Den Bergh, 1997b).
  21. 21. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS LAKME Page21 INTRODUCTION TO COSMETICS INDUSTRY IN INDIA India, with a population of nearly a billion people, is a country of contrasts. India's urban population is the main engine that fuels the demand for various cosmetic products. The µmorphing¶ of India is subtle and the changes are not visible for the first time visitor. However, the market liberalization process that began in 1991, along with the crowning of three Indians as Miss World and Miss Universe during the preceding four years, have made Indian women conscious of their appearance. Consequently, the cosmetic consumption patterns of Indian women have changed, and this trend is fuelling growth in the cosmetic sector. The Indian cosmetics and toiletries market grew by 8.7% in current value terms in 2001, with value sales amounting to Rs126 billion. The market for cosmetics and toiletries in India is characterized by high volume sales of low-end toiletry products, while at the same time the legendary emerging middle- class has generally been fuelling demand for cosmetics and upper-mass toiletries. Products that are too specialized have yet to be successful on the Indian market. Examples include toners, hand care and other value-added skin care products, bath shower products and aftershave balm. Only the richest consumers can afford these; indeed, the average consumer may be unaware of their purpose or even existence. This also explains the relatively poor showing of perfumes, especially the premium variety. This cosmetics and personal care industry has been growing at an average rate of 20 per cent for the last few years. The growing Indian cosmetics market offers promising prospects for international brands. The growth rate in the cosmetics market reflects an increasing demand for beauty care products in India. Perfumes and fragrances, skin care, and hair care products are some of the major segments with promising prospects for U.S. companies. Penetration of most cosmetic and toiletries is very low in India. Current consumption of many products is well below that of many countries in Asia. The low market penetration of many cosmetics and personal care products offers room for growth. Market Overview : The current size of the Indian cosmetic market is approximately US$ 600 million. Of this, the fastest growing segment is color cosmetics, accounting for around US$ 60 million of the market. Industry sources estimate a rapid growth rate of 20 percent per annum across different segments of the cosmetics industry reflecting an increasing demand for all kinds of beauty and personal care product. Growth has come mainly from the low and medium-priced categories that account for 90 percent of the
  22. 22. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS LAKME Page22 cosmetics market in terms of volume. Nail enamels and lipsticks account for around 65 percent of total color cosmetic sales in India. Lakme, a brand originally introduced by the Tata group of India, now bought over by Hindustan Lever (HLL) of the Unilever group, Tips Toes, another domestic player, and Revlon dominate the US$ 60 million color cosmetics market. Multinationals, Revlon of the U.S. and L'Oreal's Maybelline has a dominant share of the small premium lipsticks and nail enamels market. Mass-market products account for a major share; while the premium segment accounts only for a mere 9 per cent in lipsticks and 5 per cent in nail enamels. The skin care market in India is estimated at US$ 180 million. Within the last decade, this segment has seen many consumers slowly shift from the mass to the premium end of the market. In the skin-care segment, price and volume played an equal role in value growth. From a very basic level of most consumers using only face cream and moisturizers, the market for more specialized skin care products such as sun screens, toners, cleansers, and astringents, dark circle removing creams, anti-wrinkle creams and day and night creams seems to have grown steadily in recent years. Moisturizing lotions, fairness creams and face cleansers are the popular categories in the skin-care segment and account for approximately 60 percent of the skin-care segment. The major players in this segments are Lakme, Ponds, Fair Lovely of the HLL group with a 50 percent market share, followed by players such as J.L. Morison that markets the Nivea range of products in India, Godrej and Revlon. The size of the hair care market in India is estimated at more than US$ 200 million, 50 percent of which interestingly comes from sales of shampoo. International companies like Unilever through its subsidiary, Hindustan Lever (Sun silk, Organics, Clinic, and Lux); and Procter Gamble (with brands such as Pantene, Head Shoulders) dominate the shampoo market in India with approximately 58 and 20 percent market share respectively. The market for hair creams, mainly used for hair grooming by men is also very small. Hair oiling, an age old tradition of Indians and mainly used as a pre-wash nourishment is a major segment in this sector and has giants like HLL and local Dabur and Marico Industries fighting for market share in the hair oil segment. More and more shelves in shops and boutiques are stocked with cosmetics from around the world. Since liberalization, many international brands like Avon, Burberrys, Calvin Klein, Cartier, Christian Dior, Estee Lauder, Elizabeth Arden, Lancome, Chambor, Coty, L'Oreal, Oriflame, Revlon, L'Oreal, Yardley, Wella, Schwarzkopf, Escada, Nina Ricci, Rochas, Yves St. Laurent and Japanese cosmetics company, Shiseido have entered the Indian
  23. 23. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS LAKME Page23 market. The prices of most foreign brands have been fairly high, which has deterred average Indian consumers. International brands cater to a segment that can broadly be classified as the urban higher income group. Penetration levels of international cosmetics brands in India are still low. Foreign brands currently constitute only 20 percent of the market. A major reason for low penetration of international brands can be attributed to high pricing. Market Trends Cosmetics and toiletries are not just the domain of women any longer and Indian men too are increasingly taking to the use of more and more body sprays, perfumes and other cosmetics and toiletries. With rising demand from men, the Indian market is getting enlarged and many players are coming out with cosmetic products especially skin care products for men. In the last five/six years, there has been a renewed craze for herbal cosmetic and personal care products, especially in the skin care segment with the growing belief that chemical-based cosmetics are harmful. Shehnaz Hussain, Biotique, and Lotus Herbals are the major players in this segment. Many companies also expanded their range to include herbal variants. The growing popularity for natural products also attracted many primarily health-care companies such as Himalaya Drugs (with its Ayurvedic Concepts range), and Dabur to launch natural- based cosmetic products. Import Market Costs for importing products are much higher than producing it in the country. India allows entry of imported cosmetics without any restrictions but the average import tariff on cosmetics products is currently very high at 39.2 percent. This makes imported products very expensive for most consumers. Most foreign cosmetics companies selling premium brands have had a difficult time developing the low volume premium market in India. Competition The Indian cosmetic market, which has been traditionally a stronghold of a few major Indian players like Lakme, and Ponds has seen a lot of foreign entrants to the market within the last decade. India is a very price sensitive market and the cosmetics and personal care product companies, especially the new entrants have had to work out new innovative strategies to suit Indian preferences and budgets to establish a hold on the market and establish a niche market for themselves. HLL and Revlon were the first
  24. 24. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS LAKME Page24 to introduce small pack sizes. Revlon introduced its small-range of 8 ml nail polishes and lipsticks, and was soon followed it its strategy by major Indian companies as well. Small pack sizes have proved to be very popular in the Indian market as it offers a consumer lower purchase cost and the opportunity to try new products. . In the skin- care segment, from just creams and moisturizers, there has been a upgrade to value- added products such as under-eye wrinkle removing creams, dark circle removing creams toners, sunscreen lotions, fairness creams, and many more. The color cosmetics market saw new products such as smudge-proof lipsticks and mascaras, liquid lip color, and long-stay lipsticks being introduced. These specialized applications led to growth in volumes and also enabled companies to price the products at a premium, driving up value growth. L'Oreal markets its range of specialized hair care products exclusively through salons and beauty parlors. L'Oreal currently is the only company in the market that has a hair color range tailored exclusively for parlors. The company was also the first to introduce modern hair color and shampoos for colored hair in the Indian market. A strong brand promotional campaign, good distribution network, constant product innovation and quality improvement, and the ability to provide a variety of quality products are some of the major reasons for the success of most companies. HUL, is currently India's largest cosmetics and personal care products producer and its brands has the dominant share (more than 50 percent) in segments such as personal wash, skin care, shampoos, lipsticks and nail polish. Sales Prospects The growing Indian cosmetics market offers promising opportunities for international brands. The growth rate in the cosmetics market reflects an increasing demand for beauty care products in India. The most promising segments for international companies to pursue are perfumes and fragrances, and specialized/professional skin care and hair care products. The fastest growing market is however color cosmetics, which account for US$ 60 million of the total market. The rural market in India for cosmetics and toiletries remains is largely untapped. Major domestic players have also not been able to penetrate this market. The urban market itself for specialized cosmetic products remains to be fully exploited. The Indian skin-care market is not yet fully tapped and offers promising prospects as a growth area. Penetration of color cosmetics is lower than the penetration prospects of
  25. 25. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS LAKME Page25 the skin-care segment. To promote the growth of their products, a dominant player like Lakme have embarked upon a business plan to establish their exclusive franchised beauty salons across major metros in the country. Imported cosmetics have had a major impact on the Indian market. L'Oreal India has established a consumer advisory unit and Ponds, as mentioned earlier offers skin care advise through touch-screen kiosks, and telephone help-lines. Beautique - an exclusive one-stop shop for only imported cosmetic brands set up recently in New Delhi has qualified beauty consultants to provide free advice and make overs to consumers. Market Access Prior to March 31, 1999, India had cosmetics and toiletries on its restricted list of imports and a special import license was required for import of cosmetics and toiletries into the country. This regulation has now been done away with and, India today, permits import of cosmetics and toiletries without any restrictions. This has made the Indian market more attractive to foreign cosmetic companies. Imports have been made easier, but not necessarily cheaper.
  26. 26. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS LAKME Page26 INTRODUCTION TO HINDUSTAN UNILEVER PRIVATE LIMITED Hindustan Unilever Limited (HUL) (BSE: HUL) is India's largest fast moving consumer goods company, touching the lives of two out of three Indians with over 20 distinct categories in home personal care products and food beverages. They endow the company with a scale of combined volumes of about 4 million tonnes and sales of over Rs. 13,000 crores. HUL is also one of the country's largest exporters; it has been recognised as a Golden Super Star Trading House by the Government of India. HUL was formed in 1933 as Lever Brothers India Limited and came into being in 1956 as Hindustan Lever Limited through a merger of Lever Brothers, Hindustan Vanaspati Mfg. Co. Ltd. and United Traders Ltd.. It is headquartered in Mumbai, India and has an employee strength of over 15,000 employees and contributes for indirect employment of over 52,000 people. The company was renamed in June 2007 to ³Hindustan Unilever Limited´. In 2007, Hindustan Unilever was rated as the most respected company in India for the past 25 years by Businessworld, one of India¶s leading business magazines . The rating was based on a compilation of the magazine annual survey of India¶s Most Reputed Companies over the past 25 years. HUL is the market leader in Indian consumer products with presence in over 20 consumer categories such as soaps, tea, detergents and shampoos amongst others with over 700 million Indian consumers using its products. It has over 35 brands. Sixteen of HUL¶s brands featured in the ACNielsen Brand Equity list of 100 Most Trusted Brands Annual Survey (2008). According to Brand Equity, HUL has the largest number of brands in the Most Trusted Brands List. It¶s a company that has consistently had the largest number of brands in the Top 50 and in the Top 10 (with 4 brands). Hindustan Unilever's distribution covers over 1 million retails outlets across India directly and its products are available in over 6.3 million outlets in India, i.e., nearly 80% of the retail outlets in India. It has 39 factories in the country. Two out of three Indians use the company¶s products and HUL products have the largest consumer reach being available in over 80 per cent of consumer homes across India. The Anglo-Dutch company Unilever owns a majority stake (52%) in Hindustan Unilever Limited. HUL was one of the eight Indian companies to be featured on the
  27. 27. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS LAKME Page27 Forbes list of World¶s Most Reputed companies in 2007. History - Chronology In the summer of 1888, visitors to the Kolkata harbor noticed crates full of Sunlight soap bars, embossed with the words Made in England by Lever Brothers. With it, began an era of marketing branded Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG). Soon after followed Lifebuoy soap in 1895 and other famous brands like Pears, Lux and Vim. Vanaspati ghee was launched in 1918 and the famous Dalda brand came to the market in 1937. In 1931, Unilever set up its first Indian subsidiary, Hindustan Vanaspati Manufacturing Company, followed by Lever Brothers India Limited (1933) and United Traders Limited (1935). These three companies merged to form HUL in November 1956; HUL offered 10% of its equity to the Indian public, being the first among the foreign subsidiaries to do so. Unilever now holds 52.10% equity in the company. The rest of the shareholding is distributed among about 360,675 individual shareholders and financial institutions. The erstwhile Brooke Bond's presence in India dates back to 1900. By 1903, the company had launched Red Label tea in the country. In 1912, Brooke Bond Co. India Limited was formed. Brooke Bond joined the Unilever fold in 1984 through an international acquisition. The erstwhile Lipton's links with India were forged in 1898. Unilever acquired Lipton in 1972, and in 1977 Lipton Tea (India) Limited was incorporated. Simultaneously, deregulation permitted alliances, acquisitions and mergers. In one of the most visible and talked about events of India's corporate history, the erstwhile Tata Oil Mills Company (TOMCO) merged with HUL, effective from April 1, 1993. In 1995, HUL and yet another Tata company, Lakme Limited, formed a 50:50 joint venture, Lakme Unilever Limited, to market Lakme's market-leading cosmetics and other appropriate products of both the companies. Subsequently in 1998, Lakme Limited sold its brands to HUL and divested its 50% stake in the joint venture to the company. Some of its brands include Kwality Wall's ice cream, Knorr soups meal makers, Lifebuoy, Lux, Breeze, Liril, Rexona, Hamam and Moti soaps, Pureit water purifier, Lipton tea, Brooke Bond tea, Bru coffee, Pepsodent and Close Up toothpaste and brushes, and Surf, Rin and Wheel laundry detergents, Kissan squashes and jams, Annapurna salt and atta, Pond¶s talcs and creams, Vaseline lotions, Fair and Lovely creams, Lakmé beauty products, Clinic Plus, Clinic All Clear, Sunsilk and Dove
  28. 28. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS LAKME Page28 shampoos, Vim dishwash, Ala bleach, Domex disinfectant, Rexona, Modern Bread, and Axe deosprays. COMPETITORS Procter and Gamble (PG) India : HUL faces a fierce competition from PG India in its key segments i.e. Detergents and Personal Care. It operates in India thorugh three subsidiaries: Procter and Gamble Home Products (100% subsidiary of the company), Procter and Gamble Hygiene and Health care Ltd. (PGHH) and Gillette India Ltd. It has in its portfolio some of PG's Billion dollar brands such as Vicks Whisper in health care and Ariel and Tide in detergents segments. Godrej Consumer Products Ltd. (GCPL): It has two segments: Soap (64% of revenues) and Personal Care.GCPL is second largest soap player in India after HUL with a market share of 9.2%. Personal Care includes hair care products, shaving cream and other toiletries.On December 11, 2008, it acquired 100% stake in SCA Hygiene Products which owns the Snuggy brand of baby diapers. Dabur India Limited - Dabur India Limited is an India-based fast moving consumer goods company which deals in healthcare, personal care and food products.In November 2008, Dabur India Limited announced the acquisition of 72.15% of Fem Care Pharma Ltd which is primarily engaged in the business of export of personal care products. Colgate-Palmolive (India) Limited : It manufactures a range of products marketed under the Colgate which includes oral care products and Palmolive (skin care and hair care products) brand names. Marico Limited:Marico has a portfolio on high margin Beauty and Wellness platform which includes hair oils, soaps, edible oils, skin care etc. This portfolio has shown a growth of 30% over a period of FY05-08.
  29. 29. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS LAKME Page29 INTRODUCTION OF LAKME UNILEVER PRIVATE LTD ³Lakme is the Indian woman¶s Beauty Sutra´ ± inspiring expression of her unique beauty and sensuality.Lakme brings expert products and services that are borne out of true understanding of the needs of the Indian woman. They help the Indian woman in expression of her best self ± sensual, original, expressive, alive and intuitive. Lakme inspires her to unleash the potency of her femininity, beauty and sensuality Key facts Lakme was the first major beauty brand in India and takes pride in being the expert on Indian Beauty for over 50 years. It is complete beauty brand spanning colour cosmetics, skin care hair styling products and extending to beauty services through the network of Lakme Beauty Salons. Its bond with beauty and fashion is manifested through the Lakme Fashion Week, which is now the largest fashion event of its kind in the country. Lakme has a foot print of over 1200 assisted sales outlets, which is the largest span of outlets with ³Beauty Advisors´ in the country. Our vision Unilever products touch the lives of over 2 billion people every day ± whether that's through feeling great because they've got shiny hair and a brilliant smile, keeping their homes fresh and clean, or by enjoying a great cup of tea, satisfying meal or healthy snack. A clear direction The four pillars of our vision set out the long term direction for the company ± where we want to go and how we are going to get there: y We work to create a better future every day y We help people feel good, look good and get more out of life with brands and services that are good for them and good for others. y We will inspire people to take small everyday actions that can add up to a big difference for the world.
  30. 30. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS LAKME Page30 y We will develop new ways of doing business that will allow us to double the size of our company while reducing our environmental impact. Purpose principles Our corporate purpose states that to succeed requires the highest standards of corporate behaviour towards everyone we work with, the communities we touch, and the environment on which we have an impact. y Always working with integrity Conducting our operations with integrity and with respect for the many people, organisations and environments our business touches has always been at the heart of our corporate responsibility. y Positive impact We aim to make a positive impact in many ways: through our brands, our commercial operations and relationships, through voluntary contributions, and through the various other ways in which we engage with society. y Continuous commitment We're also committed to continuously improving the way we manage our environmental impacts and are working towards our longer-term goal of developing a sustainable business. y Setting out our aspirations Our corporate purpose sets out our aspirations in running our business. It's underpinned by our code of business Principles which describes the operational standards that everyone at Unilever follows, wherever they are in the world. The code also supports our approach to governance and corporate responsibility. y Working with others We want to work with suppliers who have values similar to our own and work to the same standards we do. Our Business partner code, aligned to our own Code of
  31. 31. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS LAKME Page31 business principles, comprises ten principles covering business integrity and responsibilities relating to employees, consumers and the environment. A vitality mentality Unilever's mission is to add Vitality to life. We meet everyday needs for nutrition, hygiene and personal care with brands that help people feel good, look good and get more out of life. Our deep roots in local cultures and markets around the world give us our strong relationship with consumers and are the foundation for our future growth. We will bring our wealth of knowledge and international expertise to the service of local consumers ± a truly multi-local multinational. Our long-term success requires a total commitment to exceptional standards of performance and productivity, to working together effectively, and to a willingness to embrace new ideas and learn continuously. Code of business principles y Standard of Conduct We conduct our operations with honesty, integrity and openness, and with respect for the human rights and interests of our employees. y Obeying the Law Unilever companies and our employees are required to comply with the laws and regulations of the countries in which we operate. y Employees Unilever is committed to diversity in a working environment where there is mutual trust and respect and where everyone feels responsible for the performance and reputation of our company. We will recruit, employ and promote employees on the sole basis of the qualifications and abilities needed for the work to be performed. y Consumers Products and services will be accurately and properly labelled, advertised and communicated. y Shareholders Unilever will conduct its operations in accordance with internationally accepted principles of good corporate governance. We will provide timely, regular and reliable information on our activities, structure, financial situation and performance to all shareholders. y Business Partners Unilever is committed to establishing mutually beneficial relations with our suppliers, customers and business partners.
  32. 32. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS LAKME Page32 y Community Involvement Unilever strives to be a trusted corporate citizen and, as an integral part of society, to fulfil our responsibilities to the societies and communities in which we operate. y Public Activities Unilever companies are encouraged to promote and defend their legitimate business interests. Unilever will co-operate with governments and other organisations, both directly and through bodies such as trade associations, in the development of proposed legislation and other regulations which may affect legitimate business interests.. y The Environment Unilever is committed to making continuous improvements in the management of our environmental impact and to the longer-term goal of developing a sustainable business. y Innovation In our scientific innovation to meet consumer needs we will respect the concerns of our consumers and of society. y Competition Unilever believes in vigorous yet fair competition and supports the development of appropriate competition laws. y Business Integrity Unilever does not give or receive whether directly or indirectly bribes or other improper advantages for business or financial gain. No employee may offer give or receive any gift or payment which is, or may be construed as being, a bribe. y Conflicts of Interests All Unilever employees are expected to avoid personal activities and financial interests which could conflict with their responsibilities to the company. Any breaches of the Code must be reported in accordance with the procedures specified by the Chief Legal Officer. y Business Partner Code We are committed to working with our business partners to achieve high standards and to provide greater transparency on how we work together. y Maintaining high standards together To meet the expectations our consumers have of our brands as high quality, reliable products, we form close working relationships ± many of them long-term ± with our business partners. In support of this approach, we have developed a Business Partner Code that is compatible with our Code of Business Principles. The Code makes clear the standards to which we expect our business partners to adhere. It contains 10 principles covering business integrity and responsibilities relating to employees, consumers and the environment. Business partner code There shall be compliance with all applicable laws and regulations of the country where operations are undertaken. There shall be respect for human rights, and no employee shall suffer harassment, physical or mental punishment,
  33. 33. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS LAKME Page33 or other form of abuse. Wages and working hours will, as a minimum, comply with all applicable wage and hour laws, and rules and regulations, including minimum wage, overtime and maximum hours in the country concerned .There shall be no use of forced or compulsory labour, and employees shall be free to leave employment after reasonable notice . There shall be no use of child labour, and specifically there will be compliance with relevant ILO standards .There shall be respect for the right of employees to freedom of association* .Safe and healthy working conditions will be provided for all employees . y Corporate Governance We have always aspired to high standards of corporate governance. Transparency and accountability are the two basic tenets of Corporate Governance. We, at Hindustan Unilever, feel proud to belong to a Company whose visionary founders had laid the foundation stone for good governance long back and made it an integral principle of the business, demonstrated in the words above. Our approach to Corporate Governance To succeed, we believe, requires the highest standards of corporate behaviour towards everyone we work with, the communities we touch, and the environment on which we have an impact. This is our road to sustainable, profitable growth and creating long-term value for our shareholders, our people, and our business partners. LAKME¶S POSITIONING IN TERMS OF PERSONALITY AND SELF CONCEPT: Lakme is a product range that caters to the beautification needs of not only women in their adult age but in today's context teenagers also. It has a brand personality of someone who takes care of you and your beauty needs. It tries to position itself amongst its consumers as a product range that will help them look beautiful as is evident from its catchphrases: 1. On top of the world! 2. Source of radiant beauty1! Lakme has a range of beauty products to offer to its consumers. Some of the ways in which it tries to position itself: 1. Lakme Hair Color: magic of colors (collage).
  34. 34. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS LAKME Page34 2. Lakme (versatile eye shadow collection): rich, long lasting and healthy make up. 3. Lakme fair perfect: For flawlessly fair skin! 4. Lakme face magic: daily wear soufflé. 5. Lakme (skin vitalizer): radiant skin, now and forever. 6. Lakme (moisturizer): radiant skin, now and forever. 7. Lakme nail polish and lipstick: electric brilliance/sensual brilliance 8. Lakme sun expert (sunscreen): sun safe hamesha! (face the sun with a smile) 9. Lakme pure defense: anti-pollution system. 10. Lakme Tropical Island (cosmetics): defining the future of fashion. 11.Lakme hair care (international): natural hair care 12. Lakme hair next: exclusive range of hairstyle products that give you that salon look instantly. On the basis of above mentioned positioning strategies Lakme can have the following characteristics that determine its personality: · Someone who takes care of your beauty needs. · A long lasting beautification product range. · Something that is not harsh on your body or harmful for your beauty. · A product that provides you with an option of getting beautiful hair. · A product that helps you get a beautiful skin. · A cosmetic product that you can wear for the entire day and not a special occasion. · Someone who tells you right things about looking good. · It's an Indian cosmetic brand. · It covers all facets of beauty care for women.
  35. 35. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS LAKME Page35 The following factors of Lakme's personality help in differentiation of its products from the competition: · It covers all facets of beauty care. · It helps arm the consumer with products to pamper her from head to toe i.e. a complete product range. HOW LAKME IS INFLUENCING ITS CONSUMERS? THE CONCEPT OF EGO: · According to Freudian Psychoanalytic theory Lakme tries to position itself on the basis of its appeal to the consumers which have an ego. This means that the consumers of Lakme have an impulsive drive for which they seek immediate satisfaction without concern for means of satisfaction. · Women all over the world are always expected to look good and Indian women are no exception; More so because of the fact that Indian women in general do not have a fair skin like that of their western counterparts. Thus it becomes but natural for Indian women to try and look good and use beauty products that help enhance their looks and style. With globalization and liberalization of Indian economy and the changing demographics and income levels there is more and more concern to look good as today's Indian woman is no longer confined to her home but is a big contributor to the growth of Indian economy. THE CONCEPT OF PERSONALITY GROUPS: · Lakme tries to woo the compliant consumers according to Karen Horney's classification4 of personality groups i.e. people who move towards others. Those who have desire to be loved, wanted and appreciated. As is earlier stated women are supposed to look good not only in western countries but also in India. Women always appreciate if someone calls them beautiful and it has become the custom of the society to see women in such a context. So it would be prudent to say that according to the societal norms a women has to look good at all times and which has a bearing on the psychology of female consumers towards cosmetic products which help them achieve that desired look. Needless to say that Lakme plays on the concept of women wanting themselves to be appreciated for their beauty and being loved for that.
  36. 36. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS LAKME Page36 CONCEPT OF PERCEPTUAL SELECTION: On the basis of perceptual selection Lakme has tried to position itself among its consumers in the following ways: Lakme has tried to gain the attention of its consumers by line extension and having more and more product depth, packaging and attractive print advertisements. If we look at the line extensions of Lakme than we would observe that it is in almost all the segments of cosmetic care ranging from hair care to skin care to beauty salons! Looking at the product depth it is pretty evident that Lakme has actually tried to fill in all areas that it can, particularly the nail paint and the lip color segment is a big hit among Indian women as it offers them a wide variety of products in terms of colors as well as various styles that they can choose from. PROFILE OF THE ORGANISATION Name of the company : LAKME UNILEVER PRIVTAE LTD Address of Head office : 165166 hindustan lever house Backbay reclamation, church gate, Mumbai, Maharashtra.india 400020 City : baddi State :HIMACHAL PRADESH Status : Private Telephone number : -+91 2222870622 Email : info@lakmelever.com Website : http://lakmeindia.com Chief executive officer : Mr.Anil chopra Contact person : Richa puranesh- marketing manager Mobile no : 912222850552 Company¶s product range: Lakme Lipstick.
  37. 37. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS LAKME Page37 Lakme Nail Polish. Lakme Eyeliner. Lakme Kajal. Lakme Strawberry Face Wash. Lakme Radient Rose Powder. Lakme Nail Enamel Remover. Lakme Strawberry Silk Cream Lakme Deep Pore Cleansing Milk
  38. 38. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS LAKME Page38 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research methodology is a careful investigation for inquiring in a systematic method and finding solution of a problem. It comprises the defining and redefining of problem formulating hypothesis, collection and evaluating data, making detection and reaching conclusion. This research consists of following element. OBJECTIVE OF STUDY SOURCES OF DATA RESEARCH DESIGN SAMPLING DESIGN OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 1. To understand the attitudes and perception of respondents towards cosmetics products. 2. To understand the growth of cosmetics sector in today¶s scenario. 3. To study the respondents awareness towards lakme. 4. To know people perception towards lakme products available in the market. 5. To understand people¶s consumer behavior with reference to cosmetics.
  39. 39. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS LAKME Page39 SOURCES OF DATA Primary Source of Data Primary data are those collected by the investigator himself for the first time and thus they are original in character, they are collected for a particular purpose. A wellstructured questionnaire was personally administrated to the selected sample to collect the primary data. Secondary Source of Data Secondary data are those, which have already been collected by some other persons for their purpose and published. Secondary data are usually in the shape of finished products. External Data, was generated from magazines, research books and internet (websites). RESEARCH DESIGN The study was conducted as an exploratory sampling survey method to collect primary and secondary data. SAMPLING DESIGN A sample is a representative part of the population. In sampling technique, information is collected only from a representative part of the universe and the conclusions are drawn on that basis for the entire universe. A random sampling technique was used to collect data from the respondents. A random sample is a sample selected from a population in such a way that every member of the population has a equal chance of being selected and the selection of any individual does not influence the selection of any other. The selection is purely depends on chance. So while conducting the survey, 100 respondents were selected at random. SAMPLE SIZE Sample size denotes the number of elements selected for the study. For the present study, 100 respondents were selected at random. All the 100 respondents were the customers of one or another cosmetic industry. Out of these 100 respondents 60 were specifically Lakme customers. SAMPLE DESCRIPTION The respondents of this dissertation was 100 cosmetics users of different cosmetics companies in general, out of which 60 respondents were the users of Lakme in particular; as the dissertation was focused on the consumer behavior and perception of users towards the cosmetic products with special reference to Lakme. The respondents were personally contacted for the purpose of the study. A questionnaire was used for survey and was answered by the customers of different life insurance companies. Most of the respondents were in age group of 18-20; which was having a frequency of 68, 14 respondents were in the age group of 21-24, 10 respondents were in the age group of 24-29 and 8 respondents were more than 30 years. According to gender wise, all were female respondents. Nearly half of the respondents were students and a big chunk of the rest was
  40. 40. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS LAKME Page40 employed women. LIMITATION OF STUDY 1. An underlying assumption for the entire project is that the details and the feedback received from the population is true. 2. It was difficult to find respondents as they were busy in their schedule, and collection of data was very difficult. Therefore, the study had to be carried out based on the availability of respondents. 3. Some of the respondents were not ready to fill the questionnaires and some of them were not ready to come out openly.
  41. 41. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS LAKME Page41 TESTING OF HYPOTHESIS The test of hypothesis begins with an assumption about the population from which the sample is drawn. According to Prof.Morris Ham bury, ³A hypothesis is simply a quantitative statement about a population´. Hypothesis testing deals with a procedure, which accepts or rejects the hypothesis. Hypotheses are of two types: 1. Null Hypothesis 2. Alternate Hypothesis Null Hypothesis The null hypothesis is a very useful tool in testing the significance of difference. It states that there is no real difference in the sample value and population value in the particular value under consideration. This means that the observed difference is due to the random fluctuations. The null hypothesis is denoted by Ho. Alternate Hypothesis As against the null hypothesis the alternative hypothesis specify those values that the researcher believes to hold true, and he hopes that the sample data lead to acceptance of this hypothesis as true. Types of Errors When a statistical hypothesis is tested there are four possibilities: 1. The hypothesis is true but the test reject it (Type 1 error) 2. The hypothesis is false but the test accepts it (Type 11 error). Level of Significance Confidence with which the null hypothesis is accepted or rejected depends on what is called significant level. The probability, with which we may reject a null hypothesis, when it is true, is called the level of significance. Therefore the level of significance is the risk, statisticians running in his decision. The level of significance is denoted by µa¶. It is better to keep level of significance at a low percentage. It means that we should not reject a true hypothesis. Acceptance Region This represents the region with which the calculated value of the statistics must lie to accept the null hypothesis. If calculated value lies in this region then the null hypothesis will be rejected.
  42. 42. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS LAKME Page42 Procedure for Testing Hypothesis 1. Set up a null hypothesis (Ho) and alternative hypothesis (H1) appropriate to the test to be conducted. 2. Specify the suitable level of significance. 3. Decide the test criterion suitable to the test statistics 4. Calculate the value of the test statistics using the appropriate formula 5. Make decisions about accepting or rejecting the null hypothesis. If calculated value is less than tabulated value, Ho is accepted, else, HA is accepted by rejecting Ho. Tools used for testing of hypothesis Chi- square Test: It is a non- parametric test. It describes the magnitude of discrepancy between observed value and expected value. Higher the value of Chi-square y 2, greater the discrepancy between the observed values from sample to sample. It is a statistic whose value is always positive and varies from zero to infinity. It is the sum of difference between the expected value and observed value. This distribution is a limiting approximation of multinomial distribution with g as the mean and 2g (nu) as the variance of the distribution. The test depends on the set of observed and expected values and the degree of freedom g (nu). It is a continuous distribution, which can be applied to discrete random variables. Degree of Freedom (DOF) It is the number of classes to which the values can assigned arbitrarily with out violating the restrictions or limitations placed. It is calculated using the following formulae. DOF = (r- 1)* (c ± 1) where r is the no: of rows C is the no: of columns DOF = (n-1), where n is the no: pairs of observed and expected values. Condition for Applying Chi-square Test: The total sample size must be reasonably large.
  43. 43. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS LAKME Page43 No theoretical cell frequency should be less than 5. In case, the cell frequency is less than 5, then µ Yates¶ correction factor will be applied. The constraints on the cell frequency, if varies, should be linear. Uses of Chi-square Test: y It is used as a test of independence of attributes. This test brings association, if any, between the attributes. y It is used as a test of goodness of fit. In other words, it tests whether the given set of observation will fit in to the distribution (normal, binomial etc«) y It is used as a test of homogeneity. In other words, it tests whether a set of readings are more uniform or non-uniform. So with this test we can determine whether two or mor independent random samples are drawn from the same population or not. Limitations of the study 1. An underlying assumption for the entire project is that the details and the feedback received from the population is true. 2. It was difficult to find respondents as they were busy in their schedule, and collection of data was very difficult. Therefore, the study had to be carried out based on the availability of respondents. 3. Some of the respondents were not ready to fill the questionnaires and some of them were not ready to come out openly. TEST OF HYPOTHESIS Whether the consumers are satisfied with cosmetic products and services of Lakme company. CUSTOMER SATISFACTION COSMETIC PRODUCTS SERVICES TOTAL SATISFIED 53 48 101 DISSATISFIED 7 12 19 TOTAL 60 60 120 HYPOTHESIS:
  44. 44. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS LAKME Page44 Ho : consumers are satisfied. Ha: consumers are not satisfied. Level of significance: 5% Degree of freedom ( DOF): (R-1) (C-1) = (2-1) (2-1) = 1 Tab=7.88 Test of statistics- (O-E)*2/E OBSERVED VALUE (O) EXPECTED VALUE (E) (O-E)*2 (O-E)*2/E 53 50.5 5 0.099 7 9.5 -5 0.526 48 50.5 -5 0.099 12 9.5 5 0.526 TOTAL 1.25 Cal = 1.25 Tab = 7.88 Conclusion and Interpretation: Since, the calculated value ( ҏcal) is lesser than tabulated value ( ҏtab), null hypothesis (Ho) is accepted, i.e. alternate hypothesis (Ha) is rejected. It means consumers are satisfied products and services of LAKME.
  45. 45. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS LAKME Page45 1. Which company¶s cosmetics are you using? Table showing that cosmetics of which company are most used. PARTICULARS FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE LOREAL 20 20% LAKME 60 60% GARNIER 15 15% LOTUS 05 5%
  46. 46. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS LAKME Page46 From the above table it can be inferred that: Out of the 100% population only 20% ladies are using loreal. Out of 100%of population only 60% of ladies are using Lakme. Out of 100% of population only 15% of the ladies are using garnier. Out of 100% of population only 5% of the ladies are using lotus. 2. Which product are you using most often in a month? Table showing that which product is being used most often in a month. PARTICULARS FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE HAIR CARE PRODUCTS 12 12% SKIN CARE PRODUCTS 20 20% BODY CARE PRODUCTS 10 10% MAKE UP 58 58% proportion of women using which cosmetic brand lakme loreal garnier lotus
  47. 47. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS LAKME Page47 From the following table these points can be inferred: 12% of the women use hair products on monthly basis. 20% of the women use skin care products on the monthly basis. 10 % of the women use body care products. 58% of the women of the women use make up products. 3. Do you think that your product provides you with an option of healthy and long lasting harmless? Table showing the number of people who think that think that their product provides them with an option of healthy and long lasting harmless Makeup particulars Frequency PERCENTAGE Yes 58 58% No 20 20% May be 17 17% Not sure 5 5% chart showing that which products are used most. makeup skin care hair care product body care product
  48. 48. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS LAKME Page48 From the following table we can infer: 58% of the people trust their brand when it comes to healthy makeup. 20% of the people do not trust their brand when it comes to healthy makeup, but because results use it. 17% of the people think that not all of the products of their brand is healthy. 5% of the people are not at all sure of the healthiness of their products. 4. What is the reason that motivates you to use the products of a particular company? Table showing the reasons that motivates the respondents to buy particular product. PARTICULARS FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE ECONOMICAL 35 35% TRENDSETTER 20 20% MEASURABLE RESULTS 28 28% EASILY AVAILABLE 17 17% 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 no not sure may be yes graph showing the number of respondents who think that their cosmetics are healthy Series 1
  49. 49. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS LAKME Page49 From the following table we can infer that: 35 respondents out of 100 respondents find their cosmetics to be economical. 20 respondents out of 100 respondents find their cosmetics to be trend setter. 28 respondents out of 100 respondents find their cosmetics to show measurable results. 17 respondents out of 100 respondents find their cosmetics to be easily available. 5. Approximately how much do you spend in the buying of cosmetics? Table showing that how much the respondents invest in the buying of cosmetics. PARTICULARS FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE Below Rs. 500 68 68% Rs. 500 ± Rs. 1000 12 12% Rs. 1000- Rs. 2000 14 14% Rs. 2000 and above 6 6% REASONS THAT MOTIVATES RESPONDENTS TO BUY A COSMETIC ECONOMICAL TRENDSETTER MEASURABLE EASILY AVAILABLE
  50. 50. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS LAKME Page50 From the following table we can infer the following points: 68 respondents out of 100 respondents spend below Rs . 500 in cosmetics. 12 respondents out of 100 respondents spend Rs. 500- Rs. 1000 in cosmetics. 14 respondents out of 100 respondents spend Rs. 1000 ± Rs. 2000 in cosmetics. 6 respondents out of 100 respondents spend more than Rs. 2000 in cosmetics. 6. Do you find your cosmetic products economical? Table showing that how many respondents find their cosmetics to be economical. PARTICULARS FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE YES 49 NO 30 30% MAY BE 11 11% 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 Rs. 500 more than Rs. 2000 Rs. 500- Rs. 1000 Rs 1000- Rs. 2000 chart showing that how much the respondents spend in cosmetics. Series 1
  51. 51. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS LAKME Page51 NOT SURE 10 10% From the following table we can infer that: 49 respondents out of 100 respondents believe that their cosmetics are economical. 30 resondents out of 100 respondents believe that their cosmetics are not economical. 11 respondents out of 100 respondents say that not all the products are economical. 10 respondents out of 100 respondents are not at all sure of economic reliability of their cosmetics. 7. If you are being asked to choose amongst one of the best product that you use, what would that be? Table showing the best cosmetic product of the respondents of their brand . PARTICULARS FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE chart showing the respondents who find their cosmetics economic or less economic yes no may be not sure
  52. 52. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS LAKME Page52 SUNSCREEN LOTION 59 59% HAIR BOUNCERS CREME 15 15% MOISTURIZERS 9 9% LIP GLOSS 17 17% From the following table we can infer that: 59 respondents out of 100 respondents found sunscreen lotion to be the best product. 15 respondents out of 100 respondents found hair bouncers crème to be the best product. 9 respondents out of 100 respondents found moisturizers to be the best product. 17 respondents out of 100 respondents found lip gloss to be the best product. 8. What services of your favourite company you appreciate the most? Table showing the most appreciated service provided by their favourite company. PARTICULARS FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE STEAM BATH 32 32% chart showing the best cosmetic product of the respondents sunscreen lotion hair bouncers crème lip gloss moisturizers
  53. 53. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS LAKME Page53 MANICURE / PEDICURE 14 14% FACIAL/ MASSAGE 44 44% HAIR SERVICES( rebounding etc) 20 20% From the table you infer the following points: 32 respondents out of 100 respondents like steam bath service. 14 respondents out of 100 respondents like manicure/pedicure. 44 respondents out of 100 respondents like facial/ massage. 20 respondents out of 100 respondents like hair services. 9. What motivates you to buy lakme products? Table showing the reasons which motivates the respondents to buy lakme products PARTICULARS FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 steam bath Category 2 hair sevicing facial/ massgae graph showing the most appreciated services provided by the cosmetic company Series 1
  54. 54. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS LAKME Page54 MEASURABLE RESULTS 2O 33.33% ECONOMICAL 18 30% EASILY AVAILABLE 12 20% TREND SETTER 1O 16.66% From the following table it can be inferred that: 20 respondents out of total 60 lakme respondents use lakme products for the measurable results. 18 respondents out of 60 lakme respondents use its products as they are economical. 12 respondents out of 60 lakme respondents use its products as they are easily available. 10 respondents out of 60 lakme respondents use its products as they are trend setters. 10 . In which cosmetics of lakme do you invest your money more? Table showing the lakme cosmetic in which the maximum investment is done by respondents. CHART SHOWING THE REASON WHICH MOTIVATES RESPONDENTS TO BUY LAKME PRODUCTS measurableresults economical easily available trend setter
  55. 55. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS LAKME Page55 PARTICULARS FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE SUNSCREEN LOTION 34 56.66% HAIR BOUNCERS CREME 9 15% MOISTURIZERS 5 8.33% LIP GLOSS 12 20% From the following table we can infer that: 34 respondents out of the total 60 lakme respondents spend maximum money in sunscreen lotion. 9 respondents out of the total 60 respondents spend maximum money in hair bouncers crème. 5 respondents out of the total 60 lakme respondents spend maximum money in moisturizers. 12 respondents out of the total 60 respondents spend their maximum money in lip gloss. 11.what is your level of information on Lakme as a brand? Series 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 hair bouncer and shiner crème sunscreen lotion moisturizers lip gloss graph showing that respondents spends maximum in which product Series 2
  56. 56. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS LAKME Page56 Table showing the level of information of respondents on Lakme as a brand. PARTICULARS FREQUENCY PARTICULARS EXCELLENT 14 23.33% GOOD 28 46.66% MODERATE 10 16.66% BAD 8 13.33% From the following table we can infer that: 14 respondents out of 60 lakme respondents had excellent knowledge about lakme as a brand. 28 respondents out of 60 lakme respondents had good knowledge about lakme as a brand. 10 respondents out of 60 lakme respondents had moderate knowledge about lakme as a brand. 8 respondents out of total 60 respondents had bad knowledge about lakme as a brand. 12. what is the purpose for which you buy lakme products? graph showing the level of information of resppondents on lakme as a brand good excellent moderate bad
  57. 57. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS LAKME Page57 Table showing the purpose for which the respondents buy the lakme products PARTICULARS FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE SKIN PROTECTION 17 28.33% LONG AND STRONG HAIR 13 21.66% GLOW AND ACNE FREE SKIN 10 16.66% MAKE UP 20 33.33% From the following table we can infer that: 17 respondents out of total 60 lakme respondents buy lakme skin protection products. 13 respondents out of total 60 respondents buy lakme products for long and strong hair. 10 respondents out of total 60 respondents buy lakme products for glow. 20 respondents out of total 60 respondents buy lakme products for make up. 13.Rating the products offered by lakme as: chart showing the purpose for which the lakme products are being used make up skin products long and strong hair glow and acne free
  58. 58. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS LAKME Page58 Table showing the rating of the lakme products by its users. PARTICULARS FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE EXCELLENT 18 30% GOOD 28 46.66% MODERATE 14 23.33% POOR 0 0% 1: excellent 2: good 3: moderate From the following table we can infer that; 18 respondents out of total 60 lakme respondents rate lakme products as excellent. 28 respondents out of total 60 respondents rate lakme products as good. 14 respondents out of total 60 lkame respondents rate lakme as moderate. None of the respondents rate lakme products as poor. 14.Are you satisfied with the beauty services offered by lakme saloons? 1 2 3
  59. 59. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS LAKME Page59 Table showing the satisfaction level of the lakme respondents with respect to the saloons services provided by it. PARTICULARS FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE YES 48 80% NO 12 20% 1 depicts yes. 2 depicts no. From the following table we can infer that: 48 respondents out of 60 respondents are satisfied with the services provided by the saloons of lakme. 12 respondents out of 60 respondents are not satisfied with the services provided by the saloons of lakme 1 2
  60. 60. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS LAKME Page60 15. Are you satisfied with the products offered by the company? Table showing the whether the respondents are satisfied with the products of lakme. PARTICULARS FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE YES 53 88.33% NO 7 11.66% 1 depicts yes. 2 depicts no. From the following table we can infer that: 53 respondents out of 60 respondents are satisfied with the products of lakme. 7 respondents out of 60 respondents are not satisfied with the products of lakme. 1 2
  61. 61. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS LAKME Page61 16. Is the site www.lakmeindia.com site useful to you? Table showing if site www.lakmeindia.com site useful. PARTICULARS FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE YES 42 70% NO 18 30% 1 depicts yes 2 depicts no. From the following table we can infer that: 42 respondents out of 60 respondents found site useful. 18 respondents out 0f 60 respondents did not found site useful. 1 2
  62. 62. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS LAKME Page62 17.Approximately how much do you invest on lakme products monthly? Table showing that how much the respondents spend in lakme products. PARTICULARS FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE Below Rs. 500 40 66.66% Rs. 500-Rs. 1000 8 13.33% Rs. 100-Rs. 2000 8 13.33% Above Rs. 2000 4 6.66% 1. depicts money below Rs. 500. ;2. depicts money between Rs. 500-Rs. 1000.;3. depicts money between Rs. 1000- Rs. 2000.;4. depicts money between Rs 2000 and above. From the following table we can infer that: 40 respondents out of 60 lakme respondents spend below Rs 500. 8 respondents out of 60 lakme respondents spend between Rs 500-Rs. 1000. 8 respondents out of 60 respondents spend between Rs. 1000- Rs. 2000. 4 respondents out of 60 respondents spend between Rs. 2000 and above. 0.00% 10.00% 20.00% 30.00% 40.00% 50.00% 60.00% 70.00% 1 2 3 4 Series1
  63. 63. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS LAKME Page63 18.Do you think that lakme is a leader in a cosmetic industry? Table showing the number of respondents who think that lakme is a leader in cosmetic industry. PARTICULARS FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE YES 68 68% NO 12 12% CANT SAY 10 10% MODERATELY 10 10% 1 depicts yes.;2 depicts no.;3 depicts moderately.;4 depicts cant say. From the following table we can infer that: 68 respondents out of 100 respondents find lakme to be the leader. 12 respondents out of 100 respondents do not find lakme to be a leader. 10 respondents out of 100 respondents are not sure. 10 respondents moderately think that lakme is a market leader. 1 2 3 4
  64. 64. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS LAKME Page64 19.Would you continue to buy Lakme products even if its price rises by say upto 15%? Table showing if the respondents will use the lakme product even if the price rises by 15% PARTICULARS FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE YES 39 65% NO 21 35% From the following table we can infer that: 39 respondents out of 60 respondents will continue using lakme. 21 respondents out of 60 respondents will stop using lakme if price will rise. 1 depicts yes. 2 depicts no. From the following table we can infer that: 39 respondents out of 60 respondents will continue using lakme. 21 respondents out of 60 respondents will stop using lakme if price will rise. 1 2
  65. 65. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS LAKME Page65 CONCLUSION, FINDINGS AND SUGGESTIONS FINDINGS 1. Lakme is the clear market leader across all age groups and income levels. 2. Majority of the respondents ie. 60 respondents out of total 100 respondents are using lakme products. With Loreal in the second number having 20 regular customers of it. 15 respondents rae using Garnier and only 5 are using Lotus cosmetics. This shows that lakme has more number of women using it. 3. The dissertation shows that maximum number of the respondents are using make up products of their brand like mascara, eyeliner, foundation, facepowder, blushers etc. next the eopleare investing maximum in skin care products. 4. 58 respondents trust their brand of cosmetics when it comes to healthy make up. 20 respondents do not find their cosmetics to be healthy in the sence that the brand uses more of chemicals in its compositions. 5. 35 respondents use their cosmetic products because they are economical in nature, while a major portion of the bulk buys the products of a brand because they show measurable results. 6. 68 respondents spend below Rs. 500 on their cosmetics. However there are many people ie 14 who spend Rs. 1000- Rs. 2000 in cosmetics. 7. 49 respondents out of 100 respondents find their cosmetic brand to be economical in nature. 8. 59 respondents out of total of 100 respondents find sunscreen lotion to be the best product of their cosmetic brand. While 17 out of them find lip gloss to be the best part of its brand. 9. 44 people appreciate the facial and massage services provided by their favourite cosmetic company. 32 out of 100 users find steam bath to be very appreciative. 10.20 respondents out of 60 users who use only lakme products, use lakme products because they show measurable results. While 18 out of 60 uses it because lakme is very economical in nature. 11.34 respondents out of 60 users of lakme products use the sunscreen lotion the maximum times, the next product being lip gloss. 12.28 respondents have a very good knowledge about lakme as a brand. 13.20 respondents out of 60 respondents use lakme¶s makeup products, while 17 respondents use lakme products of skin protection. 14.28 respondents found lakme to be good, 18 found it to be an excellent product, 14 respondents , moderately like the products of lakme. 15.48 respondents are satisfied with the services provided by LAKME. 16.53 respondents are satisfied with the products of lakme.
  66. 66. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TOWARDS LAKME Page66 SUGGESTIONS 1. Affordable cosmetic products must be launched, drawing less than 1000 rupees per month. This will attract mores of youg women towards it and will further increase the market share of the company. 2. Lakme should also concenterate on the cosmetic products for the mails. As today even boys are becoming more concerned of the way they are looking. More and more boys are turning out to be metro sexual. This category will rise in the future and lakme must concentrate on catching them so that the company can generate more sales from them. 3. Lakme must not limit itself to serve only the women, as it will be ignoring a large chunk of looks conscious and metro sexual boys. 4. It would be wise for the company to target young people in the above category and grow along with them as they and the nation prospers. 5. Many respondents in their answer as to why they did not take lakme product said that lakme does not provide a makeup or sunscreen lotion which is to be put only once as it is not moisture resistant. So lakme should work more in creating a water resistant sunscreen lotion which could stay all through the hard sweaty days. 6. More of the saloons should be created in order to provide easy accessibility to the consumers of the services and products provided by lakme. 7. Lakme can start contests for free makeover of women , as it was being started by dove, sunsilk and ponds in collaboration- be beautiful. 8. Website Changes: a. Lakme must advertise more about its website in the mass media so people can gain firsthand knowledge about its products at their convenience in a more detailed manner. b. The website is good but instead of having a glossary as a separate entity, link words which are difficult to understand for a first timer (even if it is as simple as µspf¶) must be marked up (underlined) in the text, which upon clicking must open out to a window giving details. c. A page must be devoted on why cosmetic products of lakme must be taken plus real life stories of how people with use of lakme cosmetics improved their looks. d. Links to other sites extolling the virtues of cosmetics must be given. e. A page devoted to Lakme¶s beginning as a cosmetic industry must be included in the website to assure potential customers that this is one company that will stick around for a long time to come. Exciting contests can be launched for those who visit the website. 9. lakme has tied up with HUL ± hence it must advertise in these websites also. It can also advertise in other beauty related sections of websites like vogue.com and feminaindia.com. Youth sites like mtstylecheckvindia.com, facebook.com, orkut.com, twitter.com etc can also be

×