While statistics on the number of economically-active children vary, a conservative estimate is that some 20-30 million live in the five large South Asian countries. Children ’ s workforce participation rates — the ratio of the number of child workers to the child population — range from just above 1 percent in Sri Lanka to more than 27 percent in Nepal. The rates vary by states/provinces within countries and tend to be higher among boys and in rural areas. The higher workforce participation rates among boys is due to the fact that girls work in informal sectors, such as within the home or as housemaids, which are harder to capture by statistics. http://lnweb18.worldbank.org/sar/sa.nsf/2991b676f98842f0852567d7005d2cba/6114c3934c4776238525696000487390?OpenDocument
Child Labour - Saarc Presentation 2012
Prevention, Phasing Out, Withdrawal - RehabilitationChild Labour and HumanDevelopment (SAHRD)by Salma Majeed Jafar (April 2012)
Outline of the SessionPresentation (20 min)Q/A session (10 min)Group work (30 min)Group Presentations and Q/A (25 min)Conclusion (5 min)
Child Work Child Labour Hazardous HazardousChild LabourChild LabourWorst Forms ofWorst Forms of Child Labour Child Labour
Child WorkPositive participation of children in economic activity, not detrimentalBeneficial work, strengthens or encourages child dev.Allows normal schooling, leisure activities & resting.According to the C138 Recommendation ILO, this kind of light work is permitted from the age of 12 years.
Child LabourChild labor as defined by the ILOAll children between 5-11 years of age who are economically activeChildren between 12-14 years of age who work in an economic activity for 14 or more hours per week.It is detrimental to the child’s education, social, physical and mental development
Hazardous Child LabourExposes toPhysical, Psychological or Sexual AbuseHazardous Substances & TemperaturesUnderground, Under water, Dangerous Heights & in Confined Spaces;Dangerous Machinery, & Tools - Heavy LoadsLong Hours –During the NightConfined to the premises of the employer.
Worst Forms of Child Labour • Commercial Sexual Exploitation of children • Slavery or economic activity in slave-like conditions • Prostitution • Children used by adults to commit crime • Pornography • Trafficking
Gender AspectsMost child labour surveys have excluded non-economic activities such as:Household Chores & Child Care of SiblingsFACT: so much time is spent on household chores, that it can jeopardize the education & health, in similar ways as economic work doesExcluding of non-economic activities results in an underestimation of the incidence of girl child labour,
Gender AspectsResponse to these concerns: a Resolution was adopted at the 18th Intl Conference for Labour Statisticians, in Dec 2008.RecommendationsTo measure unpaid household services in children’s productive activities. &To consider effect on a child’s education when determining what constitutes long hours (ILO 2009).
PreventionThe Ultimate Objective should be of Preventing Child LabourSiblings of working children that are not yet working,Children not yet working but at high-risk of engaging in exploitative work.Children below the age of 12
High Risk SituationsPovertyOut of schoolAt risk of drop outChildren with disabilitiesOrphaned ChildrenDisplaced and RefugeesChildren of unemployed parentsNo access to basic health and education servicesParental Neglect 13
How to Prevent1. Target vulnerable children2. Target prospective employers, parents /guardians3. MOUs and agreements with employers on minimum age4. Programme Interventions Education Health Livelihoods Social Protection etc.
Stages of Phasing Out Stage Two Stage Two Partial Partial Withdrawal Withdrawal Stage One -- Stage One Initial Initial Stage Three Stage Three withdrawal withdrawal • Converted • Converted to ‘Child to ‘Child Full Full The Child The Child • Reduction • Reduction Work’ from Work’ from Withdrawal Withdrawal doesn’t doesn’t in work in work ‘Child work hours ‘Child • Removal • Removal work hours Labour’ Labour’ from CL from CL anymore anymore • Removal of • Removal of hazards hazards from work – from work – children now children now work under work under safer safer
Phasing OutProgressive elimination through a social assistance packageEducation,Livelihoods,Vocational trainingSocial Protection (Safety Nets).
RemovalReliable data on the nature and magnitude of the child labour problem is essential for the purpose of the removal and rehabilitation of child labourers.to establish priorities,to determine the target groups for priority action,to set clear objectives,to draw up realistic programmes andto measure progress.Constraint: Birth registration records not available??
RehabilitationRemoval without adequate rehabilitation strategies may result in high risk for the child:More hazardous or clandestine conditionsWhole range of supportive measures; Education, training, livelihoods, Case Management are requiredSometimes Counseling, Legal Aid & Police Protection
Child Labour MonitoringDetermine the presence of children in child labourDetermine the forms of child labour and risksVerification of school attendance of withdrawn childrenVerification of work improvements on the work sitesTracking system to track children who have been withdrawnCase management as and when requiredInternal Monitoring: by employers to identify, remove and prevent child labour andExternal monitoring: by independent 3rd party
Group WorkGroup A. PolicyGroup B. Advocacy CampaignGroup C. Project InterventionsGroup D. Good Practices (HRD and CL)Group E. CLM