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  • 1. LIBYAN AND SYRIAN CONFLICTS: A QUESTION MARK ON PRINCIPLES OF HUMAN RIGHTS (Submission of project for B.com L.L.B (H)) Name-Sakshi Athwani Enrollment No-A3221609069 Batch-2009-2014 Amity law school
  • 2. Amity Law School Amity Law School Amity University CERTIFICATE This is certified that the project entitled “LIBYAN AND SYRIAN CONFLICTS: A QUESTION MARK ON PRINCIPLES OF HUMAN RIGHTS” is the original and bonafide work of Sakshi Athwani carried out under my personal guidance and supervision. I approve its submission. Date-30/09/13 Faculty Name – Ms. Ritika Behl Amity law School Amity University
  • 3. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT It is only by the grace of god that I have been able to accomplish this arduous task. I feel my duty to acknowledge my gratitude to those, who have been associated with this work whether covertly or overtly. At this point I must admit the fact that the present work is an arduous work and I have taken the aid and advice of many learned people. First of all I am extremely thankful to my Human Rights teacher Ms. Ritika Behl for her constant encouragement, help, co-operation and inspiration extended to me in the course of present study. Last but not the least in order to give ventilation to my pious feelings. I am thankful to all my well-wishers who always explicitly or implicitly extended their love and affection.
  • 4. INDEX 1. SYRIAN CONFLICTS 2. LIBYAN CONFLICTS 3. CONCLUSION 4. BIBLIOGRAPHY
  • 5. SYRIAN CONFLICTS Human rights violations during the Syrian civil war Human rights violations during the Syrian civil war have been numerous and serious. In June 2012 Amnesty International reported the majority had been committed by government forces, though the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights NaviPillay has said that both sides appear to have committed war crimes, with UN investigations having concluded that the government's abuses are the greatest in both gravity and scale. Legal framework Four of the international instruments ratified by Syria and which apply to the events described in the present report are particularly relevant: the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR); the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; the Convention on the Rights of the Child; and the UN Convention Against Torture. Syria is not a party to the International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance, although it is bound by the provisions of the ICCPR that also prohibit enforced disappearances. Four key security agencies have overseen the repression in Syria: the General Security Directorate, the Political Security Branch, the Military Intelligence Branch, and the Air Force Intelligence Branch. All three corps of the Syrian army have been deployed in a supporting role to the security forces; the civilian police have been involved in crowd control. The shabiha, led by the security forces, also participated in abuses. Since Hafez al-Assad's rule, individuals from the Alawite minority have controlled (although they not always formally headed) these four agencies, as well as several elite military units, and comprise the bulk of them.
  • 6. Syrian armed and security forces According to the UN, Syrian armed and security forces have been responsible for: unlawful killing, including of children (mostly boys), medical personnel and hospital patients ("In some particularly grave instances, entire families were executed in their homes"); torture, including of children (mostly boys, sometimes to death) and hospital patients, and including sexual and psychological torture; arbitrary arrest "on a massive scale"; deployment of tanks and helicopter gunships in densely populated areas; heavy and indiscriminate shelling of civilian areas; collective punishment; enforced disappearances; widescale and systematic destruction and looting of property; the systematic denial, in some areas, of food and water; and the prevention of medical treatment, including to children. Amnesty International reported that medical personnel had also been tortured, while the UN said that medical personnel in state hospitals were sometimes complicit in the killing and torture of patients. The execution and torture of children was also documented by Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch. Most of the serious human rights violations documented by the UN have been committed by the Syrian army and security services as part of military or search operations. The pattern of the killing, coupled with interviews with defectors, led the UN to conclude a shoot-to-kill policy was operative. The UN mentioned several reports of security forces killing injured victims by putting them into refrigerated cells in hospital morgues. Amnesty International decided to enter the country uninvited in spring 2012 and documented "gross violations of human rights on a massive scale" by the Syrian military and shabiha, "many of which amount to crimes against humanity and war crimes". These were committed against the armed opposition, to punish and intimidate civilian individuals and strongholds perceived to be supporting the opposition, and indiscriminately against individuals who had nothing to do with the opposition. In addition to the crimes listed by the UN above, they noted cases of people being burnt alive; destruction of pharmacies and field hospitals (normal hospitals are out of bounds to those wounded by the military); and that the sometimes lethal torture ("broken bones, missing teeth, deep scars and open wounds from electric shocks, and from severe beatings and lashings with electric cables and other implements") was overwhelmingly directed at men and boys. The UN reported 10,000 persons arbitrarily detained between mid-March and the late June 2011;a year later that number had more than doubled, though the true number of detainees may have been far higher. At the notorious Seidnaya jail, north of Damascus, 2,500 military
  • 7. officers and lesser ranks were being held after they disobeyed orders or attempted desertion.Human Rights Watch documented more than 20 different methods of torture used against detainees, including: prolonged and severe beatings, often with objects such as batons and wires; painful stress positions; electrocution; burning with car battery acid; sexual assault; pulling out fingernails; mock execution; and sexual violence. Many were held in disgusting and cruelly overcrowded conditions; many who needed medical assistance were denied it, and some consequently died. Amnesty was also in the possession of 10,000 names, mainly men and boys, who had been killed since February 2011, though the organisation again conceded the true figure may be significantly higher. Some of the more prominent detainees have included Ali al-Abdallah, blogger and student Tal al-Mallohi, and prominent LGBT anti-government blogger RazanGhazzawi, who was arrested twice by Syrian authorities. Human Rights Watch accused the government and Shabiha of using civilians as human shields when they advanced on opposition-held areas. A UN report confirmed this, saying soldiers had used children as young as eight, detaining and killing children afterwards. The UN added the Syrian Government as one of the worst offenders on its annual "list of shame". In response to these violations, the UN Human Rights Council passed a condemnatory resolution. It also demanded that Syria cooperate with a UN investigation into the abuses, release all political prisoners, and allow independent monitors to visit detention facilities. Not all reports have proved accurate: Zainab al-Hosni, who was purportedly beheaded by Syrian authorities, later turned out to be alive. In May 2012, Al Arabiya aired leaked footage of a man being tortured in a government detention centre in Kafranbel. An increasing number of reports indicated that the Syrian government is attacking civilians at bread bakeries with artillery rounds and rockets in opposition-controlled cities and districts in Aleppo province and Aleppo city, with the reports indicating that the bakeries were shelled indiscriminately. HRW said these are war crimes, as the only military targets in the areas were rebels manning the bakeries and that dozens of civilians were killed.
  • 8. Upon retaking the capital Damascus after the Battle of Damascus (2012), the Syrian government began a campaign of collective punishment against Sunni suburbs in-and-around the capital which had supported FSA presence in their neighborhoods. The charity Save the Children conducted interviews in refugee camps with Syrian civilians who had fled the fighting, and released a report in September 2012 containing many accounts of detention, torture and summary execution, as well as other incidents such as the use of civilians as human shields, allegedly including tying children onto advancing tanks so that rebel forces would not fire upon them. In a 23 October 2012 statement, Human Rights Watch said that Syrian military denials notwithstanding, HRW had "evidence of ongoing cluster bomb attacks" by Syria’s air force. HRW has confirmed reports "through interviews with victims, other residents and activists who filmed the cluster munitions", as well as "analysis of 64 videos and also photos showing weapon remnants" of cluster bomb strikes. The use, production, stockpiling, and transfer of cluster munitions isporhibited by the 2008 international Convention on Cluster Munitions treaty. Use of cluster bombs have been considered a grave threat to civilian populations because of the bombs' ability to randomly scatter thousands of submunitions or "bomblets" over a vast area, many of which remain waiting to explode, taking civilian lives and limbs long after the conflict is over. Referral to the International Criminal Court United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights NaviPillay and others have called for Syria to be referred to the International Criminal Court; however, it would be difficult for this to take place with within the foreseeable future because Syria is not a party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, meaning the ICC has no jurisdiction there (referral could alternatively happen via the Security Council, but Russia and China would block). Marc Lynch, who is in favour of a referral, noted a couple of other routes to the ICC were possible, and that overcoming Chinese and Russian opposition was not impossible. Richard Haass has argued that one way to encourage top-level defections is to "threaten warcrimes indictments by a certain date, say, August 15, for any senior official who remains a part of the government and is associated with its campaign against the Syrian people. Naming these individuals would concentrate minds in Damascus." Nevertheless, it remains unlikely in
  • 9. the short term, and some would argue this is a blessing in disguise, since this precludes the ICC's involvement while the conflict is still raging, a development that would arguably only increase the Assad government's violent obstinacy. Armed opposition fighters With regard to armed opposition groups, the UN accused them of: unlawful killing; torture and ill-treatment; kidnapping and hostage taking; and the use of children in dangerous noncombat roles. Amnesty confirmed that they were guilty of having tortured and executed captured soldiers and militiamen, as well as known or perceived civilian collaborators, and later condemned the opposition fighters responsible for an attack on a pro-Assad TV station in June 2012 in which media workers were killed. According to the Institute for the Study of War, "monthly instances of assassinations, executions, and kidnappings by rebels skyrocketed in February 2012 and doubled again between March and April. . . . The Assad regime's sectarian shabiha paramilitaries have been responsible for a vast numbers of killings, which has made it more difficult for insurgents to resist the urge to act in reprisal." RadhikaCoomaraswamy, the UN special representative for children and armed conflict, said in March 2012 that she had received claims that the Free Syrian Army was using children as fighters. A UN report in April 2012 also mentioned "credible allegations" that rebels, including the FSA, were using child fighters, despite stated FSA policy of not recruiting any child under the age of 17, but a later one in June 2012 made no mention of this, only reporting that opposition fighters were using children in non-combat roles. Still, in an interview to AP, one rebel commander stated that his 16-year-old son had died in clashes with government troops as a rebel fighter. He also confirmed that his group had been releasing prisoners in bomb-rigged cars turning drivers into unwitting suicide bombers. In May 2013, a video was posted on the internet showing rebel commander Abu Sakkar cutting organs from the dead body of a Syrian soldier and putting one of them in his mouth, "as if he is taking a bite out of it". He says to the camera: "soldiers of Bashar [...] we will eat your heart and livers! [...] Oh my heroes of Baba Amr, you slaughter the Alawites and take their hearts out to eat them!" Human Rights Watch confirmed the authenticity of the footage, and said that Abu Sakkar appears to be a commander of the "Independent Omar al-Farouq Brigade". Human Rights Watch said "It is not known whether the Independent Omar alFarouq Brigade operates within the command structure of the Free Syrian Army". The
  • 10. incident was condemned by the FSA's Chief of Staff and the Syrian National Coalition said that the commander would be put on trial. The rebel Supreme Military Council called for Abu Sakkar's arrest, saying it wants him "dead or alive". Abu Sakkar said that his action was revenge, explaining that he had found a video on the soldier's cellphone in which the soldier sexually abuses a woman and her two daughters. In earlier days before the escalation of violence he had taken part in marches and at that time voiced the need for a united front to cause the reforms that were denied by the regime. His brigade was not among those calling for a medieval caliphate or allegiance to al-Qa'ida, and he had taken a stand against Islamist extremists in rebel ranks. Independent journalist Kim Sengupta, having observed that the brutality with which the regime responded to peaceful protests in Baba Amr and elsewhere in Syria was the catalyst for the armed uprising which followed, looked for further explanation for the viciousness that is expressed. Mr Nassr, another brigade member told him; "He (Abu Sakkar) should not have done what he did, doing that was haram (wrong in religion) and unwise. But it was a message to the Shabiha. They film young men and women being tortured to try and frighten the people and this was meant as a warning to them.” Sexual violence Men and women have been subjected to sexual violence by government forces. Amnesty International has received reports of men being raped. According to the UN, sexual violence in detention is directed principally against men and boys, rather than women and girls: Several testimonies reported the practice of sexual torture used on male detainees. Men were routinely made to undress and remain naked. Several former detainees testified reported beatings of genitals, forced oral sex, electroshocks and cigarette burns to the anus in detention facilities . . . Several of the detainees were repeatedly threatened that they would be raped in front of their family and that their wives and daughters would also be raped. Testimonies were received from several men who stated they had been anally raped with batons and that they had witnessed the rape of boys. One man stated that he witnessed a 15-year-old boy being raped in front of his father. A 40-year-old man saw the rape of an 11-year-old boy by three security services officers. Human Rights Watch has also reported these sexual crimes being committed by Syrian government forces.
  • 11. Syrian activists claim women were abducted and raped in rebellious parts of the country, possibly using sexual violence as a means of quelling dissent. An opposition campaigner supplied The Globe and Mail with details about six previously unknown cases of violence against women, saying that more such incidents remain hidden as Damascus struggles to contain the uprising. Syrian refugees fleeing to Turkey reported mass rape by Syrian soldiers, more than 400 women were raped and sexually abused. On 13 August 2012 a sergeant in the special forces who had defected claimed that Alawite officers ordered the rape of teenage girls in Homs, who would be shot afterwards. The defected sergeant further said that soldiers who refused were shot by the army. A report released 14 January 2013 by the International Rescue Committee stated that a primary reason Syrian refugees flee is because of fear of rape. Attacks on journalists This article is about Attacks on journalists. For others named under attacks on journalists in the Syrian civil war, see List of journalists killed during the Syrian civil war. Except for those hand-picked by the government, journalists have been banned from reporting in Syria. Those who have entered the country regardless have been targeted. Within a month of the protests taking off, at least seven local and international journalists were detained, and at least one of these was beaten. Citizen journalist Mohammed Hairiri was arrested in April 2012, tortured in prison, and sentenced to death in May 2012 for giving an interview for Al Jazeera.JordanianSalamehKaileh was tortured and detained in deplorable conditions before being deported. According to the Committee to Protect Journalists, 13 journalists were killed in work-related incidents during the first eighteen months of the uprising. During the same period, Reporters Without Borders said a total of 33 journalists were killed. Many, such as Marie Colvin, were killed by government forces, but at least one, French journalist Gilles Jacquier, was killed by rebel fire.
  • 12. Attacks on Local Christians Local Christian minorities are also facing many human rights violations. Two bishops had been kidnapped on April 22, 2013 and have not been heard from since. Aleppo's Greek Orthodox Bishop BoulosYazij and Syriac Orthodox Bishop Yohanna Ibrahim were kidnapped at gun point by unknown combatants when returning from a humanitarian mission to Turkey. During the kidnapping, the deacon driving them was shot and killed.
  • 13. LIBYAN CONFLICTS Human rights violations in the Libyan civil war The outbreak of the Libyan civil war has been followed by accusations of human rights violations by the rebel forces opposed to Muammar Gaddafi, the Armed Forces and NATO. The alleged violations include rape, extrajudicial killings, racism, misconduct and bombings of civilians. Alleged human rights violations were committed by all sides during the conflict, including NATO, anti-Gaddafi forces, and pro-Gaddafi forces. LIBYAN ARMED FORCES Claims of systematic shooting at protesters Luis Moreno Ocampo, chief prosecutor of the International Criminal Court, estimated that between 500 and 700 people were killed by Gaddafi's security forces in February 2011, before the rebels even took up arms. "Shooting at protestors was systematic," Moreno-Ocampo stated, discussing the Libyan government's response to the initial pro-democracy demonstrations. The Libyan government denies that they ordered killings of demonstrators in the early days of the uprising. They say that soldiers acted in self-defense as they were attacked by mobs. Moreno-Ocampo further stated that during the ongoing civil war, "War crimes are apparently committed as a matter of policy" by forces loyal to Gaddafi. This is further supported by claims of Human Rights Watch, that 10 protesters, who had already agreed to lay down arms, were executed by a government paramilitary group in BaniWalid in May.
  • 14. In June 2011, a detailed investigation carried out by Amnesty International claimed that many of the allegations against Gaddafi and the Libyan state turned out to either be false or lack any credible evidence, noting that rebels at times appeared to have knowingly made false claims or manufactured evidence. According to the Amnesty investigation, the number of casualties was heavily exaggerated, some of the protesters may have been armed, "there is no proof of mass killing of civilians on the scale of Syria or Yemen," and there is no evidence that aircraft or heavy anti-aircraft machine guns were used against crowds. It also doubted claims from the Western media that the protest movement was "entirely peaceful" and "presented no security challenge." However in a later report from Amnesty International it was found that "alGaddafi forces committed serious violations of international humanitarian law (IHL), including war crimes, and gross human rights violations,which point to the commission of crimes against humanity. They deliberately killed and injured scores of unarmed protesters; subjected perceived opponents and critics to enforced disappearance and torture and other ill- treatment; and arbitrarily detained scores of civilians. They launched indiscriminate attacks and attacks targeting civilians in their efforts to regain control of Misratah and territory in the east. They launched artillery, mortar and rocket attacks against residential areas. They used inherently indiscriminate weapons such as anti-personnel mines and cluster bombs,including in residential areas." In July 2011, Saif al-Islam Gaddafi had an interview with Russia Today, where he denied the ICC's allegations that he or his father Muammar Gaddafi ordered the killing of civilian protesters. He pointed out that he is not a member of the government or the military, and therefore has no authority to give such orders. According to Saif, he made recorded calls to General Abdul Fatah, who later defected to the rebel forces, in order to request not to use force against
  • 15. protesters, to which Fatah responded that they are attacking a military site, where surprised guards fired in self-defense. ALLEGATIONS OF MASS RAPE 2011 Libyan rape allegations A Libyan psychologist, SihamSergewa, conducted a survey of refugees in Tunisia and Egypt to document the trauma of the civil war. Nearly 300 women were reported to have been raped. The real number could be much higher, considering the stigma attached to rape victims in Libyan society. Every single woman in the survey who admitted to being raped, said they were raped by Gaddafi's soldiers or militiamen. However, United Nations war-crimes expert M. CherifBassiouni, Human Rights Watch (HRW), Doctors Without Borders and Amnesty International say that they have found no evidence of systematic rape conducted by the Libyan government. Amnesty International's Donatella Rovera said that the Benghazi rebels had knowingly made false claims or manufactured evidence, quoting one example of pristine boxes of Viagra that the rebels said were found inside a totally burned out tank belonging to Gaddafi's troops. This raised serious doubts about the claim that Gaddafi handed out Viagra to his soldiers to enable them to rape more efficiently. Physicians for Human Rights (PHR) collected testimony of eyewitness who reported that Qaddafi forces transformed an elementary school into a detention site where they raped women and girls as young as 14 years old. PHR also reports of honour killings that occurred in response to these rapes.
  • 16. Use of land mines as a means of war HRW has confirmed claims of rebels, that laying land mines is widespread by the Libyan government forces as a means of war. It found them on at least six different locations in Libya, mostly on frontlines of the Gaddafi forces. Among these land mines are not only anti-tank mines, but also anti-personnel mines, which can permanently pose a threat to civilians. Shelling of civilian areas Gaddafi forces have been accused by human-rights groups of shelling towns with heavy weapons, risking civilian lives indiscriminately. The most accusations refer to the siege of Misrata, accusing Gaddafi forces of targeting hospitals and civilian areas, also using internationally outlawed cluster bombs of Spanish production as ammunition, having risked the lives of civilians. Other abuses of non-combatants A Human Rights Watch report documents the "unlawful occupation and terror of hospital staff" by pro-Government forces in Yafran in the western mountains, risking the lives of the patients and terrifying the staff contrary to international law. In August 2011, Physicians for Human Rights released a report documenting severe violations of human rights and evidence of war crimes and possible crimes against humanity in Misrata. Findings included that Qaddafi forces used civilians as human shields, attacked ambulances bearing the Red Crescent, destroyed religious buildings, and intentionally starved civilians. In the same report, PHR gave evidence to violations of medical neutrality, such as attacks on medical facilities, medical transport, and medical workers.
  • 17. CRIMES AGAINST INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN LAW Execution of prisoners of war A group of 15 to 22 Libyan army soldiers captured in Derna were reportedly executed in the village of Martuba, 20 kilometres (12 miles) east of Derna. According to a widely circulated story, the men were claimed to have been "executed by their own officers for disobeying orders". Another group of 15 dark-skinned Libyan prisoners were publicly executed by hanging in front of the Bayda courthouse. Murder and torture of injured soldiers On 17 February, the Bayda hospital admitted two injured men, one of black complexion, and the other of olive complexion. The men were accused of fighting against the rebels. A hospital doctor claimed that the black man was murdered and hung by an angry mob that had gathered around the hospital. The other injured man was reportedly beaten, shot and returned to the emergency room. Lootings and beatings In four towns in the western mountains captured in June by the opposition, HRW noticed lootings of private property and beatings of alleged Gaddafi sympathizers by rebel forces. The National Transitional Council (NTC) then pledged to hold responsible the causers of the attacks and to prevent such abuses in the future. Killing of civilians During the Battle of Sirte, the rebels killed many civilians, including men, women, and children, while there were also reports of the rebels harassing and
  • 18. stealing from the locals. According to one resident, "The rebels are worse than rats. Nato is the same as Osama bin Laden." According to another local woman, "We lived in democracy under Muammer Gaddafi, he was not a dictator. I lived in freedom, Libyan women had full human rights. It isn't that we need Muammer Gaddafi again, but we want to live just as we did before." A local elderly woman stated "They are killing our children. Why are they doing this? For what? Life was good before!” NATO airstrikes On 9 August, the Libyan government claimed that 85 civilians were killed in NATO airstrikes on the village of Majer near Zliten. A NATO spokesman said that they were targeting four buildings in which nine vehicles were destroyed and that government claim "was not corroborated by available factual information at the site". The Libyan government declared three days of national mourning. Reporters were later taken to a hospital where they saw at least 30 dead bodies including the bodies of at least two young children. The Libyan government claimed that the bodies of others killed in the airstrikes were taken to other hospitals. Neither of these claims were independently verified, although some media outlets came to the conclusion that it seemed more credible than usual that something tragic happened due to the presence of at least 14 bodies at one hospital, including an infant. Russia's U.N. Ambassador VitalyChurkin said a council-mandated investigation of NATO involvement in the Libyan Civil War is essential "given the fact that initially we were led to believe by NATO leaders there are zero civilian casualties of their bombing campaign.". The U.S. and France called Russia's demand for an investigation "a distraction", supporting the claim made by Susan Rice, the U.S. Ambassador: "This is duplicative, it's redundant, it's superfluous and it's a stunt.".According to France's U.N. Ambassador Gerard Araud there
  • 19. were two ongoing investigations of NATO’s actions in Libya, one by a U.N. Human Rights Council which is scheduled to report in March and the second by the International Criminal Court. Allegations of usage of African mercenaries Some journalists have accused human-rights organizations of falsifying claims, that Gaddafi was using mercenaries from other parts of Africa to attack protesters,however the presence of mercenaries from countries such as Chad, Niger, and Mali has been confirmed by Gaddafi's former Chief of Protocol Nouri Al Misrahi. Rape of black Africans Sudanese refugees from Eastern Libya have reported that a twelve-year-old Sudanese girl was raped by armed men that forced them out of their homes. A Gambian man shown to journalists by anti-Gaddafi forces reported that he had been dragged from his house by three armed men who accused him of being a mercenary of Gaddafi and raped his wife. Murder of guest workers and black Libyans The Chadian government called on coalition forces to protect its citizens in rebel-held areas in Libya. It claimed that dozens had been accused and executed for allegedly being mercenaries in the pay of Gaddafi. A Turkish oil worker reported witnessing the murder of 70 to 80 Sudanese and Chadian guest workers with pruning shears and axes by Libyans who accused them of being Gaddafi mercenaries. HRW's Peter Bouckaert visited Bayda where 156 supposed mercenaries were being held captive. He reported that these men are actually black Libyans from Southern Libya. He argued that the support of the black southern Libyans for
  • 20. the Gaddafi regime was explicable as Gaddafi fought to counter discrimination against this group in Libyan society. In the same interview, Bouckaert also said that those 156 individuals were released by the rebels less than two weeks after being captured. Forced expulsion of black families Sudanese refugees from Eastern Libya reported that armed men went door to door and forced them to leave their homes. Murder of unarmed migrant workers Killings of unarmed migrant workers by rebels have been described. On 18 April, a British reporter who had just arrived at Benghazi by sea from Misrata described the sufferings of large numbers of migrant workers trapped in Misrata in a broadcast on BBC Radio 4. After mentioning casualties during government forces attack he said about the migrant workers that "…some have also died in clashes with the, err, rebel fighters. They were protesting about the conditions, demanding that they should be repatriated and on a couple of occasions this has led to the rebels opening fire and, err, people dying."
  • 21. CONCLUSION United Declaration on Human Rights was the first draft for the protection of Human Rights and after that ICCPR and ICESCR was also introduced. This was a boon for the protection of Human Rights then the Geneva Convention was introduced for the protection of people during war crimes for prisoners of war. Geneva Convention protects the civilians even in a civil war. The situation in Libya and Syrian is very critical and when there is a civil war civilians should not be harmed. There are rebels involved in the war which directly act against the state. So thus Geneva Convention is there to protect from all prisoners of war. As the Security Council can direct the developed nations to intervene in a state which is going through a turmoil and protect the people of that state, but it can only be done in a restricted manner and as per the directions of the Supreme Court and most importantly the intervening state should not try to capture to benefit itself from intervening. Intervention is done when there is no alteration left and there is mass killing and genocide of the civilians in a state and it is just done to protect the civilians and no other motive is there as it was held in the case of Nicaragua.
  • 22. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. www.amnestyusa.org – Libya Human Rights | Amnesty International USA 2. www.edition.cnn.com – Syria Civil War Fast Facts 3. International Law and Human Rights by Dr. S.K Kapoor 4. www.studentsummit.cz/data/1354903402701NATO_Current-crisis-in-Syria.pdf