• I am very thankful to everyone who all supported me, for i have
completed my project effectively and, moreover, on time.
I am equally grateful to my teacher Preeti Sharma. She gave me
moral support and guided me in different matters regarding the
topic. She had been very kind and patient while suggesting me the
outlines of this project and correcting my doubts. I thank her for her
Last but not the least, I would like to thank my parents who helped
me a lot in gathering different information, collecting data and
guiding me from time to time in making this project. Despite their
busy schedules, they gave me different ideas in making this project
CHILD HAS BECOME AN IMPORTANT
“SOCIAL ISSUE” IN A DEVELOPING COUNTRY LIKE
Child labour is the practice of having
children engage in economic activity, on part
or full-time basis. The practice deprives
children of their childhood, and is harmful to
their physical and mental development.
Poverty, lack of good schools and growth of
informal economy are considered as the
important causes of child labour in India.
CHILD LABOUR IN INDIA
According to the Census 2001 figures there are 1.26
crore working children in the age group of 5-14 as
compared to the total child population of 25.2 crore.
There are approximately 12 lacs children working in the
hazardous occupations/processes which are covered
under the Child Labour (Prohibition & Regulation) Act
i.e. 18 occupations and 65 processes. However, as per
survey conducted by National Sample Survey
Organization (NSSO) in 2004-05, the number of
working children is estimated at 90.75 lakh. It shows
that the efforts of the Government have borne the
Child Labour Fact
• 73 million working children are less than 10 years old.
• While buffaloes may cost up to 15,000 rupees , children are sold at prices
between 500 and 2,000 rupees.
• 47 out of 100 children in India enrolled in class I reach class VIII, putting
the dropout rate at 52.79%.
• Approximately 16.64% of villages in the country do not have facilities for
primary schooling. (UNICEF)
• 42 million children in the age-group 6-14 years do not attend school in
• According to the Indian census of 1991, there are 11.28
million working children under the age of fourteen years in
• Over 85% of this child labour is in the country's rural
areas, working in agricultural activities such as fanning,
livestock rearing, forestry and fisheries.
• The world’s highest number of working children is in
India. ILO estimates that 218 million children were
involved in child labour in 2004, of which 126 million
were engaged in hazardous work.
• The Hindi belt, including Bihar, Madhya Pradesh,
Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh, account for 1.27 crore
working children in the country, engaged in both
hazardous and non-hazardous occupations and
• Over 19 lakh child labourers in the 5-14 age group
are in Uttar Pradesh.
Causes of Child
• OVER POPULATION: limited resources and more
mouths to feed, Children are employed in various
forms of work.
• ILLITERACY :Illiterate parents do not realize the need
for a proper physical,emotional and cognitive
development of a child.
• POVERTY: Many a time poverty forces parents to
send their children to hazardous jobs.
• URBANIZATION: MNC's and export industries in the
developing world employ child workers, particularly in
the garment industry.
Causes of Child
• ORPHANS: Children born out of wedlock, children with no parents
and relatives, often do not find anyone to support them. Thus they
are forced to work for their own living.
• WILLINGNESS TO EXPLOIT CHILDREN: This is at the
root of the problem Even if a family is very poor, the incidence of
child labour will be very low unless there are people willing to exploit
• UNEMPLOYMENT OF ELDERS: Elders often find it difficult to
get jobs. The industrialists and factory owners find it profitable to
employ children. This is so because they can pay less and extract
more work. They will also not create union problem.
Where do children work?
• The Fireworks Industry.
• The Glass Industry.
• The Bidi Making Industry.
• The Carpet Making industry.
• The Silk industry
• Of the 250 million child laborers worldwide,
it is estimated that at least half of them work
in agriculture alone.
• There are many different types of agricultural
work. One of them is picking fruits and
• The work is physically demanding because
the children must bend down, kneel, climb
ladders, carry heavy loads of fruit, and other
• They also are exposed to dangerous tools and have
to use unsafe machinery they don't know how to
• Children who work in agriculture often experience
back pain from bending over so much, and also
have blistered and callused hands from operating
machinery and using tools such as rakes, hoes, and
shovels all day long.
The Fireworks Industry
• Sivakasi in Tamil Nadu state,
about 45,000-50,000 children working
in the fireworks industry
• Children earn about 15-18 rupees a day
• When an inspector visits a factory,
child workers are bundled into store-rooms
• When asked if the long hours derived
her of the pleasures of childhood, 12-
year-old Kavitha gave a resigned look.
• When asked if she would like to go to
school like other girls, she shot back:
"Who will feed me, then?"
• Over 1.7 million children work
as laborers in India’s beedi-rolling
• Children are engaged as their
nimble fingers are more adept at
• Children are made to work up to
14 hours a day with no breaks or
• Earning is as little as Rs.30 per
1,000 beedis on an average and
the children hardly get anything.
• Suffer from tuberculosis,
postural and eye problems,
anemia, lung and skin diseases.
• Some times children are
abandoned by their parents or sold
to factory owners
• 70-80% of the 8,000 to 50,000
children work in the glass industry
• The two hazardous types of
furnaces used are the Pot furnaces
the Tank furnaces
• One of the most dangerous
industries, where many deaths and
mishaps occur on a regular basis,
makes it imperative for the
employers to hire mafia gangs to
hush up the occurrence of such
• 300,000 children employed in
• Low wages and docile
• Work for 10-16 hours a day
in terrible conditions.
• Vast majority of migrant
child workers sleep alongside
of their loom, further inviting
sickness and poor health.
• Eyesight is damaged and lung
diseases are common as a
result of the dust and fluff
from the wool.
• Over 50,000 children between the
ages of 5 and 13 slog it out in the silk-weaving
industry in Kancheepuram
and Tiruvannamalai districts of Tamil
• Many work seven days a week round
• Average monthly income ranges from
Rs.80 to Rs.250.
• Require to dip hands in boiling hot
water causing blisters.
• Handle dead worms breeding
• Twist thread injuring their fingers .
• Physical injuries and mutilations are caused by badly
maintained machinery on farms and in factories, machete accidents
in plantations, and any number of hazards encountered in industries
such as mining, ceramics and fireworks manufacture
• Pesticide poisoning is one of the biggest killers of child laborers.
In Sri Lanka, pesticides kill more children than diphtheria, malaria,
polio and tetanus combined. The global death toll each year from
pesticides is supposed to be approximately 40'000
• Growth deficiency is prevalent among working children, who tend
to be shorter and lighter than other children; these deficiencies also
impact on their adult life
• Long-term health problems, such as respiratory
disease, asbestosis and a variety of cancers, are
common in countries where children are forced to work
with dangerous chemicals
• HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases
are rife among the one million children forced into
prostitution every year; pregnancy, drug addiction and
mental illness are also common among child prostitutes
• Exhaustion and malnutrition are a result of
underdeveloped children performing heavy manual
labour, working long hours in unbearable conditions and
not earning enough to feed themselves adequately
• ABSTRACT:-the problem of child labour has been more
serious in developing countries. Due poverty, hunger,
illiteracy, ignorance, traditional thinking and lack of
proper implementation of child labour laws in our
country ,the problem of child labour is still persist in
our society. The children of age below 14 years have
working in various fields and in very hazardous
conditions. The number of child labour has been
increasing in our country and the number of child
labour is more in our country as compared to any other
country in the world. Many provisions are provided in
our constitution and in laws to control child labour but
socio-economic conditions prevalent in the country do
not force children to get compulsory education and to
enjoy right to education. The attempt has been made
in this paper to provide brief account of child labour
laws in our country, reasons for child labour and
suggestions to control child labour.
• CHILD LABOUR LAWS IN INDIA Various laws have been
made in our country since 1933 to control child labour:
• 1. Children (Pledging of labour) Act 1933.
• 2. Employment of child Act 1938.
• 3. The Bombay shop and establishment Act 1948.
• 4. The Indian factories Act 1948.
• 5. Plantation labour Act 1951.
• 6. The mines Act 1952.
• 7. Merchant shipping Act 1958
• 8. The apprentice Act 1961
• 9. The motor transport workers Act 1961
• 10. The atomic energy Act 1962
• 11. Bidi and cigar workers (condition of employment)
• 12. State shops and establishment Act
• 13. The child labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act
• 14. The juvenile justice (care and protection) of
children Act, 2000.
• 15. Article 24 of our constitution and section 67 of the
factories Act, explicitly direct that children below the
age of 14 years are not allowed to work in factories.
• 16. Article 21A (added by the 86th amendment Act
2002) provides that state shall provide free and
compulsory education to children of age group 6-14
• 17. Article 45 provides for free and compulsory
education for all children up to the age of 14 years
• EFFORTS BY GOVERNMENT OF INDIA TO CONTROL
• The child labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act
1986 prohibits the employment of children below
the age of 14 years in 16 occupation and 65
processes that are hazardous to the children’s lives
and health. According to Supreme Court’s
direction on 10th December, 1996, recovery notice
have been issued to offending employees for
collection of a sum of Rs 2000 per child employed
under the provision of Act. No child can be
employed in hazardous occupations. Many states
including Haryana have constituted the child
labour rehabilitation –cum-welfare funds at
district level and separate labour cells are being
formed to address the issue.
• National child labour projects have been
implemented by the central government in states
from 1988 to provide non-formal education and
• From 2001, Sarve shiksha Abhiyan has been
launched to educate poor and employed children
in all states.
• Ministry of women and child development has
been providing non-formal education and
• Establishment of Anganbadies is also a big step
by the government for the welfare of children
and their physical, mental and educational
Many NGOs like Bachpan Bachao Andolan, CARE India, Child
Rights and You, Global march against child labour, RIDE India etc.
have been working to eradicate child labour in India.
Pratham is India's largest non-governmental organization with
the mission 'every child in school and learning well.' Founded in
1994, Pratham has aimed to reduce child labour and offer
schooling to children irrespective of their gender, religion and
social background. It has grown by introducing low cost
education models that are sustainable and reproducible.
Child labour has also been a subject of public interest litigations
in Indian courts.
Consequences of child labour
• The presence of a large number of child laborers is regarded as a
serious issue in terms of economic welfare. Children who work fail to
get necessary education. They do not get the opportunity to develop
physically, intellectually, emotionally and psychologically. In terms of
the physical condition of children, children are not ready for long
monotous work because they become exhausted more quickly than
adults. This reduces their physical conditions and makes the children
more vulnerable to disease. Children in hazardous working conditions
are even in worse condition. Children who work, instead of going to
school, will remain illiterate which limits their ability to contribute to
their own well being as well as to community they live in. Child
labour has long term adverse effects for India.
Forward Steps :-
• The ideal scenario on Child Welfare would be when every child enjoys the
fullness of childhood through education, recreation and adequate health
facilities. It is impossible to attain these facilities by the child labour. All the
children were able to enjoy the completeness of childhood only :
When the true conscience of the nation is awakened.
When all the policy makers and the bureaucrats take the issue of child
labour seriously and commit themselves to the cause of the holistic
development of every child in India.
When the employees would not even contemplate the idea of employing a
child for any work which might deny the child of a normal childhood.
When all Policies laid down by the Government under various Plans and
Laws were implemented properly.
How many are there?
61% in Asia, 32% in Africa, and 7% in Latin America,
1% in US, Canada, Europe and other wealthy nations.
In Asia, 22% of the workforce is children. In Latin
America, 17% of the workforce is children.
246 million child workers aged 5 and 17 were involved
in child labor.
Out of which 171 million were involved in work that
by its nature is hazardous.
According to certain experts approximately 10 million
bonded children labourers are working as dome In
Beyond this there are almost 55 million bonded child
labourers hired across various other industries.
Less than 5% of child laborers make products for export
to other countries.
• Started in 1978
• Situated all over INDIA in
• Started in 1996 in Mumbai
as a ‘CHILD INDIA
• Works under CHILD
• Has large networking
CHILDLINE IN KALYAN
• From last five years in
• Toll free no. 1098
• Name is ‘AASRA
SANSTHA’ in Kalyan
• Last year received
• 30,000 calls have been
fulfilled up till now
• Hires Professional
Counselors for child
rehabilitation and to
develop them mentally
WHAT ‘WE’ CAN DO AS A PERSON TO
STOP CHILD LABOUR ?
• To donate funds in NGOs working for
the rehabilitation of street children
• To make the rural people aware about
the benefits of education
• To provide free education for the
• To contact NGOs and make them aware
about child labour happening in our
• To start campaign against child labour.
• To help the government to stop child
• If we want success then we have to act upon these
principles and then our country can easily get rid of
• We have to distribute the education free of coast,
give flame to the candle of education and distribute
the light of knowledge among the people as our
Holy prophet (PBUH) also says that “get knowledge
and distribute among
• If we want success then we have to act upon these
principles and then our country can easily get rid of
• The problem of child labour continues to pose a challenge
before the nation. Government has been taking various pro-active
measures to tackle this problem. However, considering
the magnitude and extent of the problem and that it is
essentially a socio-economic problem inextricably linked to
poverty and illiteracy, it requires concerted efforts from all
society to make a dent in the problem.
• The social evil of child labour can be brought under control, if
each individual takes responsibility of prevailing child labour.
Each and every citizen should be aware of their
responsibilities and should take corrective measures to stop
child labour, so that we can have a better and developed
India. Child labour can be controlled if the government
functions effectively with the support of the public.