Child Labour - Saarc Presentation 2012


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  • While statistics on the number of economically-active children vary, a conservative estimate is that some 20-30 million live in the five large South Asian countries. Children ’ s workforce participation rates — the ratio of the number of child workers to the child population — range from just above 1 percent in Sri Lanka to more than 27 percent in Nepal. The rates vary by states/provinces within countries and tend to be higher among boys and in rural areas. The higher workforce participation rates among boys is due to the fact that girls work in informal sectors, such as within the home or as housemaids, which are harder to capture by statistics.
  • Child Labour - Saarc Presentation 2012

    1. 1. Prevention, Phasing Out, Withdrawal - RehabilitationChild Labour and HumanDevelopment (SAHRD)by Salma Majeed Jafar (April 2012)
    2. 2. Outline of the SessionPresentation (20 min)Q/A session (10 min)Group work (30 min)Group Presentations and Q/A (25 min)Conclusion (5 min)
    3. 3. Child Labor in South Asia
    4. 4. Child Work Child Labour Hazardous HazardousChild LabourChild LabourWorst Forms ofWorst Forms of Child Labour Child Labour
    5. 5. Child WorkPositive participation of children in economic activity, not detrimentalBeneficial work, strengthens or encourages child dev.Allows normal schooling, leisure activities & resting.According to the C138 Recommendation ILO, this kind of light work is permitted from the age of 12 years.
    6. 6. Child LabourChild labor as defined by the ILOAll children between 5-11 years of age who are economically activeChildren between 12-14 years of age who work in an economic activity for 14 or more hours per week.It is detrimental to the child’s education, social, physical and mental development
    7. 7. Hazardous Child LabourExposes toPhysical, Psychological or Sexual AbuseHazardous Substances & TemperaturesUnderground, Under water, Dangerous Heights & in Confined Spaces;Dangerous Machinery, & Tools - Heavy LoadsLong Hours –During the NightConfined to the premises of the employer.
    8. 8. Worst Forms of Child Labour • Commercial Sexual Exploitation of children • Slavery or economic activity in slave-like conditions • Prostitution • Children used by adults to commit crime • Pornography • Trafficking
    9. 9. Gender AspectsMost child labour surveys have excluded non-economic activities such as:Household Chores & Child Care of SiblingsFACT: so much time is spent on household chores, that it can jeopardize the education & health, in similar ways as economic work doesExcluding of non-economic activities results in an underestimation of the incidence of girl child labour,
    10. 10. Gender AspectsResponse to these concerns: a Resolution was adopted at the 18th Intl Conference for Labour Statisticians, in Dec 2008.RecommendationsTo measure unpaid household services in children’s productive activities. &To consider effect on a child’s education when determining what constitutes long hours (ILO 2009).
    11. 11. Prevention Phasing OutWithdrawalWithdrawalRehabilitationRehabilitation
    12. 12. PreventionThe Ultimate Objective should be of Preventing Child LabourSiblings of working children that are not yet working,Children not yet working but at high-risk of engaging in exploitative work.Children below the age of 12
    13. 13. High Risk SituationsPovertyOut of schoolAt risk of drop outChildren with disabilitiesOrphaned ChildrenDisplaced and RefugeesChildren of unemployed parentsNo access to basic health and education servicesParental Neglect 13
    14. 14. How to Prevent1. Target vulnerable children2. Target prospective employers, parents /guardians3. MOUs and agreements with employers on minimum age4. Programme Interventions Education Health Livelihoods Social Protection etc.
    15. 15. Phasing Out Withdrawal Withdrawal
    16. 16. Three Stages of Phasing Out
    17. 17. Stages of Phasing Out Stage Two Stage Two Partial Partial Withdrawal Withdrawal Stage One -- Stage One Initial Initial Stage Three Stage Three withdrawal withdrawal • Converted • Converted to ‘Child to ‘Child Full Full The Child The Child • Reduction • Reduction Work’ from Work’ from Withdrawal Withdrawal doesn’t doesn’t in work in work ‘Child work hours ‘Child • Removal • Removal work hours Labour’ Labour’ from CL from CL anymore anymore • Removal of • Removal of hazards hazards from work – from work – children now children now work under work under safer safer
    18. 18. Phasing OutProgressive elimination through a social assistance packageEducation,Livelihoods,Vocational trainingSocial Protection (Safety Nets).
    19. 19. RemovalReliable data on the nature and magnitude of the child labour problem is essential for the purpose of the removal and rehabilitation of child labourers.to establish priorities,to determine the target groups for priority action,to set clear objectives,to draw up realistic programmes andto measure progress.Constraint: Birth registration records not available??
    20. 20. RehabilitationRemoval without adequate rehabilitation strategies may result in high risk for the child:More hazardous or clandestine conditionsWhole range of supportive measures; Education, training, livelihoods, Case Management are requiredSometimes Counseling, Legal Aid & Police Protection
    21. 21. Child Labour MonitoringDetermine the presence of children in child labourDetermine the forms of child labour and risksVerification of school attendance of withdrawn childrenVerification of work improvements on the work sitesTracking system to track children who have been withdrawnCase management as and when requiredInternal Monitoring: by employers to identify, remove and prevent child labour andExternal monitoring: by independent 3rd party
    22. 22. Group WorkGroup A. PolicyGroup B. Advocacy CampaignGroup C. Project InterventionsGroup D. Good Practices (HRD and CL)Group E. CLM
    23. 23. Thank you for your time!