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Project Report On
“Marketing Strategies and Brand Loyalty of Haldiram
in India”
Report submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirement
For the award of the degree of BBA Batch (2018-21)
Submitted By:
JANVHI SAHNI
BBA Semester V
Under the Guidance of:
MS. MUKTA KATYAL
DSPSR
Delhi School of Professional Studies and Research
(Affiliated to Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, New Delhi)
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DECLARATION
I take this opportunity to express my profound gratitude and deep regards
to my guide (MS. MUKTA KATYAL) for her exemplary guidance,
monitoring and constant encouragement throughout the course of this
project. The blessing, help and guidance given by her time to time shall
carry me a long way in the journey of life on which I am about embark.
Last but not least, my sincere thanks to my parents and friends for their
wholehearted support and encouragement.
I also hereby declare that the project work entitled “MARKETING
STRATEGIES AND BRAND LOYALTY OF HALDIRAM IN INDIA”
under the guidance of “MS. MUKTA KATYAL” is my original work and
it has not been submitted earlier in any other university or institution.
JANVHI SAHNI
BBA 5A
Page 3 of 70
Certificate
This is to certify that the Summer Training project titled “(MARKETING STRATEGIES
AND BRAND LOYALTY OF HALDIRAM IN INDIA)” is an academic work done by
MS. JANVHI SAHNI submitted in the partial fulfilment of the requirements for the
award of degree of Bachelor of Business Administration at Delhi School of
Professional Studies and Research, New Delhi under my guidance and direction.
JANVHI SAHNI has given an undertaking that the information presented in the
project has not been submitted earlier.
MS. MUKTA KATYAL
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR
Page 4 of 70
7th
August 2020
TO WHOM IT MAY CONCERN
This is to certify that MS. JANVHI SAHNI, D/O- MR. Praveen Sahni,
a student of BBA(G), DELHI SCHOOL OF PROFESSIONAL STUDIES
AND RESEARCH, GGSIP University, New Delhi, has successfully
completed her summer internship as BRANDING EXECUTIVE from
20th
June 2020 to 21st
July 2020
During the period of her internship program with us, she was found
punctual, hardworking and inquisitive.
We wish her every success in his life.
Hamant Kumar
Deputy General Manager- HR
Haldiram’s Snacks Pvt. Ltd.
HALDIRAM’S SNACKS PVT. LTD
C- 31, Sector -62, NOIDA, U.P, NOIDA – 201301
Phone no.: 011-28898010/11Email: info@haldiram.com
Website: www.haldirams.com
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
S No. Particulars Page Number
1. Declaration
Certificate
Summer Training Certificate
2
3
4
2. Chapter I
Introduction
Objective of the study
Literature Review
Research Methodology
Limitations of the study
6-22
22
23-25
26-32
33
3. CHAPTER II
Company Profile 34-46
4. CHAPER III
Analysis and Interpretation of
Data
47-61
5. Chapter IV
Conclusions and
Recommendations
62-64
6. Bibliography 65
7. Appendix 66-70
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Chapter I
INTRODUCTION
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INTRODUCTION TO THE TOPIC
This report provides a detailed analysis about the company. The topic undertaken is
“Marketing Strategies and Brand Loyalty of Haldiram in India”. It describes
about the marketing strategies of Haldiram and the various steps that are required to
increase their sales. This report provides as in-depth analysis of Haldiram. Thereafter,
the report analyses Haldiram marketing Strategies and in the end suggestions and
recommendations are given based on that analysis.
A marketing strategy is a process that can allow an organization to concentrate its
limited resources on the greatest opportunities to increase sales and achieve a
sustainable competitive advantage. A marketing strategy is most effective when it is
an integral component of corporate strategy, defining how the organization will
successfully engage customers, prospects, and competitors in the market arena. It is
partially derived from broader corporate strategies, corporate missions, and corporate
goals. As the customer constitutes the source of a company's revenue, marketing
strategy is closely linked with sales. A key component of marketing strategy is often
to keep marketing in line with a company's overarching mission statement.
Concept of Marketing
It is a philosophy of marketing that entails the wants and needs of a particular market.
Through the needs and wants of a market an organization can achieve its goals in
terms of revenue. Achieving the desired revenue is achieved through delivering
satisfaction to a buying market better than a competitor can.
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Concept of Marketing Strategies
A marketing strategy is a process that can allow an organization to concentrate its
limited resources on the greatest opportunities to increase sales and achieve a
sustainable competitive advantage. A marketing strategy should be centred on the key
concept that customer satisfaction is the main goal.
A marketing strategy is most effective when it is an integral component of corporate
strategy, defining how the organization will successfully engage customers, prospects,
and competitors in the market arena. Corporate strategies, corporate missions, and
corporate goals. As the customer constitutes the source of a company's revenue,
marketing strategy is closely linked with sales. A key component of marketing
strategy is often to keep marketing in line with a company's overarching mission
statement.
A marketing strategy can serve as the foundation of a marketing plan. A marketing
plan contains a set of specific actions required to successfully implement a marketing
strategy. For example: "Use a low-cost product to attract consumers. Once our
organization, via our low-cost product, has established a relationship with consumers,
our organization will sell additional, higher-margin products and services that
enhance the consumer's interaction with the low-cost product or service."
A strategy consists of a well thought out series of tactics to make a marketing plan
more effective. Marketing strategies serve as the fundamental underpinning of
marketing plans designed to fill market needs and reach marketing objectives. Plans
and objectives are generally tested for measurable results.
A marketing strategy often integrates an organization's marketing goals, policies, and
action sequences (tactics) into a cohesive whole. Similarly, the various strands of the
strategy, which might include advertising, channel marketing, internet marketing,
promotion and public relations, can be orchestrated. Many companies cascade a
strategy throughout an organization, by creating strategy tactics that then become
strategy goals for the next level or group. Each one group is expected to take that
strategy goal and develop a set of tactics to achieve that goal. This is why it is
important to make each strategy goal measurable.
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Concept of Marketing Mix
Marketing Mix is a combination of marketing tools that a company uses to satisfy
their target customers and achieving organizational goals. McCarthy classified all
these marketing tools under four broad categories:
These four elements are the basic components of a marketing plan and are collectively
called 4 P’s of marketing. 4 P’s pertain more to physical products than services.
Below is an illustration for marketing mix.
The important thing to note is that all these four P’s (variable) are controllable,
subject to internal and external constraints of marketing environment. Marketers,
using different blends of these variables, can target different group of customers
having different needs. So, a customer may call marketing mix “the offering”.
Product
Haldiram’s offers a wide range of products to its customers. The product range
includes namkeens, sweets sharbats, bakery items, dairy products, chips, pappad and
ice creams. However, namkeens remain the main area of focus for the group as it
contributes close to 60% of its total revenues. By specializing in the manufacturing in
the namkeen market the company has created a niche market. The raw materials used
to prepare namkeens are of best of quality and are sourced from all over India.
Haldiram’s customizes its products to suit the tastes and preferences of customers
from different parts of India. It launched products, which catered to the tastes of
people belonging to specific regions. For example, it launched ‘Murukkus’ a south
Indian Snack and Chennai Mixture’ for south Indian customers. Similarly, Haldiram’s
launched ‘bhelpuri’ keeping in mind customers residing in western India. The
company offered certain products such as ‘Nazarana’, ‘Panchratan’ and ‘Premium’
only during the festival season in gift packs. These measures have helped Haldiram’s
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compete effectively in a market that is flooded with a variety of snack items in
different shapes, sizes &flavours. It has also recently launched biscuits & cookies.
Table on the following page shows the list of Haldiram’s products
Table: Product List
Namkeens
200 Gms 400 Gms
• Plain Bhujia
• Bhujia
• Karanchy Mixture
• Navrattan
• Nut Cracker
• KhattaMeetha
• Bombay Mixture
• Chana Dal
• MasalaMoong Dal
• Moong Dal
• Boondi Masala
• Boondi Plain
• Dal Biji
• Ghatia
• Kabli Chana
• BhavnagriSev
• Aloo Masala
• Mathri
• Plain Bhhujia
• Bhhujia
• Navrattan
• KhattaMeetha
• Masala Moong Dal
• Moong Dal
• Nut Cracker
• Dal Biji
• All in One
• Aloo Bhhujia
• Chana Jor Garam
• Kashmiri Mixture
• Hara Chiwda
• Cornflakes Mixture
• Kaju Mixture
• Panchrattan
75 Gms
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• Samosa
• Bhelpuri
• All in One
• Aloo Bhhujia
• Nimbu Masala
• Long Sev
• MethiSev
• Peanut Salted
• Peanut Masala
• Chana Jor Garam
• Bombay Chana
• Kashmiri Mixture
• Cornflakes Mixture
• Hara Chiwda Mixture
• Mint Lachha
• Chilli ChatakLachha
• Kaju Mixture
• Panchrattan
• Shahi Mixture
• Bhujia
• Navrattan
• KhattaMeetha
• Moong Dal
• Nut Cracker
• Aloo Bhhujia
• Boondi Plain
• Boondi Masala
• Nimbu Masala
• Peanut Salted
• Masala Moong Dal
30 Gms
• Nut Cracker
• Peanut Salted
• Aloo Bhujia
• Bhujia
• Navrattan
• Moong Dal
• KhattaMeetha
• Nimbu Masala
65 Gms
• Kahmiri Mixture
• Cornflakes Mixture
• Kaju Mixture
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Sweets Syrups (700 ML)
• Rasgulla (1 Kg Tin Pack)
• Jamphal (1 Kg Tin Pack)
• Cham Cham (1 Kg Tin Pack)
• Kesar Rasbhari (1 Kg Tin Pack)
• Kalam Petha (1 Kg Tin Pack)
• KeasarGanderi (1 Kg Tin Pack)
• Raj Bhog (1 Kg Tin Pack)
• Dry Petha
• Karachi Halwa (250/500 Gms)
• SoanPapdi (250/500/1000 Gms)
• Soan Cake (250/500 Gms)
• Rose Syrup
• Khus Syrup
• Orange Crush
• Pineapple Crush
• Lemon Crush
• Mango Crush
• Kala Khatta
• BadamKesaria
• ThandaiKesaria
Perishable Sweets Can Packs
• Moti
ChoorLadoo/BoondiChoorLadoo
• Plain Burfee
• DhodaBurfee
• Moong Dal Burfee
• BesanLadoo
• Atta Ladoo
• Pinni
• KajuGunjia
• AnjeerBurfee
• Mix Sweets
• Mix Sweets 750 Gms
• Bombay Mixture
• Aloo Bhujia
• Cornflakes Mixture
• Panchrattan
• KhattaMeetha
Cookies
• Jeera Cookies (75/300 Gms)
• Atta Cookies (75/300 Gms)
• Ajwain Cookies (75/300 Gms)
• Coconut Cookies (75/300 Gms)
• Butter Badam Cookies (75/300
Gms)
• KajuPista Cookies (75/300 Gms)
• Choco Chip Cookies (75/300 Gms)
Gift Packs
• Namkeen Nazrana
• Sweet Spicy
• MeethaChatpata
• Thoda Sa MeethaThoda Sa Namkeen
• MeetheMeethe Pal
• Double Mazaa
Ready to Eat Food
• Panipuri (340 Gms)
• Bhelpuri (160/320 Gms)
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Pickles Chips
• Mango Pickle (400/1000 Gms)
• Lime Pickle (400/1000 Gms)
• Chilli Pickle (400/1000 Gms)
• Mix Pickle (400/1000 Gms)
• Classic Salted (400/1000 Gms)
• Pudina (400/1000 Gms)
• Peprica (400/1000 Gms)
• Mast Masala (400/1000 Gms)
Price
Haldirams offers its products at competitive prices in order to penetrate the huge
unorganized market of namkeens and sweets.
• The company pricing strategy has taken into consideration the price conscious
nature of consumers in India. Haldiram’s has launched namkeens in small packets of
30 grams, priced as low as Rs. 5. The company also launched namkeens in 5 different
packs with prices varying according to their weights
• The prices also vary on the basis of the type of namkeens and the raw materials used
to manufacture it. The cost of metalized packing also has an impact on the price,
especially in the case of snack foods.
• The company revises the prices of its products upwards only when there is a steep
increase in the raw material costs or if additional taxes are imposed
Place
The Haldiram’s products are distributed all over the country and outside country also.
Haldiram’s is successfully exporting its products to USA, UK, Australia, Middle East
& Far East Countries, Germany, Philippines, New Zealand, Nepal, Sri Lanka, UAE,
France, Spain, Italy, Holland, Japan, etc., Haldiram’s is an ISO and HACCP Certified
Company and is approved by FDA, USA.
• Haldiram’s has developed a strong distribution network to ensure the widest
possible reach for its products in India as well as overseas. From the manufacturing
unit, the company’s finished goods are passed on to the carrying & forward (C&F)
agent. C&F agents pass on the products to distributors, who ship them to retail outlets.
While the Delhi unit of Haldiram’s has 25 C&F agents and 700 distributors in India,
the Nagpur unit has 25 C&F agents and 375 distributors. Haldiram’s also has 35 sole
Page 14 of 70
distributors in the international market. The Delhi and Nagpur units together cater to
0.6 million retail outlets in India.
• C&F agents receive a commission of around 5% while distributors earn margins
ranging from 8% to 10%. The retail outlets earn margins from 14% to 30%. At retail
outlet level, margins vary according to the weight of packs sold. Retailers earn more
margins ranging from 25% to 30% by selling 30gms pouches (priced at Rs.5)
compared to the packs of higher weights.
• Apart from the exclusive showrooms owned by Haldiram’s, the company offers its
products through retail outlets such as supermarkets, sweet shops, provision stores,
bakeries and ice cream parlours. The products are also available in public places such
as railway stations and bus stations that account for a sizeable amount of its sales.
• Haldiram’s products enjoy phenomenal goodwill and stockists compete with each
other to stock its products. Moreover, sweet shops and bakeries stock Haldiram’s
products despite the fact that the company’s products compete with their own
products.
Page 15 of 70
A. Distribution Channel Structure
Haldiram’s Organization
C&F
Distributor
Retailer
Page 16 of 70
Consumers
Within Delhi
Haldiram’s Organization
Distributor
Retailer
Consumers
Page 17 of 70
B. Functions Performed by the Channel Member
• The main functions of different channel members are to supply goods, to achieve
targets and to increase sales.
• One of the main functions of C&F agents is to achieve the targets assigned to them.
They are responsible for all the activities of their areas.
• Maximum sale of the Haldiram’s products comes from the Nankeens and other
packed products which is nearly Rs.250 crore yearly.
• The sale of other goods including the sales of its entire outlet is around Rs.150 crore.
C. Selection of Channel members
Channels members are selected if the following facilities are available: -
• Warehouse Facilities
• Experience sale persons.
• Van, truck, three-wheelers for transportation.
• Registered office.
• Proper computer facility for maintaining accounts.
• Financially strong
Page 18 of 70
D. Order processing
• Sales persons of C&F agents and distributors go to the retailers of their areas and
bring the order daily. After that they give order in the Corporate Office of Haldiram’s
in Mathura road to the general manager. From corporate office general manager gives
order in the factory. (Noida/Gurgaon/Mathura Road)
• As the order is ready to deliver and on confirming from the corporate office, the
goods are delivered in the trucks.
• Orders within Delhi and the places near Delhi (like Meerut) are delivered within 24
hours.
• Orders outside Delhi are delivered according to the distance. It takes from 24 hours
to 72 hours.
• Every distributor and C&F agent have a fixed day in a week to give an order.
• Haldiram’s has its own warehouse, which is managed by its own staff.
E. Physical movement of the goods
The order of Haldiram’s is delivered by truck. Haldiram’s pays the expenses for
transportation of the goods.
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Promotion
Haldiram’s product promotion had been low key until competition intensified in the
snack foods market. The company tied with ‘Profile Advertising’ for promoting its
products. Attractive posters, brochures and mailers are designed to enhance the
visibility of the Haldiram’s brand.
• Different varieties of posters are designed to appeal to the masses. The punch line
for Haldiram’s products was ‘Always in good taste’. Advertising depicting the entire
range of Haldiram’s sweets and namkeens were published in the print media
(magazines and newspapers). These advertisements had captions such as ‘millions of
tongues can’t go wrong’, ‘what are you waiting for, Diwali??’ and ‘Keeping your
taste buds on their toes’.
• To increase the visibility of the Haldiram’s brand, the company has placed its
hoardings in high traffic areas such as train stations and bus stations. Posters are
designed for display on public transport vehicles such as buses and hoardings.
• Captions are developed that focus on individual products such as ‘yeh corn hai’ (this
is corn), ‘chota samosa – big mazaa’ (small samosa- big entertainment) ‘yehkashmiri
mix khoobjamega’ and ‘oozing with taste’ (froRasgoolas) promoted individual
products.
• Special brochures are designed for those customers who want to know more about
Haldiram’s products. The brochures describe the products and give information about
the ingredients used to make those products. Mailers are also sent to loyal customers
and important corporate clients as a token of appreciation for their patronage.
• Packaging is an important aspect of Haldiram’s product promotion. Since namkeens
are impulse purchase items, attractive packaging in different colours influences
purchases. Haldiram’s uses the latest technology (food items were packed in nitrogen
filled pouches) to increase the shelf life of its products. While the normal shelf life of
a similar product is under a week, the shelf life Haldiram’s product is about six
Page 20 of 70
months. The company projects the shelf life of its products as its unique selling
proposition.
• Posters highlighting the shelf life of its products carried the caption ‘six months on
the shelf and six seconds in your mouth’.
• During festival season, Haldiram’s products are sold in attractive looking special gift
packs.
• The showrooms and retail outlets of Haldiram’s give importance to the point of
purchase (POP) displays. Haldiram’s snacks are displayed on special racks, usually
outside retail outlets. The showrooms have sign boards displaying mouth-watering
delicacies with captions such as ‘Chinese Delight’, ‘Simply South’, ‘The king of all
chats.’ Posters containing a brief account of the history of Haldiram’s along with
pictures of its products are also displayed at these showrooms.
• Haldiram’s has also diversified into the restaurant business to cash on its brand
image. The company has established 6 restaurants overall in India. The restaurant at
Nagpur devised an innovative strategy to increase its business. It facilitated people
who were traveling by train to order food from places where stockists of Haldiram’s,
Nagpur unit were located. The customer could order for lunch/dinner by sending a
demand draft or a cheque to the Nagpur unit or giving the same to specified local
distributors belonging to the Nagpur unit. Along with the DD/Cheque, customers had
to provide information such as the same name of the train, its likely time of arrival at
Nagpur, their names and coach and seat numbers.
• Haldiram’s restaurants in Delhi also use innovative ways to attract customers. The
restaurants located at Mathura and Lajpat Nagar have special play area for children.
• To cater to NRI’s and foreign tourists, who hesitate to consume snack foods sold by
the roadside vendors since they do not prepare the foods in a hygienic manner,
Haldiram’s restaurant uses specially purified water to make snack foods including
‘panipuri’ & ‘chat paapri’.
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Advertising Strategy
Haldiram’s advertisements have traditionally been copy heavy for various reasons and
do not have any face, known or otherwise, attached to them. They are graphic heavy
as well with extremely vibrant use of colour. Its advertisements earlier had a mature
approach with the base line “Always in good taste”, but of late due to a shift in target
audience the base line of the advertisements too has been changed to “har zuban pe”.
This year, an otherwise conservative company, it has upped ad budgets by more than
60% to Rs 1 crore - still a far cry though from Lays which spends over Rs 30 crore
annually. But these ads were for what it calls its `new generation products' - chips,
funchees, masala balls and Taka-tak.
A) Visual
Haldiram’s typography contains a very stylized and sophisticated font style, which
conveys the image and the personality of the brand.
The layout is picture heavy with extensive use of colour so as to make the
advertisement attractive and tempting, which is true of any food advertisement.
B) Verbal
Initial advertising of the brand contained long copy but this phenomenon has recently
changed as the company is now going in for a very precise and clear form of
communication in an informal manner.
C) Attitudinal
Haldiram’s advertisements are not attitudinal in nature but are rather formal and
mature. This trend is steadily converting into a more informal, relaxed and ‘hinglish’
style.
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The food industry in India is forever changing to suit their consumers’ palate,
preference and pocket. All the players in the industry thus, have to constantly adapt to
the ever-changing trends and invent and re-invent themselves to stay in the league.
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
• To studythe marketingstrategiesandbrand loyaltyofHaldiram’s.
• To study the marketing mix of Haldiram’s
• To study the Haldiram’s as a brand and define various brand attributes related
to Haldiram’s
• To study the behaviour of the consumer with respect to attributes such as
Brand Loyalty and come up with recommendations as to what all needs to be
considered keeping the consumer in mind
• To analyse Haldiram’s competitor and compare their strategies and come up
with recommendations for any problem being faced by it.
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LITERATURE REVIEW
A literature review is a text written by someone to consider the critical points of
current knowledge including substantive findings as well as theoretical and
methodological contributions to a particular topic. Literature reviews are secondary
sources, and as such, do not report any new or original experimental work. Also, a
literature review can be interpreted as a review of an abstract accomplishment.
Drucker 1973 “Strategic marketing as seen as a process consisting of: analysing
environmental, market competitive and business factors affecting the corporation and
its business units, identifying market opportunities and threats and forecasting future
trends in business areas of interest for the enterprise, and participating in setting
objectives and formulating corporate and business unit strategies. Selecting market
target strategies for the product-markets in each business unit, establishing marketing
objectives as well as developing, implementing and managing the marketing program
positioning strategies in order to meet market target needs”.
Hart & Stapleton 1977 " a statement in very general terms of how the marketing
objective is to be achieved, e.g. acquiring a competitive company, by price reductions,
by product improvement, or by intensive advertising. The strategy becomes the basis
of the marketing plan"
Lambin 1977 “The role of strategic marketing is to lead the firm towards attractive
economic opportunities, that is, opportunities that are adapted to its resources and
know-how and offer a potential for growth and profitability”.
Baker 1984 “The establishment of the goal or purpose of a strategic business unit and
the means by which it is to be achieved through management of the marketing
function".
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Cravens 1986 “understanding the strategic situation confronting an organization is an
essential starting point in developing a marketing strategy”
Hamper & Bough 1990 “Although definitions for the term vary, we define
marketing strategy as a consistent, appropriate and feasible set of principles through
which a particular company hopes to achieve its long-run customer and profit
objectives in a particular competitive environment”.
Aramario & Lambin 1991 “although marketing has basically a strategic conception
of the selling activity, we use to distinguish between strategic marketing and
operational marketing, depending on long term or short-term objectives. Strategic
marketing starts in thoughts about current situation of the company and situational
analysis and possible evolution of the markets and the environment, with the goal of
detecting opportunities which can establish objectives”.
Kotler 1997 “the selection of target markets, the marketing mix and the marketing
expenditure levels” ...... “The marketing strategy is the way in which the marketing
function organizes its activities to achieve a profitable growth in sales at a marketing
mix level” ........ “A marketing strategy may be defined as a plan (usually long term)
to achieve the organization’s objectives as
Follows…”
a) By specifying what resources should be allocated to marketing?
b) By specifying how these resources should be used to take advantage of
opportunities which are expected to arise in the future. “A marketing strategy would
consist of the following:
i. Identifying markets and customers’ needs in those markets.
ii. Planning products which will satisfy the needs of these markets.
iii. Organizing marketing resources, so as to match products with customers in the
most efficient and effective way possible, i.e., so as to maximize customer satisfaction
and the organizations profits or sales revenue. (Or whatever its objectives are!) at the
same time”.
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McDonald 1999“the term “marketing strategy” reflects the company’s best opinion
as to how it can most profitably apply its skills and resources to the marketplace. It is
inevitable broad in scope. Marketing strategies are the means by which a company
achieves its marketing objectives and are usually concerned with the 4 P’s”.
Jain 2000 “Strategic marketing means looking at the whole of a company’s portfolio
of products and markets, and managing the portfolio to achieve the company’s overall
goals”
Bradley 2003 “A marketing strategy consists of an internationally integrated but
externally focused set of choices about the organization addresses its customers in the
context of a competitive environment.”
Schnaars 1991 “There is no unified definition upon which marketers agree. Instead,
there are nearly as many definitions of it as there are uses of the term. Clearly,
marketing strategy is a commonly used term, but no one is really sure what it means”.
Bradley 1991 "the strategic marketing process, therefore implies deciding the
marketing strategy based on a set of objectives, target market segments, positioning
and policies".
Camara 1995“Strategy which defines the general principles for reaching objectives
related to the specific SBU’s and target markets. It contains the main directives of the
marketing expenditure, marketing actions, and resource allocation in this area. It
includes decisions like: segmentation strategies, positioning, communication. The
definition of marketing strategies referring to the marketing plan: it is one of the
sections which integrate the marketing plan and its own objective is to present an
action plan which will be utilized to reach the marketing plan objectives.”
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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
DEFINATION OF RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research refers to any original and systematic investigation undertaken in order to
increase knowledge and to establish facts and principles. It is an organized and
systematic activity and may lead to new and improved insights, development of new
products and processes. Thus, research is an organized and systematic way of finding
answers to questions or finding solutions to problems. Research is said to be
systematic because, it involves the following of definite set of steps in order to arrive
at some conclusion.
Types of Research
1. Descriptive
It includes surveys and fact finding enquires. Main aim is to describe the state of
affair as it is existing at present. The researchers have no control over variable. They
can report what has happened or what is happening. It is also known as Ex Post Facto.
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DATA COLLECTION SOURCES
The collected data should be appropriate and adequate, hence to be collected by two
methods i.e. primary and secondary.
Primary data: -
Primary source of information will be Mr. K Goyal, Sales Manager Haldiram’s. He
gave me insights into various issues such as marketing mix of Haldiram’s etc. Lot of
other people were contacted such as Haldiram’s distributors, shop keepers etc.
Secondary data: -
Secondary source of information was internet and various other articles in magazines,
pamphlets etc.
These were some of the sources through which up-to-date and relevant data was
collected. It is one of the best methods to collect data because of economy in terms of
time and money.
Secondary data was collected from text books, journal.
Tools analysis
Observation and descriptive survey methods used to collect the data about the
features, expectations, satisfaction, problems etc. the customers.
Project Design
The tool used for data collection in this project is SECONDARY DATA:
The secondary data tools used in the project are books and internet. I refused to
various articles and data on internet. The founding’s of other people were also used to
achieve appropriate data. The secondary data thus collected helped to get refined and
reliable data. This Project report is made on the basis of secondary data.
Page 28 of 70
SAMPLING DESIGN
Sampling procedure refers to the procedure by which the respondents should be
chosen. In order to obtain a representative sample, convenience- sampling method has
been used in this study without any stratification to obtain a uniform size of
respondents.
• Selection of Sample
Sample can ideally be selected as percentage of total population of respondents to
increase the accuracy and reliability of the sample. Hence, a sample size of 150
respondents was appropriate to keep sample accurate as well as manageable.
• Sampling Unit
The unit refers to the definitions of the particular person who is to be survey. In
this study the unit is the respondents, which are operating in.
Sampling Size
The present study was conducted on a sample size of ‘150’
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METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION
PURPOSE OF QUESTIONNAIRE
• They permit respondents time to consider their responses carefully without
interference from, for example, an interviewer.
• Cost. It is possible to provide questionnaires to large numbers of people
simultaneously.
• Uniformity. Each respondent receives the identical set of questions. With
closed-form questions, responses are standardised, which can assist in
interpreting from large numbers of respondents.
• Can address a large number of issues and questions of concern in a relatively
efficient way, with the possibility of a high response rate.
• Often, questionnaires are designed so that answers to questions are scored and
scores summed to obtain an overall measure of the attitudes and opinions of
the respondent.
• They may be mailed to respondents (although this approach may lower the
response rate).
• They permit anonymity. It is usually argued that anonymity increases the rate
of response and may increase the likelihood that responses reflect genuinely
held opinions.
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SWOT ANALYSIS
A. Strengths
• Haldiram’s has a large product basket for the customers to choose from. One of
the biggest reasons for their namkeen segment succeeding is the continuous
updating of their product range.
• Their brand is associated with tradition and quality.
• Their products are known among the most hygienic products available in this
segment.
• Their packaging is attractive and innovative which makes for easy discernment of
their products on the shelves, is safe and keeps contents fresh for long.
• Their production processes are semi-automated and by using state of the art
technology they have been able to increase the shelf life of their products from
one week to six months.
• They are the undisputed market leaders in the namkeen segment.
• Haldiram’s has been able to build its brand today on the basis of word of mouth
publicity, which has actually taken a lot of people by surprise.
• Approval by FDA-HACCP, ISO 9002 and SPA stand testimony to the emphasis
that Haldiram’s lays on the high quality for its products.
• Haldiram’s is aggressively trying to capture the international markets by
customizing its products and packaging according to foreign tastes.
• Though a large percentage of their consumers are middle-aged customers who are
fond of namkeens, yet they are successfully catering to all age groups and sections
of society.
• By launching small packets of their diverse namkeen products, they have
successfully penetrated the rural markets.
• Online selling of their products through indiatimes.com
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B. Weaknesses
• Haldiram’s doesn’t lay emphasis on the need to carry out market surveys either to
know the consumer needs or their feedback.
• Haldiram’s started advertising its products too late, as it is not a firm believer in
big marketing budgets and lavish promos because of which they might have lost
the initial advantage.
• The Company has no policies on Corporate Social Responsibility and
environmental norms, which may affect their Goodwill in the long run.
• The Haldiram group consists of three concerns that are independent of each other
and also there is a lack of collaboration between the three concerns, which affects
the reputation of the company and is a hindrance in its growth.
• The company is not as cash rich as its competitors, which gives its competitors an
edge.
• Company portfolio does not include western snack foods
C. Opportunities
• Though till now, Haldiram's presence in the western snack foods segment is
restricted to potato chips. It has plans to market convenience food products in the
ready-to-eat format, such as paneer, pulao, dal and vegetables.
• If the company starts associating itself with other brands, it will help strengthen
the brand image and bring in larger profits.
• Haldiram’s doesn’t have any special namkeen for the kids and teenagers’ segment,
which is a huge potential target market.
• Diversifying the namkeen product line further through constant innovation.
• Greater scope to increase market share and profits as they have just started
advertising. Opportunity to go into radio advertising leading to greater rural
penetration.
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• To cut into the unbranded sector by reducing prices to capture value conscious
customers.
• Having a premium product line to capture high-end consumers.
D. Threats
• A large number of competitors have started entering this segment which might
erode the market share of Haldiram’s. For example, companies like Frito Lay’s,
ITC, etc, which is cash rich companies, can actually undercut Haldiram’s profits
as they can afford to reduce their prices.
• As there are three concerns under the Haldiram’s group, the quality standards
differ substantially and any irresponsibility on the part of any one concern will
have a negative impact on all the three as they share the same brand name.
• Competitors such as MTR, Tasty Bites and ITC have already entered the western
snack food market and taken the initial advantage whereas except for potato chips,
Haldiram’s is still considering entering this segment.
If Haldiram’s doesn’t realize the importance of aggressive advertising, its competitors
will cut into its market share as they do advertise on a large scale
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LIMITATIONS
The following limitations are faced by the researcher during the study:
 Since sample size is only 50, which is not the true representative of the study.
 Level of accuracy of the results of research is restricted to the accuracy level
with which the customers have given their answers and the accuracy level
cannot be predicted.
 Time constraint is also there.
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CHAPTER II
COMPANY PROFILE
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A True Celebration of the Indian Spirit
Haldiram’s is a name that is as Indian as India itself. For over fifty memorable years,
Haldiram’s has dedicatedly served the Indian consumer's palate. Perhaps no other
land in this world boasts of such a vast multitude of people, with not only different
cultures but also tastes and styles of living as well. And no other brand but Haldiram’s
can boast of finding widespread acceptance with all of them.
The flagship brand, “Haldiram’s Namkeen”, a range of spicy veteran snacks, has its
finger on the pulse of this subcontinent. Not to mention, the fresh Syrups and Crushes
made from the juiciest fruits. And a colourful variety of Indian sweets, neatly packed
in compact tins.
Today, the Haldiram’s brand has become a household name across the length and
breadth of the nation. It is a name that people trust and rely upon. In fact, it wouldn't
be wrong to say that without Haldiram’s; any celebration in India is incomplete.
Haldiram’s has many ‘firsts’ to its credit. It was the first company in India to brand
‘namkeens’. The group also pioneered new ways of packaging namkeens. Its
packaging techniques increased the shelf life of namkeens from less than a week to
more than six months. It was also one of the first companies in India to open a
restaurant in New Delhi offering traditional Indian snack food items such as
“panipuri”, “chatpapri”, and so on, which catered to the needs of hygiene conscious
non-resident Indians and other foreign customers.
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Never Changing yet Ever Changing
Where else in the world can you catch a glimpse of the past and the future coexisting
peacefully? Where else but India!!
In many ways, Haldiram’s reflects this unique phenomenon. In the plants, in the work
culture and indeed in their thinking as well, where the conventional and the
contemporary go hand in hand.
If the Haldiram’s ethos dates back to vintage India, it also signifies their endeavour to
keep pace with the latest technological development anywhere in world. In fact,
Haldiram’s was the first company to strictly follow international standards of hygiene
and freshness with regular laboratory checks on the raw material and seasonings. An
advanced manufacturing plant, a fully automated processing unit and high-quality in-
house packaging are just a few other examples of their never-ending passion for
product excellence.
. The traditional Indian Sweet-Maker from a very small set up has transformed into a
full-fledged processing food industry and is taking its wares beyond the domestic
frontiers to the Western World.
Enjoyed and trusted by a million Indian families in India and overseas as well, its
salty snacks and scrumptious sweets, meet international standards of hygiene and
freshness. Haldiram’s delightful delicacies tempt the people all over the world to
share this exotic Indian treat. Their product ranges from Tasty and Nutritious
Namkeens, Delicious Sweets, Refreshing Syrups, Crunchy Papads to the snack food
items such as Tak-a-Tak.
Every day, in countries across the globe, millions choose Haldiram’s products and
bestow their confidence upon the company. Even as emerging international markets
are further enhancing their export potential, Haldiram’s priority still remains the
same: tickling, pampering, delighting and indulging the consumer’s palate the world
over.
Haldiram’s is successfully exporting its products to USA, UK, Australia, Middle East
& Far East Countries, Germany, Philippines, New Zealand, Nepal, Sri Lanka, UAE,
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France, Spain, Italy, Netherlands, Japan, etc. They are an ISO and HACCP Certified
Company and which are also approved by the FDA, USA.
The Legacy
Haldiram’s is a name traditionally associated with quality and taste in sweets and
namkeens for the past six decades in India and abroad. It made its modest start way
back in 1941 in Bikaner, Rajasthan as a family run business and even today is
privately owned by the Aggarwal family with Mr. Manohar Aggarwal as the CEO of
the North India region.
The brand name ‘HALDIRAM BHUJIAWALA’ was introduced during pre-partition
era, which is 1941, and has never looked back ever since. It ventured into the retail
industry by opening up a shop in 1983 in Chandni Chowk, which was then the
commercial hub of Delhi. The prime focus was to serve sweets and namkeens to the
direct consumers and traders.
The group comprises of three companies - HMCL, Haldiram Foods International Ltd.
(Nagpur) and Haldiram Bhujiawala Ltd., Kolkata, which share only the brand name.
They have different operational areas, with HMCL catering to the northern region.
Haldiram Foods caters to the western and southern markets and Haldiram Bhujiawala
to the eastern part.
Encouraged by the tremendous response towards its products from everyone,
Haldiram’s decided to go in for up- gradation of technology, packing and production.
This was made possible by the installation of modern, sophisticated and state-of-the-
art technology, plants and machinery. Through hard work, uncompromising quality
and dedicated service, Haldiram’s became a part of every Indian family and there
existed no such house that did not know of the brand or its products, which include
not just sweets and namkeens but syrups and snacks as well. Extensive branding
activities in the past decade are bearing fruits now, as the company is the undisputed
market leader in the namkeen segment of the snack food industry.
Even though it has come a long way from its original “halwai shop” days, the
company is still trying hard to change its traditional image and modernize it to suit a
new target audience. With the kind of infrastructure, the company has, it is already
giving the more established international brands a run for their money.
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Where is it today?
Haldiram’s has 70% of the total namkeen market share and is the leader in the
organized sweets market and has picked up in the snack food market of potato chips
with Tak-a-Tak. The company enjoys top of the mind awareness and has a loyal
customer base. The company’s exports are growing at a very positive note and the
company on a daily basis registers a 2-3% growth. The company has been registering
a 15% growth in its total sales every year.
How did it get here?
Haldiram’s reached its strong position in the market through strict quality and taste
control measures made possible by the international infrastructure facilities made
available for production by a visionary leader Mr. Manohar Aggarwal. It has come a
long way from its initial “halwai-shop” days and is now on the road to becoming a
corporate organization. It was the first snack food manufacturer to lay such high
priority on quality control and taste standardization. The company does not believe in
getting into the competitive rat race and is satisfied with its current status in the
industry.
Mission
“Our consistent quality, best packaging strategy, vast market coverage and experience
have given us a cutting edge vis-à-vis our competitors. Our natural inclination to
improve our performance and quality with each passing year has taken us way ahead
of our nearest competitor. The people at Haldiram’s are very friendly and sensitive
towards the complaints from consumers and traders, which in fact are a rare
occurrence”.
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Awards
Haldiram’s bagged the prestigious ‘INTERNATIONAL AWARD FOR FOOD &
BEVERAGES’ awarded by Trade Leaders Club in Barcelona, Spain in 1994.
The Group has also to its credit ‘KASHALKAR MEMORAIL AWARD’ presented
by All India Food Preservers Association (Regd.) in 1996 at its Golden Jubilee
Celebration for manufacturing the best quality food products.
‘BRAND EQUITY AWARD 1998’ was awarded by Progress Harmony
Development Chamber of Commerce & Industry in recognition of creating successful
Indian Brand ‘HALDIRAM’.
‘APEDA EXPORT AWARD 2001-2002’, awarded by Agricultural & Processed
Food Products Export Development Authority for the outstanding contribution to the
promotion of Agricultural & Processed Food Products during the year 2001-2002.
‘MERA DELHI AWARD – 2004’ for the exemplary contribution in the field of
export.
Certifications
Haldiram’s has the following quality certifications:
• ISO 9002
• HACCP
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Exports
Haldiram’s Group had foreseen the growth potential in the fast food industry, which
was growing by leaps and bounds. ‘Namkeens’ was one of the areas which was most
sought after and the company, without lagging behind, had set up the most modern
plant adjacent to the outlet at Main Mathura Road exclusively for the manufacture of
‘Namkeens’.
This plant was set up in the year 1997 under the stewardship of Mr. Pankaj Aggarwal,
a young, dynamic entrepreneur with a flair for modern techniques of management,
leadership, open vision and result orientation. Under the leadership of Mr. Pankaj
Aggarwal, who is currently also the Managing Director of Haldiram’s Group, the
packaging, quality and competitive pricing strategies of the company have become the
hall mark of Haldiram’s Namkeen and with the installation of state-of the-art
manufacturing equipment from the U.S.A, the company has also started
manufacturing potato products and has been able to increase its market share amongst
stiff competition from multinational giants such as Frito Lays.
Needless to say, the company is exporting its products to various parts of the World
viz. U.S.A., Canada, U.K., Europe, Middle East, Far East, Moscow, Australia, New
Zealand, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Japan, Thailand, etc. and is on the threshold of penetrating
others parts of the world, thanks to the widespread Indian community in various parts
of the world.
It is encouraging to note that the group is receiving positive enquires from prospective
clients aboard and is quite confident to fully meet their demand with positive attitude,
personalized service and quality products.
Continuous efforts are being initiated to make sure that Haldiram’s reaches the
untapped markets aboard and earns valuable foreign exchange for the country.
Haldiram’s competes on the basis of numerous factors including brand recognition
due to distinct packaging, product quality, traditional taste and authentic Indian
flavour. The company’s timely introduction of new products and line extension has
played a major part in the buying behaviour of consumers as well.
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Eleven Brand Definitions
i) Product
Haldiram’s products are traditional high-quality Indian sweets, namkeens and snack
food items at a premium yet affordable price. They were the first in India to use state-
of-the-art technology for manufacturing traditional Indian snack items thus setting
quality standards and improving the shelf life of the products as well.
ii) Brand
When it comes to sweets, namkeens and snack food items, Haldiram’s is a name
trusted across the Indian sub-continent. It is a name associated with high quality and
traditional taste.
iii) Brand Name
The brand name Haldiram’s came from the owner’s forefathers and one thing is clear,
the name has been chosen on a purely personal basis. What was chosen as a name for
the company decades ago has today revolutionized the way we look at the ethnic
snack food industry.
iv) Brand Core Values
Haldiram’s brand core values are quality, taste, variety, traditional and very Indian.
v) Brand Character
The brand character of Haldiram’s that distinguishes it from its main competitor
FRITO LAYS is its ‘traditional Indian taste’.
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vi) Brand Personality
It is not the brand alone but the manner in which the brand presents its characteristics.
Haldiram’s depicts the personality of a man, who is rooted in his tradition out of
choice and not compulsion. He is very Indian in his tastes, choices and behaviour and
puts a high premium on quality as well.
vii) Brand Position
This refers to the consumers’ placement of a company vis-à-vis its competitors.
Haldiram’s has also been rated as the second fastest growing FMCG Company in
India, has 70% of the total market share in the namkeens category and is posing to be
the biggest threat to the multinational giant FRITO LAYS in the snack food market.
As far as the sweets and namkeens are concerned it is the undisputed leader in the
organized sector.
Its position in terms of pricing is premium yet affordable. It enjoys top of the mind
recall and awareness in its target audience but this could very easily be subverted if
the company does not bring into place strong branding strategies immediately.
viii) Brand Positioning
Haldiram’s has uniquely positioned its brand. It has positioned itself as a premium
segment product available to all those who can afford it. It is in not perceived to be
cheap but does offer good value for money giving high priority to quality and taste
standardization throughout its outlets, which are suitably located in posh areas of the
city. Initially the brand catered only to the 35+ category with its positioning statement
“Always in good taste” but lately the company has started to target kids and teenagers
as well with a hinglish baseline “har zuban pe”.
Haldirams has also gained an edge over its competitors by minimizing promotion
costs. Haldirams once was just another sweet maker but it had moved into trained
brands by improving the product quality and packaging. Through its clever products
& brilliant distribution it has moved into the star category of brands.
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ix) Mnemonic
Whenever one things of a brand, the first thing that comes to the mind that reminds us
of just the brand and not the features attached to it is considered as the mnemonic for
that brand. In Haldiram’s case it is not available as yet but is under consideration. For
the time being the logo, itself could be taken as the mnemonic for the brand.
x) Brand Property
It is the memory device, which not only reminds the consumers of the brand name but
also its core values. In case of Haldiram’s the brand property would be its red and
white stylized logo and its base line “Every zuban pe” which is reminiscent of the
fact that the brand is an established one with top of the mind recall.
xi) Brand Equity
In case of Haldiram’s the brand equity is its 70% holding of the entire market for
namkeens, its undisputed leadership in the sweets category and also top of the mind
recall amongst the target audiences vis-à-vis the competitors in the sweets and
namkeen market achieved through decades of quality and taste control measures. The
taste that Haldiram’s provides through its products is very Indian and yet it maintains
international quality standards.
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CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR ANALYSIS of Haldiram’s
NAMKEENS
Ever since the Indian consumer started showing an interest in the branded and
packaged namkeens, there has been a spurt in the number of players in this segment.
Haldiram’s is the undisputed leader in this segment. But today the consumers have a
lot of options and variety to choose from and so a consumer survey is imperative to
study the buying trends and patterns.
The objectives of the undertaken study are to analyse:
• The most favourable choice of namkeens
• Factors influencing buying behaviour
• Type of Buying behaviour
• Brand loyalty
• Substitutability of the product
• Future expectations of the buyers
Customer Value Analysis
Haldiram’s
Haldiram’s being the market leader offers enormous benefits to its customers. On the
basis of the consumer behaviour survey, the highest benefit that Haldiram’s offers is
by way of hygiene and taste. Another big strength of Haldiram’s, which a factor rated
pretty high by the consumers, was Packaging. By providing fresh and tight packaging
Haldiram’s ensures that their consumers can use it for a longer period of time.
Another benefit that Haldiram’s offers is the immense variety in their product line. In
fact, in the namkeens segment itself Haldiram’s offers about 40+ varieties and ensures
that this benefit stays on by constantly innovating and coming out with new types of
namkeens. The best part is that they offer traditional snacks rather than modern
snacks, which go down very well with the Indian consumer.
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Types of Competitive Strategies
From the information based on the consumer survey, out of 150 people 136 consumed
Haldiram’s products. Since 91% of responses indicate consumption of Haldiram’s
products, we conclude that Haldiram’s is the market leader in the namkeens
segment. In the consumer survey that we had done, hygiene and taste had come out as
the highest priority factors that influence the buying behaviours. Haldiram’s adopts
the following market leader strategies.
Market leader strategies adopted by Haldiram’s
i) Increasing the total market share
Being a market leader, one of Haldiram’s strategies has been to solicit new users for
their products. They have done this by targeting the NRI’s living abroad and
exporting their namkeens there. This in turn has also helped create awareness about
their product among the non-NRI’s abroad. Its foray into the foreign markets has been
carefully strategized as in the customization of its products. Apart from this, they have
also penetrated the rural markets quiet effectively by bringing out their products in
small, affordable packets. All these new markets have helped consolidate Haldiram’s
position as a market leader.
ii) Defending Market Share:
To protect its position as market leader, Haldiram’s makes use of two defence
strategies: Position Defence and Mobile defence.
1) Position defence
Haldiram’s has built for itself quite a superior brand image, making it extremely
difficult for its competitors to break this image. Thus, the competitors have to put
in extra efforts to create a brand much more superior than Haldiram’s.
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2) Mobile defence
This involves the leader stretching its domain over new territories that can serve
as future canters for defence and offense. Under this defence, Haldiram’s follows
the ‘Market Broadening’ mobile defence. The recent establishment of their
Nagpur plant shows that they are now concentrating on the Southern region. Also,
their foray into the international market and their deeper penetration into the rural
market coupled with the introduction of their new product range like syrups,
pickles, etc.
iii) Expanding Market Share
Over the years, Haldiram’s has been diversifying its product line and entering newer
markets. This has resulted in considerably expanding the market share of Haldiram’s,
thus also substantially increasing their products.
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CHAPTER III
DATA ANALYSIS
AND
INTERPRETATION
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1. What age profile do you belong to?
TABLE 1
Age Group No. of Respondents
25-35 49
36-45 56
46-60 28
Above 60 17
INTERPRETATION
From the above table 32% respondents are belonging to the age category of 25-35yrs.
37% respondents are belonging to the category of 36-45. 19% respondents are
belonging to the category of 46-60. 12% respondents are belonging to the category of
above 60.
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2. Do you consume Haldiram’s products?
TABLE 2
Consume Haldiram products No of Respondents
Yes 136
No 14
INTERPRETATION
From the above data it is clear that most of the customers (around 91%) of Delhi and
NCR have consumed the product of Haldiram. The rest 9% have not consumed the
product of Haldiram. In response as to whether or not they consumed Haldiram’s
products, 136 of the 150 answered in the positive, which translates into almost 91% of
the sample size. This establishes the superiority and awareness of the product among
the people. Also another interesting point observed was that the three out of fourteen
who didn’t consume Haldiram’s products weren’t actually averse to Haldiram’s
products but did not consume them because they either didn’t consume namkeens
generally or had some medical constraints.
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3. What is your brand preference for namkeens?
TABLE 3
Which One Brand You Prefer No. Of Respondents
HALDIRAM 40
LAYS 30
LEHAR 23
BIKANER 33
MTR 18
OTHER 6
INTERPRETATION
From the Above data it is cleared that there are many Good Competitors of Haldiram
still surviving amongst all on the Top is the strategy of Haldiram. As we can clearly
see the most Brand Preference is given to Haldiram amongst all of its Competitors.
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4. Do you prefer local snacks?
TABLE 4
Prefer local snacks No. of respondents
yes 112
no 38
INTERPRETATION
Another point that came across was that when questioned about the consumption of
other brands, the closest competition for Haldiram’s came from Bikaner and Lays.
Also only 25% preferred local snacks when compared to branded snacks which shows
that the branded snacks segment is cutting into the unbranded segment.
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5. Since when have you been consuming Haldiram’s Products?
TABLE 5
Consuming Haldiram since No. of respondents
Less than 6months 6
6 monts-1yr 14
1yr-3yr 46
More than 3 yr 84
INTERPRETATION
56% of the respondents have been consuming Haldiram’s namkeens for over 3 years
while 30.67% have been consuming it for between 1-3 years. With the arrival of so
many competitors on the scene, even a period of year is long enough to prove brand
loyalty which is established very firmly in this case. Thus the chances of the
substitutability of the Haldiram’s namkeens by any other brand seem to be rather low
as there has been no switching of brands by any of these respondents. Those who have
tried it have maintained their loyalty towards it. This is again re-iterated by the
following chart, which depicts the perceived change in the quality of Haldiram’s
namkeens by the consumer.
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6. How would you rate the quality of Haldiram over the period of use?
TABLE 6
Comparison of quality over the period of
use
No. of respondents
Significantly Better 69
Better 46
Neutral 35
Worse 0
Significantly Worse 0
INTERPRETATION
None of the respondents subscribed to the view that the quality of Haldiram’s
namkeens has got worse. They were either neutral or found it to be
better/significantly better than before. This might be one of the reasons for the
strong brand loyalty.
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7. What factors motivated you to buy Haldiram’s products?
TABLE 7
The Influencer No. of respondents
Self 55
Ads 51
Family 26
Relatives 15
Neighbours 0
Friends 3
INTERPRETATION
On the basis of the chart above, it is evident that when it comes to buying namkeens
people tend not to get influenced by others. They rely on their own sense of
judgement to buy namkeens. However in some cases the family members tend to
influence the buying patterns of the buyer. Hence in this case there seems to be a
vacuum when it comes to the role of the ‘Influencer’. Because of this the respondent
himself also usually plays the role of the ‘Decider’.
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8. Which of these factors influence your buying behaviour of
namkeens?
TABLE 8
Factors No. of respondents
Price 6
Brand name 19
Quality 59
Taste 66
Packaging 0
INTERPRETATION
Consumers gave the highest priority to the taste of the namkeens as compared to the
other factors. Quality came in a close second on their priority list. What came, as a
surprise was that none of the respondents considered packaging as part of their
selection criteria, on which Haldiram’s usually lays so much stress.
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9. How would you rate the following factors in order of your
preference?
Table 9
FACTORS No. of Respondents
Variety 35
Food Taste & Quality 3
Hygiene 0
Nutrition Value 5
Price 50
Packaging 57
INTERPRETATION
Again, when asked to rate the importance level of six factors, the results were
interesting as most of the respondents considered ‘Packaging’ as only somewhat
important. Also the opinion on the price feature was divided as some of them
considered it being important while some others considered it somewhat important
and some even didn’t find it important. The strongest factors that influenced the buyer
while purchasing namkeens were Food taste and quality and Hygiene. The majority of
the respondents rated these two factors as being ‘Very Important’. Apart from these
consumers also considered ‘Variety’ as an ‘Important’ factor while buying Namkeens.
Nutritional value didn’t seem to have much of an effect on the buying trends as
opinion here again seems to be divided.
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10. How you find Haldiram’s price?
TABLE 10
Haldiram's price No. of respondents
Very Low 0
low 0
Reasonable 93
High 47
Very High 10
INTERPRETATION
With respect to Haldiram’s it was found that 62% of the respondents considered the
price to be reasonable. However, 38% also considered it to be high. This confusion is
however solved when viewed in the light of the following graph that analyses the
rating of various factors.
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11. Would you buy Haldiram’s products for them?
TABLE 11
Factor Rating
Packaging 89
Variety 90
Price 75
Quality 95
Hygiene 96
Taste 95
INTERPRETATION
In the above chart, the respondents were asked to rate the factors based on a 5-point
scale, 5 being the highest. The total score for each factor has been computed by
multiplying the rating with the corresponding number of respondents. Here again the
same trend of hygiene and taste being given the highest priority is reiterated. The
confusion relating to the price factor is solved as ‘Price’ gets the least priority among
the people surveyed. Hence people don’t mind paying for Haldiram’s namkeens as
long as they get a tasty and hygienic product as value for their money. Once again
Packaging, which is a top priority for Haldiram’s, fails to get top priority among the
consumers and finishes fifth on the priority list. This can be correlated to Herzberg’s
two-factor theory. The absence of good packaging may lead to dissatisfaction among
the consumers but the presence of it does not seem to create any particular satisfaction
among the consumer.
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12. How would you rate the Haldiram’s namkeens for their nutritional
value?
TABLE 12
Haldiram's Namkeens nutritional
value
No of respondents
Minimal 76
Adequate 47
Healthy 27
INTERPRETATION
When it comes to then nutritional value of Haldiram’s namkeens, 51% of the
respondents felt that the nutritional value was minimal while none of them felt that it
was healthy. But despite this the average consumer still prefers to buy Haldiram’s
namkeens thereby proving that the lack of sufficient nutritional value isn’t a deterrent
in purchasing their namkeens.
Page 60 of 70
13. Do you buy Haldiram’s gift packages?
TABLE 13
You Buy Haldiram's Gift Packages No of Respondents
Yes 82
No 68
INTERPRETATION
Haldiram’s attaches a lot of value to its gift packages offered during the festive
season. However, 45.33% of the respondents didn’t buy such packages. This shows
that the gift packages being offered don’t play such an important role on the buying
behaviour of the consumer.
Page 61 of 70
14. Do you think that is there any Significance Difference between
Haldiram's and other brands?
TABLE 14
Significance Difference No of respondents
Yes 97
No 53
INTERPRETATION
When asked to whether they found any significance difference between Haldiram’s
and any other brand, 64.66% are of the view that there does exist a significant
difference. Also, a product like namkeens involves low involvement levels while
buying. Thus, it can conclude that buying behaviour of the consumers of Haldiram’s
namkeens is the ‘Variety-seeking buying behaviour’. This translates into a positive
for Haldiram’s, as the consumers, in spite of trying different brands, seem to be
coming back to Haldiram’s.
Page 62 of 70
CHAPTER IV
Conclusions
And
Recommendations
Page 63 of 70
FINDINGS
The survey also sought to know as to what the consumers expect in the future from
Haldiram’s Namkeens and otherwise. Many creative ideas came out. With regard to
Namkeens, people are looking forward to popcorn, cheese balls, much more variety in
the wafers, banana chips, roasted nuts, etc. Many of the respondents are seeking low
calorie namkeens from Haldiram’s and there is also a demand for many more varieties
in bhujia’s. The minimal nutrition levels do not seem to be affecting the buying trends
of the consumers right now; but as people are becoming more and more health
conscious, in the future consumers might be looking forward to low calorie namkeens
and snacks from Haldiram’s. Apart from the Namkeens segment, the consumers in
general are looking forward to products like masalas, milk and milk related products,
ice creams, etc… from Haldiram’s.
CONCLUSION
The market is clogged with dominant players such as Frito-Lay India, PepsiCo’s
snack foods arm, which has almost brought in a snack-chip revolution in the country,
Haldiram’s and the Delhi-based snack-food-retailer Bikanervala Foods Pvt. Ltd. etc.
Even the dairy major Mother Dairy has a presence in the category. With the entry of
companies such as ITC and HUL into this industry, it is getting tough for companies
such as Haldiram’s who till now have not paid serious attention to its branding
activities.
Increased media exposure, ever increasing purchasing power of the target audience
coupled with their desire to spend more on eating out due to lifestyle changes will fuel
the demand for snack food items and only those companies which have a considerable
share of voice and space in the market will be able to survive. Haldiram’s has the
capability of meeting these demands and only requires a certain revision in its
strategies to be able to do so successfully, which it already has begun to consider.
There is high awareness level for different Haldiram’s products amongst the retailer.
Market share of Haldiram’s namkeen is more than double of its competitors.
Page 64 of 70
RECOMMENDATIONS
Media Mix
Haldiram’s should aim at constructing a comprehensive media mix.
• It could venture into corporate tie-ups at its various outlets.
• Set up mini outlets inside the multinational office complexes.
• Cash in on the call centre wave and have tie-ups with business process
outsourcing companies.
• Undertake catering at get together, wedding and kitty parties for women who
form a chunk of its target audience.
• Conduct road shows on various campuses nationwide.
• Company should have make endeavour in this context like Advertisement.
Page 65 of 70
BIBLIOGRAPHY
BOOKS REFFERED:
• Kotler, Philip, and Keith Kohn. Cox. Marketing Management and Strategy: a
Reader. Prentice-Hall, 1988.
• Sahadev Sunil, and Tapan k Panda, Sales & Distribution
• Quinlan, Christina, et al. Business Research Methods. Cengage Learning
EMEA, 2015.
• Batra K Satish, and Kazmi, Consumer Behaviour
• Marketing Management by Dr. C.B. GUPTA and Dr. N RAJAN NAIR
• Kothari, C.R. (2004) Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques. 2nd
Edition, New Age International Publishers, New Delhi.
NEWSPAPERS:
 The Hindu
 Times Of India
Websites:
• www.Indianfoodindustry.net
• www.haldirams.com
• www.haldiramsusa.com
• www.bikaji.com
• www.google.co.in
• www.samratnamkeen.com
• The Hindu(www.hinduonnet.com)
• Times news Network(www.economictimes.indiatimes.com)
Page 66 of 70
APPENDIX
Page 67 of 70
QUESTIONNAIRE
Q1. What age profile do you belong to?
o 15-20
o 21-24
o 31-40
o 41-50
o More than 50
Q2. Do you consume Haldiram’s products?
o Yes
o No
Q3. What is your brand preference for namkeens?
o Haldiram
o Lays
o Lehar
o Bikaner
o MTR
o Others
Q4. Do you prefer local snacks?
o Yes
o No
Page 68 of 70
Q5. Since when have you been consuming Haldiram’s Products?
o Less than 6 months
o 6 month – 1year
o 1-3 years
o Greater than 3 years
Q6. How would you rate the quality of Haldiram over the period of use?
o Significantly
o Better
o Better
o Natural
o Worse
o Significantly worse
Q7. What factors motivated you to buy Haldiram’s products?
o Friends
o Neighbours
o Relatives
o Family
o Ads
o Self
Q8. Which of these factors influence your buying bahaviour of namkeens?
o Packaging
o Quality
o Price
Q9. How would you rate the following factors in order of your preference?
o Variety
o Food taste and quality
o Hygiene
Page 69 of 70
o Nutritional value
o Price
o Packaging
Q10. How you find Haldiram’s price?
o High
o Very high
o Very low
o Low
o Reasonable
Q11. Would you buy Haldiram’s products for their
o Packaging
o Variety
o Price
o Quality
o Hygiene
o Taste
Q12. How would you rate the Haldiram’s namkeens for their nutritional value?
o Minimal
o Adequate
o Healthy
Q13. Do you buy Haldiram’s gift packages?
o Yes
o No
Page 70 of 70
Q14. Do you think that is there any significance difference between Haldiram’s
products and other brands?
o Yes
o No

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Bba project report final year

  • 1. Page 1 of 70 Project Report On “Marketing Strategies and Brand Loyalty of Haldiram in India” Report submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirement For the award of the degree of BBA Batch (2018-21) Submitted By: JANVHI SAHNI BBA Semester V Under the Guidance of: MS. MUKTA KATYAL DSPSR Delhi School of Professional Studies and Research (Affiliated to Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, New Delhi)
  • 2. Page 2 of 70 DECLARATION I take this opportunity to express my profound gratitude and deep regards to my guide (MS. MUKTA KATYAL) for her exemplary guidance, monitoring and constant encouragement throughout the course of this project. The blessing, help and guidance given by her time to time shall carry me a long way in the journey of life on which I am about embark. Last but not least, my sincere thanks to my parents and friends for their wholehearted support and encouragement. I also hereby declare that the project work entitled “MARKETING STRATEGIES AND BRAND LOYALTY OF HALDIRAM IN INDIA” under the guidance of “MS. MUKTA KATYAL” is my original work and it has not been submitted earlier in any other university or institution. JANVHI SAHNI BBA 5A
  • 3. Page 3 of 70 Certificate This is to certify that the Summer Training project titled “(MARKETING STRATEGIES AND BRAND LOYALTY OF HALDIRAM IN INDIA)” is an academic work done by MS. JANVHI SAHNI submitted in the partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of degree of Bachelor of Business Administration at Delhi School of Professional Studies and Research, New Delhi under my guidance and direction. JANVHI SAHNI has given an undertaking that the information presented in the project has not been submitted earlier. MS. MUKTA KATYAL ASSISTANT PROFESSOR
  • 4. Page 4 of 70 7th August 2020 TO WHOM IT MAY CONCERN This is to certify that MS. JANVHI SAHNI, D/O- MR. Praveen Sahni, a student of BBA(G), DELHI SCHOOL OF PROFESSIONAL STUDIES AND RESEARCH, GGSIP University, New Delhi, has successfully completed her summer internship as BRANDING EXECUTIVE from 20th June 2020 to 21st July 2020 During the period of her internship program with us, she was found punctual, hardworking and inquisitive. We wish her every success in his life. Hamant Kumar Deputy General Manager- HR Haldiram’s Snacks Pvt. Ltd. HALDIRAM’S SNACKS PVT. LTD C- 31, Sector -62, NOIDA, U.P, NOIDA – 201301 Phone no.: 011-28898010/11Email: info@haldiram.com Website: www.haldirams.com
  • 5. Page 5 of 70 TABLE OF CONTENTS S No. Particulars Page Number 1. Declaration Certificate Summer Training Certificate 2 3 4 2. Chapter I Introduction Objective of the study Literature Review Research Methodology Limitations of the study 6-22 22 23-25 26-32 33 3. CHAPTER II Company Profile 34-46 4. CHAPER III Analysis and Interpretation of Data 47-61 5. Chapter IV Conclusions and Recommendations 62-64 6. Bibliography 65 7. Appendix 66-70
  • 6. Page 6 of 70 Chapter I INTRODUCTION
  • 7. Page 7 of 70 INTRODUCTION TO THE TOPIC This report provides a detailed analysis about the company. The topic undertaken is “Marketing Strategies and Brand Loyalty of Haldiram in India”. It describes about the marketing strategies of Haldiram and the various steps that are required to increase their sales. This report provides as in-depth analysis of Haldiram. Thereafter, the report analyses Haldiram marketing Strategies and in the end suggestions and recommendations are given based on that analysis. A marketing strategy is a process that can allow an organization to concentrate its limited resources on the greatest opportunities to increase sales and achieve a sustainable competitive advantage. A marketing strategy is most effective when it is an integral component of corporate strategy, defining how the organization will successfully engage customers, prospects, and competitors in the market arena. It is partially derived from broader corporate strategies, corporate missions, and corporate goals. As the customer constitutes the source of a company's revenue, marketing strategy is closely linked with sales. A key component of marketing strategy is often to keep marketing in line with a company's overarching mission statement. Concept of Marketing It is a philosophy of marketing that entails the wants and needs of a particular market. Through the needs and wants of a market an organization can achieve its goals in terms of revenue. Achieving the desired revenue is achieved through delivering satisfaction to a buying market better than a competitor can.
  • 8. Page 8 of 70 Concept of Marketing Strategies A marketing strategy is a process that can allow an organization to concentrate its limited resources on the greatest opportunities to increase sales and achieve a sustainable competitive advantage. A marketing strategy should be centred on the key concept that customer satisfaction is the main goal. A marketing strategy is most effective when it is an integral component of corporate strategy, defining how the organization will successfully engage customers, prospects, and competitors in the market arena. Corporate strategies, corporate missions, and corporate goals. As the customer constitutes the source of a company's revenue, marketing strategy is closely linked with sales. A key component of marketing strategy is often to keep marketing in line with a company's overarching mission statement. A marketing strategy can serve as the foundation of a marketing plan. A marketing plan contains a set of specific actions required to successfully implement a marketing strategy. For example: "Use a low-cost product to attract consumers. Once our organization, via our low-cost product, has established a relationship with consumers, our organization will sell additional, higher-margin products and services that enhance the consumer's interaction with the low-cost product or service." A strategy consists of a well thought out series of tactics to make a marketing plan more effective. Marketing strategies serve as the fundamental underpinning of marketing plans designed to fill market needs and reach marketing objectives. Plans and objectives are generally tested for measurable results. A marketing strategy often integrates an organization's marketing goals, policies, and action sequences (tactics) into a cohesive whole. Similarly, the various strands of the strategy, which might include advertising, channel marketing, internet marketing, promotion and public relations, can be orchestrated. Many companies cascade a strategy throughout an organization, by creating strategy tactics that then become strategy goals for the next level or group. Each one group is expected to take that strategy goal and develop a set of tactics to achieve that goal. This is why it is important to make each strategy goal measurable.
  • 9. Page 9 of 70 Concept of Marketing Mix Marketing Mix is a combination of marketing tools that a company uses to satisfy their target customers and achieving organizational goals. McCarthy classified all these marketing tools under four broad categories: These four elements are the basic components of a marketing plan and are collectively called 4 P’s of marketing. 4 P’s pertain more to physical products than services. Below is an illustration for marketing mix. The important thing to note is that all these four P’s (variable) are controllable, subject to internal and external constraints of marketing environment. Marketers, using different blends of these variables, can target different group of customers having different needs. So, a customer may call marketing mix “the offering”. Product Haldiram’s offers a wide range of products to its customers. The product range includes namkeens, sweets sharbats, bakery items, dairy products, chips, pappad and ice creams. However, namkeens remain the main area of focus for the group as it contributes close to 60% of its total revenues. By specializing in the manufacturing in the namkeen market the company has created a niche market. The raw materials used to prepare namkeens are of best of quality and are sourced from all over India. Haldiram’s customizes its products to suit the tastes and preferences of customers from different parts of India. It launched products, which catered to the tastes of people belonging to specific regions. For example, it launched ‘Murukkus’ a south Indian Snack and Chennai Mixture’ for south Indian customers. Similarly, Haldiram’s launched ‘bhelpuri’ keeping in mind customers residing in western India. The company offered certain products such as ‘Nazarana’, ‘Panchratan’ and ‘Premium’ only during the festival season in gift packs. These measures have helped Haldiram’s
  • 10. Page 10 of 70 compete effectively in a market that is flooded with a variety of snack items in different shapes, sizes &flavours. It has also recently launched biscuits & cookies. Table on the following page shows the list of Haldiram’s products Table: Product List Namkeens 200 Gms 400 Gms • Plain Bhujia • Bhujia • Karanchy Mixture • Navrattan • Nut Cracker • KhattaMeetha • Bombay Mixture • Chana Dal • MasalaMoong Dal • Moong Dal • Boondi Masala • Boondi Plain • Dal Biji • Ghatia • Kabli Chana • BhavnagriSev • Aloo Masala • Mathri • Plain Bhhujia • Bhhujia • Navrattan • KhattaMeetha • Masala Moong Dal • Moong Dal • Nut Cracker • Dal Biji • All in One • Aloo Bhhujia • Chana Jor Garam • Kashmiri Mixture • Hara Chiwda • Cornflakes Mixture • Kaju Mixture • Panchrattan 75 Gms
  • 11. Page 11 of 70 • Samosa • Bhelpuri • All in One • Aloo Bhhujia • Nimbu Masala • Long Sev • MethiSev • Peanut Salted • Peanut Masala • Chana Jor Garam • Bombay Chana • Kashmiri Mixture • Cornflakes Mixture • Hara Chiwda Mixture • Mint Lachha • Chilli ChatakLachha • Kaju Mixture • Panchrattan • Shahi Mixture • Bhujia • Navrattan • KhattaMeetha • Moong Dal • Nut Cracker • Aloo Bhhujia • Boondi Plain • Boondi Masala • Nimbu Masala • Peanut Salted • Masala Moong Dal 30 Gms • Nut Cracker • Peanut Salted • Aloo Bhujia • Bhujia • Navrattan • Moong Dal • KhattaMeetha • Nimbu Masala 65 Gms • Kahmiri Mixture • Cornflakes Mixture • Kaju Mixture
  • 12. Page 12 of 70 Sweets Syrups (700 ML) • Rasgulla (1 Kg Tin Pack) • Jamphal (1 Kg Tin Pack) • Cham Cham (1 Kg Tin Pack) • Kesar Rasbhari (1 Kg Tin Pack) • Kalam Petha (1 Kg Tin Pack) • KeasarGanderi (1 Kg Tin Pack) • Raj Bhog (1 Kg Tin Pack) • Dry Petha • Karachi Halwa (250/500 Gms) • SoanPapdi (250/500/1000 Gms) • Soan Cake (250/500 Gms) • Rose Syrup • Khus Syrup • Orange Crush • Pineapple Crush • Lemon Crush • Mango Crush • Kala Khatta • BadamKesaria • ThandaiKesaria Perishable Sweets Can Packs • Moti ChoorLadoo/BoondiChoorLadoo • Plain Burfee • DhodaBurfee • Moong Dal Burfee • BesanLadoo • Atta Ladoo • Pinni • KajuGunjia • AnjeerBurfee • Mix Sweets • Mix Sweets 750 Gms • Bombay Mixture • Aloo Bhujia • Cornflakes Mixture • Panchrattan • KhattaMeetha Cookies • Jeera Cookies (75/300 Gms) • Atta Cookies (75/300 Gms) • Ajwain Cookies (75/300 Gms) • Coconut Cookies (75/300 Gms) • Butter Badam Cookies (75/300 Gms) • KajuPista Cookies (75/300 Gms) • Choco Chip Cookies (75/300 Gms) Gift Packs • Namkeen Nazrana • Sweet Spicy • MeethaChatpata • Thoda Sa MeethaThoda Sa Namkeen • MeetheMeethe Pal • Double Mazaa Ready to Eat Food • Panipuri (340 Gms) • Bhelpuri (160/320 Gms)
  • 13. Page 13 of 70 Pickles Chips • Mango Pickle (400/1000 Gms) • Lime Pickle (400/1000 Gms) • Chilli Pickle (400/1000 Gms) • Mix Pickle (400/1000 Gms) • Classic Salted (400/1000 Gms) • Pudina (400/1000 Gms) • Peprica (400/1000 Gms) • Mast Masala (400/1000 Gms) Price Haldirams offers its products at competitive prices in order to penetrate the huge unorganized market of namkeens and sweets. • The company pricing strategy has taken into consideration the price conscious nature of consumers in India. Haldiram’s has launched namkeens in small packets of 30 grams, priced as low as Rs. 5. The company also launched namkeens in 5 different packs with prices varying according to their weights • The prices also vary on the basis of the type of namkeens and the raw materials used to manufacture it. The cost of metalized packing also has an impact on the price, especially in the case of snack foods. • The company revises the prices of its products upwards only when there is a steep increase in the raw material costs or if additional taxes are imposed Place The Haldiram’s products are distributed all over the country and outside country also. Haldiram’s is successfully exporting its products to USA, UK, Australia, Middle East & Far East Countries, Germany, Philippines, New Zealand, Nepal, Sri Lanka, UAE, France, Spain, Italy, Holland, Japan, etc., Haldiram’s is an ISO and HACCP Certified Company and is approved by FDA, USA. • Haldiram’s has developed a strong distribution network to ensure the widest possible reach for its products in India as well as overseas. From the manufacturing unit, the company’s finished goods are passed on to the carrying & forward (C&F) agent. C&F agents pass on the products to distributors, who ship them to retail outlets. While the Delhi unit of Haldiram’s has 25 C&F agents and 700 distributors in India, the Nagpur unit has 25 C&F agents and 375 distributors. Haldiram’s also has 35 sole
  • 14. Page 14 of 70 distributors in the international market. The Delhi and Nagpur units together cater to 0.6 million retail outlets in India. • C&F agents receive a commission of around 5% while distributors earn margins ranging from 8% to 10%. The retail outlets earn margins from 14% to 30%. At retail outlet level, margins vary according to the weight of packs sold. Retailers earn more margins ranging from 25% to 30% by selling 30gms pouches (priced at Rs.5) compared to the packs of higher weights. • Apart from the exclusive showrooms owned by Haldiram’s, the company offers its products through retail outlets such as supermarkets, sweet shops, provision stores, bakeries and ice cream parlours. The products are also available in public places such as railway stations and bus stations that account for a sizeable amount of its sales. • Haldiram’s products enjoy phenomenal goodwill and stockists compete with each other to stock its products. Moreover, sweet shops and bakeries stock Haldiram’s products despite the fact that the company’s products compete with their own products.
  • 15. Page 15 of 70 A. Distribution Channel Structure Haldiram’s Organization C&F Distributor Retailer
  • 16. Page 16 of 70 Consumers Within Delhi Haldiram’s Organization Distributor Retailer Consumers
  • 17. Page 17 of 70 B. Functions Performed by the Channel Member • The main functions of different channel members are to supply goods, to achieve targets and to increase sales. • One of the main functions of C&F agents is to achieve the targets assigned to them. They are responsible for all the activities of their areas. • Maximum sale of the Haldiram’s products comes from the Nankeens and other packed products which is nearly Rs.250 crore yearly. • The sale of other goods including the sales of its entire outlet is around Rs.150 crore. C. Selection of Channel members Channels members are selected if the following facilities are available: - • Warehouse Facilities • Experience sale persons. • Van, truck, three-wheelers for transportation. • Registered office. • Proper computer facility for maintaining accounts. • Financially strong
  • 18. Page 18 of 70 D. Order processing • Sales persons of C&F agents and distributors go to the retailers of their areas and bring the order daily. After that they give order in the Corporate Office of Haldiram’s in Mathura road to the general manager. From corporate office general manager gives order in the factory. (Noida/Gurgaon/Mathura Road) • As the order is ready to deliver and on confirming from the corporate office, the goods are delivered in the trucks. • Orders within Delhi and the places near Delhi (like Meerut) are delivered within 24 hours. • Orders outside Delhi are delivered according to the distance. It takes from 24 hours to 72 hours. • Every distributor and C&F agent have a fixed day in a week to give an order. • Haldiram’s has its own warehouse, which is managed by its own staff. E. Physical movement of the goods The order of Haldiram’s is delivered by truck. Haldiram’s pays the expenses for transportation of the goods.
  • 19. Page 19 of 70 Promotion Haldiram’s product promotion had been low key until competition intensified in the snack foods market. The company tied with ‘Profile Advertising’ for promoting its products. Attractive posters, brochures and mailers are designed to enhance the visibility of the Haldiram’s brand. • Different varieties of posters are designed to appeal to the masses. The punch line for Haldiram’s products was ‘Always in good taste’. Advertising depicting the entire range of Haldiram’s sweets and namkeens were published in the print media (magazines and newspapers). These advertisements had captions such as ‘millions of tongues can’t go wrong’, ‘what are you waiting for, Diwali??’ and ‘Keeping your taste buds on their toes’. • To increase the visibility of the Haldiram’s brand, the company has placed its hoardings in high traffic areas such as train stations and bus stations. Posters are designed for display on public transport vehicles such as buses and hoardings. • Captions are developed that focus on individual products such as ‘yeh corn hai’ (this is corn), ‘chota samosa – big mazaa’ (small samosa- big entertainment) ‘yehkashmiri mix khoobjamega’ and ‘oozing with taste’ (froRasgoolas) promoted individual products. • Special brochures are designed for those customers who want to know more about Haldiram’s products. The brochures describe the products and give information about the ingredients used to make those products. Mailers are also sent to loyal customers and important corporate clients as a token of appreciation for their patronage. • Packaging is an important aspect of Haldiram’s product promotion. Since namkeens are impulse purchase items, attractive packaging in different colours influences purchases. Haldiram’s uses the latest technology (food items were packed in nitrogen filled pouches) to increase the shelf life of its products. While the normal shelf life of a similar product is under a week, the shelf life Haldiram’s product is about six
  • 20. Page 20 of 70 months. The company projects the shelf life of its products as its unique selling proposition. • Posters highlighting the shelf life of its products carried the caption ‘six months on the shelf and six seconds in your mouth’. • During festival season, Haldiram’s products are sold in attractive looking special gift packs. • The showrooms and retail outlets of Haldiram’s give importance to the point of purchase (POP) displays. Haldiram’s snacks are displayed on special racks, usually outside retail outlets. The showrooms have sign boards displaying mouth-watering delicacies with captions such as ‘Chinese Delight’, ‘Simply South’, ‘The king of all chats.’ Posters containing a brief account of the history of Haldiram’s along with pictures of its products are also displayed at these showrooms. • Haldiram’s has also diversified into the restaurant business to cash on its brand image. The company has established 6 restaurants overall in India. The restaurant at Nagpur devised an innovative strategy to increase its business. It facilitated people who were traveling by train to order food from places where stockists of Haldiram’s, Nagpur unit were located. The customer could order for lunch/dinner by sending a demand draft or a cheque to the Nagpur unit or giving the same to specified local distributors belonging to the Nagpur unit. Along with the DD/Cheque, customers had to provide information such as the same name of the train, its likely time of arrival at Nagpur, their names and coach and seat numbers. • Haldiram’s restaurants in Delhi also use innovative ways to attract customers. The restaurants located at Mathura and Lajpat Nagar have special play area for children. • To cater to NRI’s and foreign tourists, who hesitate to consume snack foods sold by the roadside vendors since they do not prepare the foods in a hygienic manner, Haldiram’s restaurant uses specially purified water to make snack foods including ‘panipuri’ & ‘chat paapri’.
  • 21. Page 21 of 70 Advertising Strategy Haldiram’s advertisements have traditionally been copy heavy for various reasons and do not have any face, known or otherwise, attached to them. They are graphic heavy as well with extremely vibrant use of colour. Its advertisements earlier had a mature approach with the base line “Always in good taste”, but of late due to a shift in target audience the base line of the advertisements too has been changed to “har zuban pe”. This year, an otherwise conservative company, it has upped ad budgets by more than 60% to Rs 1 crore - still a far cry though from Lays which spends over Rs 30 crore annually. But these ads were for what it calls its `new generation products' - chips, funchees, masala balls and Taka-tak. A) Visual Haldiram’s typography contains a very stylized and sophisticated font style, which conveys the image and the personality of the brand. The layout is picture heavy with extensive use of colour so as to make the advertisement attractive and tempting, which is true of any food advertisement. B) Verbal Initial advertising of the brand contained long copy but this phenomenon has recently changed as the company is now going in for a very precise and clear form of communication in an informal manner. C) Attitudinal Haldiram’s advertisements are not attitudinal in nature but are rather formal and mature. This trend is steadily converting into a more informal, relaxed and ‘hinglish’ style.
  • 22. Page 22 of 70 The food industry in India is forever changing to suit their consumers’ palate, preference and pocket. All the players in the industry thus, have to constantly adapt to the ever-changing trends and invent and re-invent themselves to stay in the league. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY • To studythe marketingstrategiesandbrand loyaltyofHaldiram’s. • To study the marketing mix of Haldiram’s • To study the Haldiram’s as a brand and define various brand attributes related to Haldiram’s • To study the behaviour of the consumer with respect to attributes such as Brand Loyalty and come up with recommendations as to what all needs to be considered keeping the consumer in mind • To analyse Haldiram’s competitor and compare their strategies and come up with recommendations for any problem being faced by it.
  • 23. Page 23 of 70 LITERATURE REVIEW A literature review is a text written by someone to consider the critical points of current knowledge including substantive findings as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic. Literature reviews are secondary sources, and as such, do not report any new or original experimental work. Also, a literature review can be interpreted as a review of an abstract accomplishment. Drucker 1973 “Strategic marketing as seen as a process consisting of: analysing environmental, market competitive and business factors affecting the corporation and its business units, identifying market opportunities and threats and forecasting future trends in business areas of interest for the enterprise, and participating in setting objectives and formulating corporate and business unit strategies. Selecting market target strategies for the product-markets in each business unit, establishing marketing objectives as well as developing, implementing and managing the marketing program positioning strategies in order to meet market target needs”. Hart & Stapleton 1977 " a statement in very general terms of how the marketing objective is to be achieved, e.g. acquiring a competitive company, by price reductions, by product improvement, or by intensive advertising. The strategy becomes the basis of the marketing plan" Lambin 1977 “The role of strategic marketing is to lead the firm towards attractive economic opportunities, that is, opportunities that are adapted to its resources and know-how and offer a potential for growth and profitability”. Baker 1984 “The establishment of the goal or purpose of a strategic business unit and the means by which it is to be achieved through management of the marketing function".
  • 24. Page 24 of 70 Cravens 1986 “understanding the strategic situation confronting an organization is an essential starting point in developing a marketing strategy” Hamper & Bough 1990 “Although definitions for the term vary, we define marketing strategy as a consistent, appropriate and feasible set of principles through which a particular company hopes to achieve its long-run customer and profit objectives in a particular competitive environment”. Aramario & Lambin 1991 “although marketing has basically a strategic conception of the selling activity, we use to distinguish between strategic marketing and operational marketing, depending on long term or short-term objectives. Strategic marketing starts in thoughts about current situation of the company and situational analysis and possible evolution of the markets and the environment, with the goal of detecting opportunities which can establish objectives”. Kotler 1997 “the selection of target markets, the marketing mix and the marketing expenditure levels” ...... “The marketing strategy is the way in which the marketing function organizes its activities to achieve a profitable growth in sales at a marketing mix level” ........ “A marketing strategy may be defined as a plan (usually long term) to achieve the organization’s objectives as Follows…” a) By specifying what resources should be allocated to marketing? b) By specifying how these resources should be used to take advantage of opportunities which are expected to arise in the future. “A marketing strategy would consist of the following: i. Identifying markets and customers’ needs in those markets. ii. Planning products which will satisfy the needs of these markets. iii. Organizing marketing resources, so as to match products with customers in the most efficient and effective way possible, i.e., so as to maximize customer satisfaction and the organizations profits or sales revenue. (Or whatever its objectives are!) at the same time”.
  • 25. Page 25 of 70 McDonald 1999“the term “marketing strategy” reflects the company’s best opinion as to how it can most profitably apply its skills and resources to the marketplace. It is inevitable broad in scope. Marketing strategies are the means by which a company achieves its marketing objectives and are usually concerned with the 4 P’s”. Jain 2000 “Strategic marketing means looking at the whole of a company’s portfolio of products and markets, and managing the portfolio to achieve the company’s overall goals” Bradley 2003 “A marketing strategy consists of an internationally integrated but externally focused set of choices about the organization addresses its customers in the context of a competitive environment.” Schnaars 1991 “There is no unified definition upon which marketers agree. Instead, there are nearly as many definitions of it as there are uses of the term. Clearly, marketing strategy is a commonly used term, but no one is really sure what it means”. Bradley 1991 "the strategic marketing process, therefore implies deciding the marketing strategy based on a set of objectives, target market segments, positioning and policies". Camara 1995“Strategy which defines the general principles for reaching objectives related to the specific SBU’s and target markets. It contains the main directives of the marketing expenditure, marketing actions, and resource allocation in this area. It includes decisions like: segmentation strategies, positioning, communication. The definition of marketing strategies referring to the marketing plan: it is one of the sections which integrate the marketing plan and its own objective is to present an action plan which will be utilized to reach the marketing plan objectives.”
  • 26. Page 26 of 70 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY DEFINATION OF RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research refers to any original and systematic investigation undertaken in order to increase knowledge and to establish facts and principles. It is an organized and systematic activity and may lead to new and improved insights, development of new products and processes. Thus, research is an organized and systematic way of finding answers to questions or finding solutions to problems. Research is said to be systematic because, it involves the following of definite set of steps in order to arrive at some conclusion. Types of Research 1. Descriptive It includes surveys and fact finding enquires. Main aim is to describe the state of affair as it is existing at present. The researchers have no control over variable. They can report what has happened or what is happening. It is also known as Ex Post Facto.
  • 27. Page 27 of 70 DATA COLLECTION SOURCES The collected data should be appropriate and adequate, hence to be collected by two methods i.e. primary and secondary. Primary data: - Primary source of information will be Mr. K Goyal, Sales Manager Haldiram’s. He gave me insights into various issues such as marketing mix of Haldiram’s etc. Lot of other people were contacted such as Haldiram’s distributors, shop keepers etc. Secondary data: - Secondary source of information was internet and various other articles in magazines, pamphlets etc. These were some of the sources through which up-to-date and relevant data was collected. It is one of the best methods to collect data because of economy in terms of time and money. Secondary data was collected from text books, journal. Tools analysis Observation and descriptive survey methods used to collect the data about the features, expectations, satisfaction, problems etc. the customers. Project Design The tool used for data collection in this project is SECONDARY DATA: The secondary data tools used in the project are books and internet. I refused to various articles and data on internet. The founding’s of other people were also used to achieve appropriate data. The secondary data thus collected helped to get refined and reliable data. This Project report is made on the basis of secondary data.
  • 28. Page 28 of 70 SAMPLING DESIGN Sampling procedure refers to the procedure by which the respondents should be chosen. In order to obtain a representative sample, convenience- sampling method has been used in this study without any stratification to obtain a uniform size of respondents. • Selection of Sample Sample can ideally be selected as percentage of total population of respondents to increase the accuracy and reliability of the sample. Hence, a sample size of 150 respondents was appropriate to keep sample accurate as well as manageable. • Sampling Unit The unit refers to the definitions of the particular person who is to be survey. In this study the unit is the respondents, which are operating in. Sampling Size The present study was conducted on a sample size of ‘150’
  • 29. Page 29 of 70 METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION PURPOSE OF QUESTIONNAIRE • They permit respondents time to consider their responses carefully without interference from, for example, an interviewer. • Cost. It is possible to provide questionnaires to large numbers of people simultaneously. • Uniformity. Each respondent receives the identical set of questions. With closed-form questions, responses are standardised, which can assist in interpreting from large numbers of respondents. • Can address a large number of issues and questions of concern in a relatively efficient way, with the possibility of a high response rate. • Often, questionnaires are designed so that answers to questions are scored and scores summed to obtain an overall measure of the attitudes and opinions of the respondent. • They may be mailed to respondents (although this approach may lower the response rate). • They permit anonymity. It is usually argued that anonymity increases the rate of response and may increase the likelihood that responses reflect genuinely held opinions.
  • 30. Page 30 of 70 SWOT ANALYSIS A. Strengths • Haldiram’s has a large product basket for the customers to choose from. One of the biggest reasons for their namkeen segment succeeding is the continuous updating of their product range. • Their brand is associated with tradition and quality. • Their products are known among the most hygienic products available in this segment. • Their packaging is attractive and innovative which makes for easy discernment of their products on the shelves, is safe and keeps contents fresh for long. • Their production processes are semi-automated and by using state of the art technology they have been able to increase the shelf life of their products from one week to six months. • They are the undisputed market leaders in the namkeen segment. • Haldiram’s has been able to build its brand today on the basis of word of mouth publicity, which has actually taken a lot of people by surprise. • Approval by FDA-HACCP, ISO 9002 and SPA stand testimony to the emphasis that Haldiram’s lays on the high quality for its products. • Haldiram’s is aggressively trying to capture the international markets by customizing its products and packaging according to foreign tastes. • Though a large percentage of their consumers are middle-aged customers who are fond of namkeens, yet they are successfully catering to all age groups and sections of society. • By launching small packets of their diverse namkeen products, they have successfully penetrated the rural markets. • Online selling of their products through indiatimes.com
  • 31. Page 31 of 70 B. Weaknesses • Haldiram’s doesn’t lay emphasis on the need to carry out market surveys either to know the consumer needs or their feedback. • Haldiram’s started advertising its products too late, as it is not a firm believer in big marketing budgets and lavish promos because of which they might have lost the initial advantage. • The Company has no policies on Corporate Social Responsibility and environmental norms, which may affect their Goodwill in the long run. • The Haldiram group consists of three concerns that are independent of each other and also there is a lack of collaboration between the three concerns, which affects the reputation of the company and is a hindrance in its growth. • The company is not as cash rich as its competitors, which gives its competitors an edge. • Company portfolio does not include western snack foods C. Opportunities • Though till now, Haldiram's presence in the western snack foods segment is restricted to potato chips. It has plans to market convenience food products in the ready-to-eat format, such as paneer, pulao, dal and vegetables. • If the company starts associating itself with other brands, it will help strengthen the brand image and bring in larger profits. • Haldiram’s doesn’t have any special namkeen for the kids and teenagers’ segment, which is a huge potential target market. • Diversifying the namkeen product line further through constant innovation. • Greater scope to increase market share and profits as they have just started advertising. Opportunity to go into radio advertising leading to greater rural penetration.
  • 32. Page 32 of 70 • To cut into the unbranded sector by reducing prices to capture value conscious customers. • Having a premium product line to capture high-end consumers. D. Threats • A large number of competitors have started entering this segment which might erode the market share of Haldiram’s. For example, companies like Frito Lay’s, ITC, etc, which is cash rich companies, can actually undercut Haldiram’s profits as they can afford to reduce their prices. • As there are three concerns under the Haldiram’s group, the quality standards differ substantially and any irresponsibility on the part of any one concern will have a negative impact on all the three as they share the same brand name. • Competitors such as MTR, Tasty Bites and ITC have already entered the western snack food market and taken the initial advantage whereas except for potato chips, Haldiram’s is still considering entering this segment. If Haldiram’s doesn’t realize the importance of aggressive advertising, its competitors will cut into its market share as they do advertise on a large scale
  • 33. Page 33 of 70 LIMITATIONS The following limitations are faced by the researcher during the study:  Since sample size is only 50, which is not the true representative of the study.  Level of accuracy of the results of research is restricted to the accuracy level with which the customers have given their answers and the accuracy level cannot be predicted.  Time constraint is also there.
  • 34. Page 34 of 70 CHAPTER II COMPANY PROFILE
  • 35. Page 35 of 70 A True Celebration of the Indian Spirit Haldiram’s is a name that is as Indian as India itself. For over fifty memorable years, Haldiram’s has dedicatedly served the Indian consumer's palate. Perhaps no other land in this world boasts of such a vast multitude of people, with not only different cultures but also tastes and styles of living as well. And no other brand but Haldiram’s can boast of finding widespread acceptance with all of them. The flagship brand, “Haldiram’s Namkeen”, a range of spicy veteran snacks, has its finger on the pulse of this subcontinent. Not to mention, the fresh Syrups and Crushes made from the juiciest fruits. And a colourful variety of Indian sweets, neatly packed in compact tins. Today, the Haldiram’s brand has become a household name across the length and breadth of the nation. It is a name that people trust and rely upon. In fact, it wouldn't be wrong to say that without Haldiram’s; any celebration in India is incomplete. Haldiram’s has many ‘firsts’ to its credit. It was the first company in India to brand ‘namkeens’. The group also pioneered new ways of packaging namkeens. Its packaging techniques increased the shelf life of namkeens from less than a week to more than six months. It was also one of the first companies in India to open a restaurant in New Delhi offering traditional Indian snack food items such as “panipuri”, “chatpapri”, and so on, which catered to the needs of hygiene conscious non-resident Indians and other foreign customers.
  • 36. Page 36 of 70 Never Changing yet Ever Changing Where else in the world can you catch a glimpse of the past and the future coexisting peacefully? Where else but India!! In many ways, Haldiram’s reflects this unique phenomenon. In the plants, in the work culture and indeed in their thinking as well, where the conventional and the contemporary go hand in hand. If the Haldiram’s ethos dates back to vintage India, it also signifies their endeavour to keep pace with the latest technological development anywhere in world. In fact, Haldiram’s was the first company to strictly follow international standards of hygiene and freshness with regular laboratory checks on the raw material and seasonings. An advanced manufacturing plant, a fully automated processing unit and high-quality in- house packaging are just a few other examples of their never-ending passion for product excellence. . The traditional Indian Sweet-Maker from a very small set up has transformed into a full-fledged processing food industry and is taking its wares beyond the domestic frontiers to the Western World. Enjoyed and trusted by a million Indian families in India and overseas as well, its salty snacks and scrumptious sweets, meet international standards of hygiene and freshness. Haldiram’s delightful delicacies tempt the people all over the world to share this exotic Indian treat. Their product ranges from Tasty and Nutritious Namkeens, Delicious Sweets, Refreshing Syrups, Crunchy Papads to the snack food items such as Tak-a-Tak. Every day, in countries across the globe, millions choose Haldiram’s products and bestow their confidence upon the company. Even as emerging international markets are further enhancing their export potential, Haldiram’s priority still remains the same: tickling, pampering, delighting and indulging the consumer’s palate the world over. Haldiram’s is successfully exporting its products to USA, UK, Australia, Middle East & Far East Countries, Germany, Philippines, New Zealand, Nepal, Sri Lanka, UAE,
  • 37. Page 37 of 70 France, Spain, Italy, Netherlands, Japan, etc. They are an ISO and HACCP Certified Company and which are also approved by the FDA, USA. The Legacy Haldiram’s is a name traditionally associated with quality and taste in sweets and namkeens for the past six decades in India and abroad. It made its modest start way back in 1941 in Bikaner, Rajasthan as a family run business and even today is privately owned by the Aggarwal family with Mr. Manohar Aggarwal as the CEO of the North India region. The brand name ‘HALDIRAM BHUJIAWALA’ was introduced during pre-partition era, which is 1941, and has never looked back ever since. It ventured into the retail industry by opening up a shop in 1983 in Chandni Chowk, which was then the commercial hub of Delhi. The prime focus was to serve sweets and namkeens to the direct consumers and traders. The group comprises of three companies - HMCL, Haldiram Foods International Ltd. (Nagpur) and Haldiram Bhujiawala Ltd., Kolkata, which share only the brand name. They have different operational areas, with HMCL catering to the northern region. Haldiram Foods caters to the western and southern markets and Haldiram Bhujiawala to the eastern part. Encouraged by the tremendous response towards its products from everyone, Haldiram’s decided to go in for up- gradation of technology, packing and production. This was made possible by the installation of modern, sophisticated and state-of-the- art technology, plants and machinery. Through hard work, uncompromising quality and dedicated service, Haldiram’s became a part of every Indian family and there existed no such house that did not know of the brand or its products, which include not just sweets and namkeens but syrups and snacks as well. Extensive branding activities in the past decade are bearing fruits now, as the company is the undisputed market leader in the namkeen segment of the snack food industry. Even though it has come a long way from its original “halwai shop” days, the company is still trying hard to change its traditional image and modernize it to suit a new target audience. With the kind of infrastructure, the company has, it is already giving the more established international brands a run for their money.
  • 38. Page 38 of 70 Where is it today? Haldiram’s has 70% of the total namkeen market share and is the leader in the organized sweets market and has picked up in the snack food market of potato chips with Tak-a-Tak. The company enjoys top of the mind awareness and has a loyal customer base. The company’s exports are growing at a very positive note and the company on a daily basis registers a 2-3% growth. The company has been registering a 15% growth in its total sales every year. How did it get here? Haldiram’s reached its strong position in the market through strict quality and taste control measures made possible by the international infrastructure facilities made available for production by a visionary leader Mr. Manohar Aggarwal. It has come a long way from its initial “halwai-shop” days and is now on the road to becoming a corporate organization. It was the first snack food manufacturer to lay such high priority on quality control and taste standardization. The company does not believe in getting into the competitive rat race and is satisfied with its current status in the industry. Mission “Our consistent quality, best packaging strategy, vast market coverage and experience have given us a cutting edge vis-à-vis our competitors. Our natural inclination to improve our performance and quality with each passing year has taken us way ahead of our nearest competitor. The people at Haldiram’s are very friendly and sensitive towards the complaints from consumers and traders, which in fact are a rare occurrence”.
  • 39. Page 39 of 70 Awards Haldiram’s bagged the prestigious ‘INTERNATIONAL AWARD FOR FOOD & BEVERAGES’ awarded by Trade Leaders Club in Barcelona, Spain in 1994. The Group has also to its credit ‘KASHALKAR MEMORAIL AWARD’ presented by All India Food Preservers Association (Regd.) in 1996 at its Golden Jubilee Celebration for manufacturing the best quality food products. ‘BRAND EQUITY AWARD 1998’ was awarded by Progress Harmony Development Chamber of Commerce & Industry in recognition of creating successful Indian Brand ‘HALDIRAM’. ‘APEDA EXPORT AWARD 2001-2002’, awarded by Agricultural & Processed Food Products Export Development Authority for the outstanding contribution to the promotion of Agricultural & Processed Food Products during the year 2001-2002. ‘MERA DELHI AWARD – 2004’ for the exemplary contribution in the field of export. Certifications Haldiram’s has the following quality certifications: • ISO 9002 • HACCP
  • 40. Page 40 of 70 Exports Haldiram’s Group had foreseen the growth potential in the fast food industry, which was growing by leaps and bounds. ‘Namkeens’ was one of the areas which was most sought after and the company, without lagging behind, had set up the most modern plant adjacent to the outlet at Main Mathura Road exclusively for the manufacture of ‘Namkeens’. This plant was set up in the year 1997 under the stewardship of Mr. Pankaj Aggarwal, a young, dynamic entrepreneur with a flair for modern techniques of management, leadership, open vision and result orientation. Under the leadership of Mr. Pankaj Aggarwal, who is currently also the Managing Director of Haldiram’s Group, the packaging, quality and competitive pricing strategies of the company have become the hall mark of Haldiram’s Namkeen and with the installation of state-of the-art manufacturing equipment from the U.S.A, the company has also started manufacturing potato products and has been able to increase its market share amongst stiff competition from multinational giants such as Frito Lays. Needless to say, the company is exporting its products to various parts of the World viz. U.S.A., Canada, U.K., Europe, Middle East, Far East, Moscow, Australia, New Zealand, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Japan, Thailand, etc. and is on the threshold of penetrating others parts of the world, thanks to the widespread Indian community in various parts of the world. It is encouraging to note that the group is receiving positive enquires from prospective clients aboard and is quite confident to fully meet their demand with positive attitude, personalized service and quality products. Continuous efforts are being initiated to make sure that Haldiram’s reaches the untapped markets aboard and earns valuable foreign exchange for the country. Haldiram’s competes on the basis of numerous factors including brand recognition due to distinct packaging, product quality, traditional taste and authentic Indian flavour. The company’s timely introduction of new products and line extension has played a major part in the buying behaviour of consumers as well.
  • 41. Page 41 of 70 Eleven Brand Definitions i) Product Haldiram’s products are traditional high-quality Indian sweets, namkeens and snack food items at a premium yet affordable price. They were the first in India to use state- of-the-art technology for manufacturing traditional Indian snack items thus setting quality standards and improving the shelf life of the products as well. ii) Brand When it comes to sweets, namkeens and snack food items, Haldiram’s is a name trusted across the Indian sub-continent. It is a name associated with high quality and traditional taste. iii) Brand Name The brand name Haldiram’s came from the owner’s forefathers and one thing is clear, the name has been chosen on a purely personal basis. What was chosen as a name for the company decades ago has today revolutionized the way we look at the ethnic snack food industry. iv) Brand Core Values Haldiram’s brand core values are quality, taste, variety, traditional and very Indian. v) Brand Character The brand character of Haldiram’s that distinguishes it from its main competitor FRITO LAYS is its ‘traditional Indian taste’.
  • 42. Page 42 of 70 vi) Brand Personality It is not the brand alone but the manner in which the brand presents its characteristics. Haldiram’s depicts the personality of a man, who is rooted in his tradition out of choice and not compulsion. He is very Indian in his tastes, choices and behaviour and puts a high premium on quality as well. vii) Brand Position This refers to the consumers’ placement of a company vis-à-vis its competitors. Haldiram’s has also been rated as the second fastest growing FMCG Company in India, has 70% of the total market share in the namkeens category and is posing to be the biggest threat to the multinational giant FRITO LAYS in the snack food market. As far as the sweets and namkeens are concerned it is the undisputed leader in the organized sector. Its position in terms of pricing is premium yet affordable. It enjoys top of the mind recall and awareness in its target audience but this could very easily be subverted if the company does not bring into place strong branding strategies immediately. viii) Brand Positioning Haldiram’s has uniquely positioned its brand. It has positioned itself as a premium segment product available to all those who can afford it. It is in not perceived to be cheap but does offer good value for money giving high priority to quality and taste standardization throughout its outlets, which are suitably located in posh areas of the city. Initially the brand catered only to the 35+ category with its positioning statement “Always in good taste” but lately the company has started to target kids and teenagers as well with a hinglish baseline “har zuban pe”. Haldirams has also gained an edge over its competitors by minimizing promotion costs. Haldirams once was just another sweet maker but it had moved into trained brands by improving the product quality and packaging. Through its clever products & brilliant distribution it has moved into the star category of brands.
  • 43. Page 43 of 70 ix) Mnemonic Whenever one things of a brand, the first thing that comes to the mind that reminds us of just the brand and not the features attached to it is considered as the mnemonic for that brand. In Haldiram’s case it is not available as yet but is under consideration. For the time being the logo, itself could be taken as the mnemonic for the brand. x) Brand Property It is the memory device, which not only reminds the consumers of the brand name but also its core values. In case of Haldiram’s the brand property would be its red and white stylized logo and its base line “Every zuban pe” which is reminiscent of the fact that the brand is an established one with top of the mind recall. xi) Brand Equity In case of Haldiram’s the brand equity is its 70% holding of the entire market for namkeens, its undisputed leadership in the sweets category and also top of the mind recall amongst the target audiences vis-à-vis the competitors in the sweets and namkeen market achieved through decades of quality and taste control measures. The taste that Haldiram’s provides through its products is very Indian and yet it maintains international quality standards.
  • 44. Page 44 of 70 CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR ANALYSIS of Haldiram’s NAMKEENS Ever since the Indian consumer started showing an interest in the branded and packaged namkeens, there has been a spurt in the number of players in this segment. Haldiram’s is the undisputed leader in this segment. But today the consumers have a lot of options and variety to choose from and so a consumer survey is imperative to study the buying trends and patterns. The objectives of the undertaken study are to analyse: • The most favourable choice of namkeens • Factors influencing buying behaviour • Type of Buying behaviour • Brand loyalty • Substitutability of the product • Future expectations of the buyers Customer Value Analysis Haldiram’s Haldiram’s being the market leader offers enormous benefits to its customers. On the basis of the consumer behaviour survey, the highest benefit that Haldiram’s offers is by way of hygiene and taste. Another big strength of Haldiram’s, which a factor rated pretty high by the consumers, was Packaging. By providing fresh and tight packaging Haldiram’s ensures that their consumers can use it for a longer period of time. Another benefit that Haldiram’s offers is the immense variety in their product line. In fact, in the namkeens segment itself Haldiram’s offers about 40+ varieties and ensures that this benefit stays on by constantly innovating and coming out with new types of namkeens. The best part is that they offer traditional snacks rather than modern snacks, which go down very well with the Indian consumer.
  • 45. Page 45 of 70 Types of Competitive Strategies From the information based on the consumer survey, out of 150 people 136 consumed Haldiram’s products. Since 91% of responses indicate consumption of Haldiram’s products, we conclude that Haldiram’s is the market leader in the namkeens segment. In the consumer survey that we had done, hygiene and taste had come out as the highest priority factors that influence the buying behaviours. Haldiram’s adopts the following market leader strategies. Market leader strategies adopted by Haldiram’s i) Increasing the total market share Being a market leader, one of Haldiram’s strategies has been to solicit new users for their products. They have done this by targeting the NRI’s living abroad and exporting their namkeens there. This in turn has also helped create awareness about their product among the non-NRI’s abroad. Its foray into the foreign markets has been carefully strategized as in the customization of its products. Apart from this, they have also penetrated the rural markets quiet effectively by bringing out their products in small, affordable packets. All these new markets have helped consolidate Haldiram’s position as a market leader. ii) Defending Market Share: To protect its position as market leader, Haldiram’s makes use of two defence strategies: Position Defence and Mobile defence. 1) Position defence Haldiram’s has built for itself quite a superior brand image, making it extremely difficult for its competitors to break this image. Thus, the competitors have to put in extra efforts to create a brand much more superior than Haldiram’s.
  • 46. Page 46 of 70 2) Mobile defence This involves the leader stretching its domain over new territories that can serve as future canters for defence and offense. Under this defence, Haldiram’s follows the ‘Market Broadening’ mobile defence. The recent establishment of their Nagpur plant shows that they are now concentrating on the Southern region. Also, their foray into the international market and their deeper penetration into the rural market coupled with the introduction of their new product range like syrups, pickles, etc. iii) Expanding Market Share Over the years, Haldiram’s has been diversifying its product line and entering newer markets. This has resulted in considerably expanding the market share of Haldiram’s, thus also substantially increasing their products.
  • 47. Page 47 of 70 CHAPTER III DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
  • 48. Page 48 of 70 1. What age profile do you belong to? TABLE 1 Age Group No. of Respondents 25-35 49 36-45 56 46-60 28 Above 60 17 INTERPRETATION From the above table 32% respondents are belonging to the age category of 25-35yrs. 37% respondents are belonging to the category of 36-45. 19% respondents are belonging to the category of 46-60. 12% respondents are belonging to the category of above 60.
  • 49. Page 49 of 70 2. Do you consume Haldiram’s products? TABLE 2 Consume Haldiram products No of Respondents Yes 136 No 14 INTERPRETATION From the above data it is clear that most of the customers (around 91%) of Delhi and NCR have consumed the product of Haldiram. The rest 9% have not consumed the product of Haldiram. In response as to whether or not they consumed Haldiram’s products, 136 of the 150 answered in the positive, which translates into almost 91% of the sample size. This establishes the superiority and awareness of the product among the people. Also another interesting point observed was that the three out of fourteen who didn’t consume Haldiram’s products weren’t actually averse to Haldiram’s products but did not consume them because they either didn’t consume namkeens generally or had some medical constraints.
  • 50. Page 50 of 70 3. What is your brand preference for namkeens? TABLE 3 Which One Brand You Prefer No. Of Respondents HALDIRAM 40 LAYS 30 LEHAR 23 BIKANER 33 MTR 18 OTHER 6 INTERPRETATION From the Above data it is cleared that there are many Good Competitors of Haldiram still surviving amongst all on the Top is the strategy of Haldiram. As we can clearly see the most Brand Preference is given to Haldiram amongst all of its Competitors.
  • 51. Page 51 of 70 4. Do you prefer local snacks? TABLE 4 Prefer local snacks No. of respondents yes 112 no 38 INTERPRETATION Another point that came across was that when questioned about the consumption of other brands, the closest competition for Haldiram’s came from Bikaner and Lays. Also only 25% preferred local snacks when compared to branded snacks which shows that the branded snacks segment is cutting into the unbranded segment.
  • 52. Page 52 of 70 5. Since when have you been consuming Haldiram’s Products? TABLE 5 Consuming Haldiram since No. of respondents Less than 6months 6 6 monts-1yr 14 1yr-3yr 46 More than 3 yr 84 INTERPRETATION 56% of the respondents have been consuming Haldiram’s namkeens for over 3 years while 30.67% have been consuming it for between 1-3 years. With the arrival of so many competitors on the scene, even a period of year is long enough to prove brand loyalty which is established very firmly in this case. Thus the chances of the substitutability of the Haldiram’s namkeens by any other brand seem to be rather low as there has been no switching of brands by any of these respondents. Those who have tried it have maintained their loyalty towards it. This is again re-iterated by the following chart, which depicts the perceived change in the quality of Haldiram’s namkeens by the consumer.
  • 53. Page 53 of 70 6. How would you rate the quality of Haldiram over the period of use? TABLE 6 Comparison of quality over the period of use No. of respondents Significantly Better 69 Better 46 Neutral 35 Worse 0 Significantly Worse 0 INTERPRETATION None of the respondents subscribed to the view that the quality of Haldiram’s namkeens has got worse. They were either neutral or found it to be better/significantly better than before. This might be one of the reasons for the strong brand loyalty.
  • 54. Page 54 of 70 7. What factors motivated you to buy Haldiram’s products? TABLE 7 The Influencer No. of respondents Self 55 Ads 51 Family 26 Relatives 15 Neighbours 0 Friends 3 INTERPRETATION On the basis of the chart above, it is evident that when it comes to buying namkeens people tend not to get influenced by others. They rely on their own sense of judgement to buy namkeens. However in some cases the family members tend to influence the buying patterns of the buyer. Hence in this case there seems to be a vacuum when it comes to the role of the ‘Influencer’. Because of this the respondent himself also usually plays the role of the ‘Decider’.
  • 55. Page 55 of 70 8. Which of these factors influence your buying behaviour of namkeens? TABLE 8 Factors No. of respondents Price 6 Brand name 19 Quality 59 Taste 66 Packaging 0 INTERPRETATION Consumers gave the highest priority to the taste of the namkeens as compared to the other factors. Quality came in a close second on their priority list. What came, as a surprise was that none of the respondents considered packaging as part of their selection criteria, on which Haldiram’s usually lays so much stress.
  • 56. Page 56 of 70 9. How would you rate the following factors in order of your preference? Table 9 FACTORS No. of Respondents Variety 35 Food Taste & Quality 3 Hygiene 0 Nutrition Value 5 Price 50 Packaging 57 INTERPRETATION Again, when asked to rate the importance level of six factors, the results were interesting as most of the respondents considered ‘Packaging’ as only somewhat important. Also the opinion on the price feature was divided as some of them considered it being important while some others considered it somewhat important and some even didn’t find it important. The strongest factors that influenced the buyer while purchasing namkeens were Food taste and quality and Hygiene. The majority of the respondents rated these two factors as being ‘Very Important’. Apart from these consumers also considered ‘Variety’ as an ‘Important’ factor while buying Namkeens. Nutritional value didn’t seem to have much of an effect on the buying trends as opinion here again seems to be divided.
  • 57. Page 57 of 70 10. How you find Haldiram’s price? TABLE 10 Haldiram's price No. of respondents Very Low 0 low 0 Reasonable 93 High 47 Very High 10 INTERPRETATION With respect to Haldiram’s it was found that 62% of the respondents considered the price to be reasonable. However, 38% also considered it to be high. This confusion is however solved when viewed in the light of the following graph that analyses the rating of various factors.
  • 58. Page 58 of 70 11. Would you buy Haldiram’s products for them? TABLE 11 Factor Rating Packaging 89 Variety 90 Price 75 Quality 95 Hygiene 96 Taste 95 INTERPRETATION In the above chart, the respondents were asked to rate the factors based on a 5-point scale, 5 being the highest. The total score for each factor has been computed by multiplying the rating with the corresponding number of respondents. Here again the same trend of hygiene and taste being given the highest priority is reiterated. The confusion relating to the price factor is solved as ‘Price’ gets the least priority among the people surveyed. Hence people don’t mind paying for Haldiram’s namkeens as long as they get a tasty and hygienic product as value for their money. Once again Packaging, which is a top priority for Haldiram’s, fails to get top priority among the consumers and finishes fifth on the priority list. This can be correlated to Herzberg’s two-factor theory. The absence of good packaging may lead to dissatisfaction among the consumers but the presence of it does not seem to create any particular satisfaction among the consumer.
  • 59. Page 59 of 70 12. How would you rate the Haldiram’s namkeens for their nutritional value? TABLE 12 Haldiram's Namkeens nutritional value No of respondents Minimal 76 Adequate 47 Healthy 27 INTERPRETATION When it comes to then nutritional value of Haldiram’s namkeens, 51% of the respondents felt that the nutritional value was minimal while none of them felt that it was healthy. But despite this the average consumer still prefers to buy Haldiram’s namkeens thereby proving that the lack of sufficient nutritional value isn’t a deterrent in purchasing their namkeens.
  • 60. Page 60 of 70 13. Do you buy Haldiram’s gift packages? TABLE 13 You Buy Haldiram's Gift Packages No of Respondents Yes 82 No 68 INTERPRETATION Haldiram’s attaches a lot of value to its gift packages offered during the festive season. However, 45.33% of the respondents didn’t buy such packages. This shows that the gift packages being offered don’t play such an important role on the buying behaviour of the consumer.
  • 61. Page 61 of 70 14. Do you think that is there any Significance Difference between Haldiram's and other brands? TABLE 14 Significance Difference No of respondents Yes 97 No 53 INTERPRETATION When asked to whether they found any significance difference between Haldiram’s and any other brand, 64.66% are of the view that there does exist a significant difference. Also, a product like namkeens involves low involvement levels while buying. Thus, it can conclude that buying behaviour of the consumers of Haldiram’s namkeens is the ‘Variety-seeking buying behaviour’. This translates into a positive for Haldiram’s, as the consumers, in spite of trying different brands, seem to be coming back to Haldiram’s.
  • 62. Page 62 of 70 CHAPTER IV Conclusions And Recommendations
  • 63. Page 63 of 70 FINDINGS The survey also sought to know as to what the consumers expect in the future from Haldiram’s Namkeens and otherwise. Many creative ideas came out. With regard to Namkeens, people are looking forward to popcorn, cheese balls, much more variety in the wafers, banana chips, roasted nuts, etc. Many of the respondents are seeking low calorie namkeens from Haldiram’s and there is also a demand for many more varieties in bhujia’s. The minimal nutrition levels do not seem to be affecting the buying trends of the consumers right now; but as people are becoming more and more health conscious, in the future consumers might be looking forward to low calorie namkeens and snacks from Haldiram’s. Apart from the Namkeens segment, the consumers in general are looking forward to products like masalas, milk and milk related products, ice creams, etc… from Haldiram’s. CONCLUSION The market is clogged with dominant players such as Frito-Lay India, PepsiCo’s snack foods arm, which has almost brought in a snack-chip revolution in the country, Haldiram’s and the Delhi-based snack-food-retailer Bikanervala Foods Pvt. Ltd. etc. Even the dairy major Mother Dairy has a presence in the category. With the entry of companies such as ITC and HUL into this industry, it is getting tough for companies such as Haldiram’s who till now have not paid serious attention to its branding activities. Increased media exposure, ever increasing purchasing power of the target audience coupled with their desire to spend more on eating out due to lifestyle changes will fuel the demand for snack food items and only those companies which have a considerable share of voice and space in the market will be able to survive. Haldiram’s has the capability of meeting these demands and only requires a certain revision in its strategies to be able to do so successfully, which it already has begun to consider. There is high awareness level for different Haldiram’s products amongst the retailer. Market share of Haldiram’s namkeen is more than double of its competitors.
  • 64. Page 64 of 70 RECOMMENDATIONS Media Mix Haldiram’s should aim at constructing a comprehensive media mix. • It could venture into corporate tie-ups at its various outlets. • Set up mini outlets inside the multinational office complexes. • Cash in on the call centre wave and have tie-ups with business process outsourcing companies. • Undertake catering at get together, wedding and kitty parties for women who form a chunk of its target audience. • Conduct road shows on various campuses nationwide. • Company should have make endeavour in this context like Advertisement.
  • 65. Page 65 of 70 BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS REFFERED: • Kotler, Philip, and Keith Kohn. Cox. Marketing Management and Strategy: a Reader. Prentice-Hall, 1988. • Sahadev Sunil, and Tapan k Panda, Sales & Distribution • Quinlan, Christina, et al. Business Research Methods. Cengage Learning EMEA, 2015. • Batra K Satish, and Kazmi, Consumer Behaviour • Marketing Management by Dr. C.B. GUPTA and Dr. N RAJAN NAIR • Kothari, C.R. (2004) Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques. 2nd Edition, New Age International Publishers, New Delhi. NEWSPAPERS:  The Hindu  Times Of India Websites: • www.Indianfoodindustry.net • www.haldirams.com • www.haldiramsusa.com • www.bikaji.com • www.google.co.in • www.samratnamkeen.com • The Hindu(www.hinduonnet.com) • Times news Network(www.economictimes.indiatimes.com)
  • 66. Page 66 of 70 APPENDIX
  • 67. Page 67 of 70 QUESTIONNAIRE Q1. What age profile do you belong to? o 15-20 o 21-24 o 31-40 o 41-50 o More than 50 Q2. Do you consume Haldiram’s products? o Yes o No Q3. What is your brand preference for namkeens? o Haldiram o Lays o Lehar o Bikaner o MTR o Others Q4. Do you prefer local snacks? o Yes o No
  • 68. Page 68 of 70 Q5. Since when have you been consuming Haldiram’s Products? o Less than 6 months o 6 month – 1year o 1-3 years o Greater than 3 years Q6. How would you rate the quality of Haldiram over the period of use? o Significantly o Better o Better o Natural o Worse o Significantly worse Q7. What factors motivated you to buy Haldiram’s products? o Friends o Neighbours o Relatives o Family o Ads o Self Q8. Which of these factors influence your buying bahaviour of namkeens? o Packaging o Quality o Price Q9. How would you rate the following factors in order of your preference? o Variety o Food taste and quality o Hygiene
  • 69. Page 69 of 70 o Nutritional value o Price o Packaging Q10. How you find Haldiram’s price? o High o Very high o Very low o Low o Reasonable Q11. Would you buy Haldiram’s products for their o Packaging o Variety o Price o Quality o Hygiene o Taste Q12. How would you rate the Haldiram’s namkeens for their nutritional value? o Minimal o Adequate o Healthy Q13. Do you buy Haldiram’s gift packages? o Yes o No
  • 70. Page 70 of 70 Q14. Do you think that is there any significance difference between Haldiram’s products and other brands? o Yes o No