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Human Trafficking

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This powerpoint presentation offers an overview of the Human Trafficking problem and how medical professionals can intervene and become actively engaged.

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Human Trafficking

  1. 1. Trafficking in Persons September 2007
  2. 2. Acknowledgements <ul><li>Lisa Thompson – Salvation Army </li></ul><ul><li>Kristin Wiebe – World Hope International </li></ul><ul><li>Jeff Barrows – CMDA </li></ul><ul><li>Lynn Sauls – USAID </li></ul><ul><li>Anna Stormzand – USAID </li></ul><ul><li>Ruth Pojman – USAID </li></ul><ul><li>Laura Lederer – Department of State </li></ul>
  3. 3. Educational Objectives <ul><li>Increased awareness of the phenomenon of trafficking in persons (TIP) </li></ul><ul><li>Information on research about the health effects of TIP </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to identify TIP victims </li></ul><ul><li>Steps to take to help the TIP victim </li></ul><ul><li>Further sources of information </li></ul>
  4. 4. Why talk about it? <ul><li>A Biblical Framework for Christian Engagement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The dignity of all human life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jesus’ commanded care and concern for the marginalized, and modeled this in life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The heart of Christ’s message on earth: hope for new life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>God will judge the violent and the and deliver the oppressed who cry out to Him </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. And also… <ul><li>Intersecting Program Areas: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TIP and HIV/AIDS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TIP and Displaced People </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Sexual Trafficking War New Technologies Cultural Attitudes And Values Poverty Ethnic Minority Orphaned Abandonment/ Runaways Legal and Tolerated Sex Industries Corruption Prior Sexual Abuse Gender Demand for Commercial Sex Government Policies
  7. 7. Two Broad Categories of Human Trafficking Labor Trafficking: Domestic Service Sweat Shops/Factories Begging Agricultural Work Mining Brick Kilns Military Conscription Sexual Trafficking: Prostitution Pornography Stripping Lap Dancing Live-Sex Shows Mail-order Brides Child Brides (Sex is Not Labor/Work!)
  8. 8. Commercial Sex Acts <ul><li>Commercial Sex Act: any sex act on account of which anything of value is given to or received by any person. </li></ul>© 2005 Kay Chernush
  9. 9. Involuntary Servitude <ul><li>Involuntary servitude: a condition of servitude induced by means of: </li></ul><ul><li>Any scheme, plan, or pattern intended to cause a person to believe that, if the person did not enter into or continue in such condition, that person or another person would suffer serious harm or physical restraint; or </li></ul><ul><li>The abuse or threatened abuse of the legal process. </li></ul>Image: USDOJ Report on Activities to Combat Human Trafficking 2001-2005
  10. 10. Debt Bondage <ul><li>Debt Bondage : The condition of a debtor arising from a pledge by the debtor of his or her personal services or of those of a person under his or her control as a security for debt, if the value of those services as reasonably assessed is not applied toward the liquidation of the debt or length and nature of those services are not respectively limited and defined. </li></ul>© 2005 Kay Chernush
  11. 11. Slavery <ul><li>Slavery : The condition of a person whom any or all the powers attaching to the right of ownership are exercised. </li></ul>© 2005 Kay Chernush
  12. 12. Trafficking and Armed Conflict <ul><li>Child Soldiers </li></ul><ul><li>Refugees and IDPs </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual and Other Violence </li></ul><ul><li>Drug Use </li></ul>
  13. 13. International Scope of the Problem <ul><li>According to the International Labor Organization there are 12.3 million people in forced labor, bonded labor, forced child labor, and sexual servitude at any given time; other estimates range from 4 to 27 million.* </li></ul><ul><li>500,000 women from all over the world are trafficked each year into Western Europe alone.** </li></ul><ul><li>The last 3 years have seen a 20 percent increase in the number of prostituted children in Thailand.** </li></ul><ul><li>One million children enter the sex trade each year.** </li></ul><ul><li>(* US Department of State, 2007, TIP Report. ** End Child Exploitation , UNICEF/UK July 2003.) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Magnitude of Human Trafficking / USG estimates Numbers are for cross border trafficking and do NOT include internal trafficking in persons
  15. 15. Human Trafficking ANE Bureau – Strategic Review – Summer 2007 2004 2006 Labor Trafficking: Bonded Labor, Indentured Servitude, Debt Bondage, Child Soldiers
  16. 16. International Scope of the Problem <ul><li>According to the FBI, human trafficking generates $9.5 billion in annual revenue. </li></ul><ul><li>(U.S. State Department, Trafficking in Persons Report, June 2006) </li></ul>
  17. 17. International, Trans-border Trafficking <ul><li>800,000 persons are trafficked across international borders annually.* </li></ul><ul><li>(*U.S. Department of State, Trafficking in Persons Report , 2007. Not disaggregated by age or gender. Estimate excludes internal trafficking.) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Trafficking in the U.S. <ul><li>From fiscal year 2001 through fiscal year 2005, the Civil Rights Division and United States Attorneys' Offices filed 91 trafficking cases, a 405% increase over the number of trafficking cases filed from fiscal years 1996 through 2000. </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division. (2006, February). Report on Activities to Combat Human Trafficking Fiscal Years 2001-2005 . </li></ul>United States v. Cadena . Photo: U.S. Department of Justice, Report on Activities to Combat Human Trafficking Fiscal Years 2001-2005 .
  19. 19. Trafficking in the U.S. <ul><li>In these cases, Department attorneys charged 248 trafficking defendants, a 210% increase over the previous five fiscal years. In addition, 140 defendants of trafficking related crimes were convicted, a 109% increase over the previous five years. </li></ul>Kil Soo Lee, a former owner of Daewoosa factory in American Samoa, was sentenced in June 2005 to 40 years of incarceration for trafficking more than 200 victims. Photo: USDOJ Report on Activities to Combat Human Trafficking 2001-2005.
  20. 20. Trafficking in the U.S. <ul><li>Despite the an estimated prevalence of 100,000 to 150,000 [1] slaves in the U.S., fewer than 1,000 victims have been assisted through the efforts of federal, state, and local law enforcement since 2001, when services for trafficking victims were first made available. [2] </li></ul><ul><li>[1] Bales, K. (n.d.). International Labor Standards: Quality of Information and Measures of Progress in Combating Forced Labor . </li></ul><ul><li>[2] U.S. Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division. (2006, February). Report on Activities to Combat Human Trafficking Fiscal Years 2001-2005 . </li></ul>
  21. 21. Teenage Prostitution… The most common form of human trafficking in the US today
  22. 22. Trafficking in Persons is Not <ul><li>Not exclusively movement of persons </li></ul><ul><li>(Remember: recruitment, harboring, transportation, provisioning, and obtaining) </li></ul><ul><li>Not carried out by exclusively violent means of force </li></ul><ul><li>Not the same as smuggling of migrants </li></ul>
  23. 23. Differences between TIP and smuggling of migrants <ul><li>Consent </li></ul><ul><li>Exploitation </li></ul><ul><li>Trans-nationality </li></ul><ul><li>Profits </li></ul>Trafficking in Persons Global Patterns. UNODC. 2006.
  24. 24. US Laws and UN Conventions <ul><li>USA: Trafficking Victims Protect Act of 2000 (TVPA) and Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization of Acts of 2003 and 2005. </li></ul><ul><li>UN: 1949 Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons and the Exploitation of the Prostitution of Others </li></ul><ul><li>UN: Protocol to Prevent, Suppress, and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children of the UN Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime </li></ul>
  25. 25. Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 (TVPA) <ul><li>Prevention </li></ul><ul><li>Protection </li></ul><ul><li>Prosecution </li></ul>
  26. 26. Health risks and opportunities Destination Travel and transit Pre-departure Detention, deportation, criminal evidence Integration and reintegration STAGES OF THE TRAFFICKING PROCESS
  27. 27. ACCEPTS OFFER Vulnerabilities Hopes Strengths + = CREDIBILITY OF THE OFFER Timing of the offer Quality of the offer PUSH & PULL FACTORS DECIDING FACTORS Recruitment Equation
  28. 28. Sexual Trafficking <ul><li>“ The majority of victims of human trafficking are women and children, who are mostly destined for sexual exploitation.” </li></ul><ul><li>(Antonia Costa, UNODC) </li></ul>
  29. 29. The Prostitution Link <ul><li>The Netherlands is a major destination country in Western Europe, with 2000 brothels and numerous escort services, using an estimated 30,000 women. </li></ul><ul><li>Sixty to 70 percent of the women in prostitution in there are not citizens of the Netherlands or other EU countries. </li></ul><ul><li>In one study, 79 percent of women in prostitution gave an indication that they were in prostitution due to some degree of force. </li></ul>Source: Dr. Donna M. Hughes. The Corruption of Civil Society.
  30. 30. The Prostitution Link <ul><li>It is not possible to distinguish between men’s demand for victims of sexual trafficking as separate from men’s demand for commercial sex acts. </li></ul><ul><li>(Dr. Donna M. Hughes, San Diego, 4 th Annual Bi-Lateral Safety Corridor Conference, Sept 2004.) </li></ul>This sign, outside a Hong Kong club, reads: &quot;Young, fresh Hong Kong girls; white, clean Malaysian girls; Beijing women; luxurious ghost girls from Russia.&quot; Photo: Kay Chernush for the U.S. Department of State. 2005
  31. 31. Methods of Recruitment and Trafficking <ul><li>Kidnapping </li></ul><ul><li>Deception/Fraud </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Newspaper ads promising career opportunities in foreign countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recruitment by other victims </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Falsified travel document </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visa overstays </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Debt bondage </li></ul><ul><li>Parents, family, boyfriends, husbands selling children/wives/relatives </li></ul>
  32. 32. The Path to Exploitation <ul><li>Vulnerability Factors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Orphans/refugees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Street children/runaways </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poverty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prior sexual abuse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Widows/abandoned wives & children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnic minorities </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Primary Demand <ul><li>Men who purchase sex acts are all ages and come from all socioeconomic levels, all occupation categories, and ethnic/racial groups. Their behavior to buy a sex act is a choice. </li></ul>Donna Hughes. Best Practices to End Demand . 2004.
  34. 34. The Path to Exploitation <ul><li>Tertiary Demand (culture): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Media promotion of a culture of prostitution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Male privilege/flattery of men’s sexual promiscuity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other cultural attitudes, religious practices and values: e.g. value of girl children/familial duty/temple prostitution/dowry systems/virgin myths (virgin cure/sexual virility) and rape stigma </li></ul></ul>Image source: Internet.
  35. 35. Methods of Conditioning <ul><li>Starvation </li></ul><ul><li>Confinement </li></ul><ul><li>Beatings </li></ul><ul><li>Torture </li></ul><ul><li>Rape and gang rape </li></ul><ul><li>Threats of violence to victims and victim’s family members </li></ul><ul><li>Forced drug usage </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural beliefs (e.g. Karma) </li></ul>
  36. 36. Understanding Traumatic Bonding <ul><li>Captivity, which brings the victim into prolonged contact with the perpetrator, creates a special type of relationship, one of coercive control.* </li></ul><ul><li>The goal of the perpetrator is to instill in his victim not only fear of death but also gratitude for being allowed to live. * </li></ul><ul><li>Attachment between hostage and captor is the rule rather than the exception.* </li></ul><ul><li>(*Dr. Judith Herman, Trauma and Recovery, 1992.) </li></ul>
  37. 37. Understanding Survival Strategies <ul><li>“ As people find the best way to survive, some of their behaviors may raise questions if viewed out of context. For example, the woman’s and adolescent girl’s flirtatiousness, seeking out clients, and getting clients to feel pity or love for them may represent strategies aimed at enhancing their survival.” </li></ul><ul><li>(Wendy Freed, “From Duty to Despair: Brothel Prostitution in Cambodia.” Prostitution, Trafficking and Traumatic Stress . 2003. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Harms of Commercial Sexual Exploitation <ul><li>Physical Health: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drug and alcohol addiction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bodily injuries: broken bones, concussions, burns, vaginal/anal tearing from violence including assault, stabbings, rape, and torture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traumatic brain injury (TBI): resulting in memory loss, dizziness, headaches, numbness, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>STDs (e.g. HIV/AIDS, gonorrhea, syphilis, UTIs, pubic lice) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sterility, miscarriages, menstrual problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disease (e.g. TB, hepatitis, malaria, pneumonia) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forced abortions </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Harms of Commercial Sexual Exploitation <ul><li>Psychological: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): acute anxiety, depression, insomnia, physical hyper-alertness, self-loathing that is long-lasting and resistant to change (complex-PTSD) </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. PTSD Among Prostituted Women <ul><li>In a study of prostituted women from 9 countries, PTSD was 68%, which is in the same range as that of treatment-seeking combat veterans. </li></ul><ul><li>(Farley et al. (2003). Prostitution and Trafficking in Nine Countries: An Update on Violence and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Prostitution, Trafficking, and Traumatic Stress. ) </li></ul>
  41. 41. Harms of Commercial Sexual Exploitation <ul><li>Psychological: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mind/body separation/disassociated ego states </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shame </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grief </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distrust </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hatred of men </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-hatred, suicide and suicidal thoughts </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Understanding the Impact <ul><li>“ Sexual trauma is unique from other forms of trauma. It is a violation of the most intimate and personal aspects of the self. One’s own body becomes the setting in which the atrocities are perpetrated . . . .” </li></ul><ul><li>(Wendy Freed. Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Women and Children in Cambodia − Personal Narratives − A Psychological Perspective. Physicians for Human Rights. 1997) </li></ul>
  43. 43. The Faces of Prostitution Courtney. The Denver Post . 2005. Melissa. Photos -Pinellas County Police Dept, Florida.
  44. 44. Violence women experienced prior to being trafficked
  45. 45. 81% headaches 71% dizzy spells 69% back pain 60-70% various sexual health problems 63% memory problems 82% fatigue The most common physical health symptoms reported by women at 0-14 days
  46. 46. Levels of psychological distress are high, with multiple presenting symptoms 0-14 days 28-56 days 90+ days
  47. 47. Trafficked women’s mental health compared to a general female population 0-14 days 28-56 days 90+ days
  48. 48. Examples of the HIV/TIP Intersection Soweto, South Africa Disaster / Armed Conflict  Displaced People  Vulnerability Conflict  Rape/Sex Slavery  HIV Tourism  Prostitution/Sex Industry  (Corruption)  Vulnerability Poverty  Gender Inequality  (Apathy)  Vulnerability Children Orphaned by AIDS  Poverty  Vulnerability
  49. 49. Risk Factors <ul><li>High Risk Sex </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of Control / Choice over activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inability to insist on condom use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Link to intravenous drug use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Violent sex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Youth (myths, preference) </li></ul></ul>
  50. 50. Indicators <ul><li>HIV prevalence among women in prostitution* </li></ul><ul><ul><li>70.4% South Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>31% Zambia (prevalence in red light areas) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>28.8% Cambodia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>20% Nepal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major factor: clients spreading HIV to others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(WHO Africa 2005) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>HIV prevalence post-conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nigerian peacekeepers leaving Sierra Leone 2x higher </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sierra Leone post conflict: Women 6x more likely to be infected than men </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>* 2005 Trafficking in Persons Report, US Dept. of State </li></ul></ul></ul>
  51. 51. So… what to do? <ul><li>Pray </li></ul><ul><li>Listen </li></ul><ul><li>Watch </li></ul><ul><li>Think </li></ul><ul><li>Act </li></ul>
  52. 52. Victim Identification <ul><li>Evidence of being controlled (rarely alone, seems to be under constant surveillance, isolated or cut off from family and friends, fear of speaking for themselves, and bruises. </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence of inability to move or leave job. </li></ul><ul><li>No passport or other identifying documents. </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive work hours – not free to take time off. </li></ul>Chain link fence with barbed wire surrounds the Bunny Ranch, a “legal” brothel outside Nevada. Photo: Lisa Thompson. 2005
  53. 53. Victim Identification <ul><li>Lives with co-workers and “employer” – no privacy </li></ul><ul><li>Untreated illnesses and infections </li></ul><ul><li>Unpaid for work completed or paid very little (money is managed by a third party) </li></ul><ul><li>Brands or scarring indicating ownership </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot speak local language and shows no knowledge of local community </li></ul>
  54. 54. Key Questions to Ask Potential Victims <ul><li>What type of work do you do? </li></ul><ul><li>Are you being paid? </li></ul><ul><li>Can you leave your job? </li></ul><ul><li>Can you come and go as you please? </li></ul><ul><li>Have you or your family been threatened? </li></ul><ul><li>What are your working and living conditions like? </li></ul>
  55. 55. Key Questions to Ask Potential Victims <ul><li>Where do you sleep and eat? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you have to ask permission to eat, sleep, or to go to the bathroom? </li></ul><ul><li>Are there locks on your doors or windows so you cannot get out? </li></ul><ul><li>Have your documents of identification been taken from you? </li></ul>
  56. 56. Ideas for Action <ul><li>Address Demand: </li></ul><ul><li>Advocate laws that criminalize demand </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Billboards with pictures of men arrested for soliciting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impounding cars of men arrested for soliciting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Johns schools </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sex addiction treatment programs (e.g. Avenue) </li></ul><ul><li>Oppose legalization of prostitution </li></ul><ul><li>Street outreach to potential “johns” passing out literature </li></ul>
  57. 57. Ideas for Action <ul><li>Survivor Programs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outreach: Jail and Street (must be coupled with transitional assistance and referrals for services) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Report and Rescue” (modeled after mandatory reporting laws) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transitional reintegration programs (using merit/reward type programs drawing from prerelease prison programs; micro-enterprise programs) </li></ul></ul>
  58. 58. Ideas for Action <ul><ul><li>Survivor Programs: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Child Sponsorship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foster Parenting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shelters/Institutional care </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legal aid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immigration assistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Health/Medical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job/Skills Training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PTSD & spiritual counseling </li></ul></ul>
  59. 59. Caring for Victims of TIP <ul><li>Immediate / Short Term Needs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shelter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Food, clothing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transportation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Translation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Long Term Needs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Counseling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job / Skills training </li></ul></ul>
  60. 60. Compatible anti-HIV/TIP Activities <ul><li>Address root causes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>gender inequality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sexual violence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>poverty </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Educate communities </li></ul><ul><li>Empowerment </li></ul><ul><li>Network with service providers and community groups </li></ul><ul><li>Train clinic outreach workers and service providers on both HIV/AIDS and TIP </li></ul>
  61. 61. <ul><li>Explain and inform </li></ul><ul><li>Inquire about her </li></ul><ul><li>Be on her side </li></ul>Give Control and Establish Trust
  62. 62. Physical comfort Comforted, comfortable individual More thoughtful, more reliable, accurate information Psychological comfort + Time + Of benefit to the victim = benefit to the case
  63. 63. A Complex Victim Group <ul><li>Disclosure barriers </li></ul><ul><li>Fear of retaliation by traffickers </li></ul><ul><li>Guilt of her perceived complicity in what occurred </li></ul><ul><li>Guilt over any criminal activities in which she participated </li></ul><ul><li>Shame about what she has done, particularly sexual activities </li></ul><ul><li>Little trust in officials, e.g., police, immigration, health workers </li></ul>
  64. 64. Interpreters <ul><li>Security- DO NOT USE ‘VOLUNTEER’ INTERPRETERS </li></ul><ul><li>No discrimination - against sex work, migrants, women </li></ul><ul><li>No neighbours – no one from the same village or town, or local destination community </li></ul><ul><li>Gender – may prefer a female or male </li></ul><ul><li>Warn against any disclosure, with criminal sanctions, e.g., official secrets, data protection act </li></ul>CHECK ACCEPTABILITY OF INTERPRETER WITH THE WOMAN HERSELF
  65. 65. Hotlines <ul><li>Report trafficking crimes or get help by calling the toll-free hotlines: </li></ul><ul><li>DOJ: 1-888-428-7581 (voice and TTY). </li></ul><ul><li>HHS: 1-888-3737-888 </li></ul>
  66. 66. For Additional Information <ul><li>http://www.salvationarmyusa.org/trafficking </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.iast.net/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.uri.edu/artsci/wms/hughes/hughes.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.prostitutionresearch.com/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.state.gov/g/tip/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.acf.hhs.gov/trafficking/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.usdoj.gov/whatwedo/whatwedo_ctip.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.fbi.gov/hq/cid/civilrights/slavery.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.ice.gov/pi/news/factsheets/humantraffic_071404.htm </li></ul>
  67. 67. STOLEN SMILES Physical and mental health consequences of women and adolescents trafficked in Europe Funding from the European Commission’s Daphne Programme, Sigrid Rausing Trust, International Organization for Migration
  68. 68. <ul><li>Zimmerman, C. 2006. Presentation on the health consequences among women who have been trafficked and their implications for services and policy. London: London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine. </li></ul><ul><li>The full report, Stolen Smiles, is available at: </li></ul><ul><li>www.lshtm.ac.uk/genderviolence </li></ul>Suggested citation
  69. 69. Contact <ul><li>Lisa L. Thompson </li></ul><ul><li>Liaison for the Abolition of Sexual Trafficking </li></ul><ul><li>The Salvation Army National Headquarters </li></ul><ul><li>PO Box 269 </li></ul><ul><li>Alexandria, VA 22313 </li></ul><ul><li>Ph: 703.519.5896 </li></ul><ul><li>Fax: 703.519.5889 </li></ul><ul><li>Email: lisa_thompson@usn.salvationarmy.org </li></ul><ul><li>*Photos and images not otherwise attributed © 2006 Jupiterimages Corp. </li></ul>
  70. 70. <ul><li>Kristin Wiebe </li></ul><ul><li>Director of Anti-Trafficking Programs </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>WORLD HOPE INTERNATIONAL 625 Slaters Lane, Suite 100 Alexandria, VA 22314 (703) 923-9414 x121 www.worldhope.org
  71. 71. Other contacts <ul><li>International Justice Mission (worldwide) </li></ul><ul><li>Nightlight (Bangkok) </li></ul><ul><li>Wonderfully Made (India) </li></ul><ul><li>Eden Ministries (China) </li></ul>
  72. 72. Be Encouraged <ul><li>“ But if God be for you, who can be against you? Are all of them stronger than God? O be not weary of well-doing! Go on, in the name of God and in the power of His might, till even American slavery (the vilest that ever saw the sun) shall vanish away.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- John Wesley, 1791 </li></ul></ul>

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