word – “ swelling”
A tumor is commonly used as a synonym
for a neoplasm that appears enlarged in
It is an abnormal mass of tissue which may
be solid or fluid- filled.
factorsTransformation of normal cells to malignant
growth probably results from a variety of
different processesa)Alteration in the expression of protooncogenes
b)Inactivation of expression of tumour
b) Over expression of genes controlling
based on the tissue of origin.
Neuroepithelial Astrocytes- Astrocytoma
Ependymal cells and choroid plexusEpendymoma
Choroid plexus papilloma
Neurocytoma or ganglioglioma or
Pineal cells- Pineocytoma or pineoblastoma
Poorly differentiated and embryonal cellsMedulloblastoma
tend to develop insidiously,
gradually progressing over a few weeks or
years, depending on the degree of malignancy.
tumours are considered in relation
to these common clinical manifestation:
in mental function
and signs of general cerebral
impairment and increased pressure occur
late or not at all.
disorders, characterized by
multiorgan malformations and tumours.
of central nervous system that
additionally result in lesions on the skin
and the eye.
sclerosis an autosomal
Many children born with TS are the first
cases in a family.
Majority of TS is caused by a new gene
Gene localized to chromosome 9 and 16.
is an autosomal dominant condition
Gene on chromosome 17.
NF2- autosomal dominant conditon
Gene on chromosome 22.
may also be the result of a new gene
change. Half of NF cases are caused by a new
Males and females are equally affected.
Schwannomatosis- a recently recognized form
of NF that is genetically distinct from NF1 and
It occurs rarely.
cause of Sturge-Weber disease is
unknown and is considered to be sporadic.
Ataxia telangiectasia is autosomal
Mutation in the ATM gene- chromosome
There are three distinct types of NF,
classified as NF I, NF II, and
NF1 It is characterized by café au lait spots and
Von Recklinghausen’s disease.
Neurological manifestations Mental retardation and Epilepsy- 15%
NF2 It is autosomal dominant disorder
characterized by tumours of the 8th cranial
nerve ( vestibular division).
Café au lait spots – rare
The primary feature is the growth of
multiple schwannomas throughout the
body except the vestibular nerve is not
Extremely intense pain- main symptom.
Tingling or weakness in the fingers and
dominant disorder with high
sporadic mutation rate.
Characterized by cutaneous, neurologic,
renal, skeletal, cardiac and pulmonary
in the cerebellum,
spinal canal and retina and are associated
with a number of visceral pathologies:
Renal angioma and Renal cell carcinoma
Cysts and haemangiomas in liver and
Multisystem disorder is characterized by Cerebellar ataxia
Occular and cutaneous telangiectasia
assessment of all systems.
thorough review- medical history and an
understanding of the medical diagnosis.
psychosocial factorsoccupation, support system, personal
goals and role in the family.
of all the systems through
Assessment The Functional Independence Measure
(FIM)-functional assessment tool used to
measure degree of disability, regardless of
underlying pathology and burden of care to
demonstrate functional outcomes of
rehabilitation and assist clinicians with
setting The functional deficits and objective
neurological findings- valuable information
to assess prognosis, establish goals, and
determine a treatment plan.
Maximize the potential for function,
introduce effective, task-oriented
movement strategies, and offer multiple
caregiver training to
independent mobility with transition back to
a work environment.
effects and Considerations Mindful of the side effects when developing
a plan of intervention.
low blood count, and
gastrointestinal complaints- limit a patient’s
ability to fully participate in the planned
clinician must be flexible to determine
the optimal time for intervention.
in cognition or personality as a
result of the tumour’s location.
ultimate goal- to achieve maximum
restoration of function, within the limits
imposed by the disease, in the client’s
Begins in the intensive care unit and
continues in the inpatient, outpatient, and
home health settings.
with nursing staffregarding present medical status and an
understanding of ICP, hemodynamic
values, and monitoring devices is crucial to
determining tolerance for therapy
stable patient- upgrade mobility
and prepare for the next stage of
Inpatient rehabilitation setting- Treatment
focuses on optimizing functional
capabilities to prepare for discharge.
personal goals and interests
into therapeutic intervention invests the
client and family in the rehabilitation
Prepare the client and caregivers for an
motor learning principles to teach
functional mobility will best produce
transfer of learning from a constant
environment to an unpredictable home
practice of specific parts of a
skill in fixed surroundings, with physical
and verbal guidance throughout the
movement, and frequent feedback during
and following the completion of the task,
are beneficial in teaching acquisition of a
specific movement or activity.
the whole activity in a variable
context, with irregular feedback and
decreased physical and verbal guidance.
results in the ability to execute a
task in any setting.
outings and home passes
naturally provide an environment that
Measure retention and transfer of learning
by the client’s performance in the
community or at home.
information- used to adjust the
treatment plan and make
recommendations for environmental
modifications that minimize physical and
cognitive demands on the client.
W. Lindsay, Ian Bone, Neurology
and Neurosurgery illustrated, 4th Ed.
Maurice Victor and Raymond D. Adams,
Principles of Neurology, 6th Ed.
Darcy A. Umphred, Neurological
Rehabilitation, 5th Ed.
Delisa, Physical Medicine and
Rehabilitation, 4th Ed.