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  1. 1. Egypt2011-2012 revolution & aftermath
  2. 2.  Fourth President of Egypt from 1981 to 2011 Assumed the presidency on 14 October 1981, following the assassination of President Anwar El Sadat (some evidence suggests that he played a role in the assasination)Hosni Mubarak
  3. 3.  On 11 February 2011, Vice President Omar Suleiman announced that Mubarak had resigned as president and transferred authority to the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces. He was ordered to stand trial on charges of negligence in giving orders to stop the killing of peaceful protestors during the revolution. These trials officially began on 3 August 2011.Hosni Mubarak
  4. 4.  On 2 June 2012, Mubarak was sentenced to life imprisonment by an Egyptian court. As of 20 June 2012, multiple sources have reported that he has been facing serious health issues.Hosni Mubarak
  5. 5. • Good relations with former Soviet Union .• State Security Investigations Service & Central Security Forces were expanded greatly.• Against Islamic fundamentalism.• Was initially against the Iraq war.Governing style
  6. 6. • Political figures and young activists were imprisoned without trials.• Illegal undocumented hidden detention facilities were established.• Officers were allowed to violate citizens privacy by using unconditioned arrests according to the emergency law.• Torture was used to extract information.Governing style
  7. 7.  Before 2005 multi candidate elections were not allowed according to the constitution. Despite multiple candidates, the elections weren’t fair. On 8 September 2005, Ayman Nour contested the election results, and demanded a repeat of the election.Nour was convicted of forgery and sentencedto five years at hard labor on 24 December2005.2005 election
  8. 8. Egypt has been a semi-presidential republic under Emergency Law since 1967, except for an 18-month break in the 1980s. Under the law, police powers were extended, constitutional rights suspended and censorship was legalized. Some 17,000 people were detained underthe law, and estimates of political prisoners ran as high as 30,000.Emergency law
  9. 9.  The Egyptian Armed Forces initially enjoyed a better reputation with the public than the police. After the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces became the de facto ruler of Egypt, the popularity of the military has strongly decreased due to the crackdown on protesters. The military has led a violent crackdown on the Egyptian revolution since the fall of Mubarak.Military involvement
  10. 10.  Starts 25 January 2011. Demanding the overthrow of Hosni Mubarak, end of emergency law; freedom, justice, a responsive non- military government, and a say in the management of Egypts resources. Mostly non violent, but at least 846 people killed and 6,000 injured.Revolution
  11. 11.  Protests continued after Mubarak resigned. They demanded immediate governmental reforms, and the swifter prosecution of former officials from the ousted regime.Revolution
  12. 12.  Social media was widely used for the organization of protests. Internet censorship has also been extensive, and in some cases comprehensive to the extent of taking entire nation-states practically off-line.Social media
  13. 13.  On June 24, it was announced by the State Election Commission that Islamist Mohammed Morsi had won the presidential election. Islamists also had a majority in parlaiment. Military council dissolved the parliaments lower house on the basis of “unconstitutional elections”.Mohamed Morsi
  14. 14.  Egypt’s “first democratically elected president” In November 2012, issued a declaration that immunizes his actions from any legal challenge. The constitution now proposed is ambiguous on human rights, freedom of speech and includes elements of Sharia.Mohamed Morsi
  15. 15. IslamistsMubarak Revolutionariesloyalists Egypt
  16. 16.  Article 2 calls for Egyptian laws to be based on the “principle of sharia” Islamic law. Supposedly “incompatible with international human rights law”.Constitution
  17. 17. “Sundays protest by Morsys supportersforced judges to postpone ruling on thelegitimacy of the body drawing up thenations constitution, and on a separate butrelated decision about whether to dissolvethe Shura Council, Egypts upper house ofparliament.” CNN, 3rd December, 2012What’s going on now?
  18. 18.  mfordebate/topics/egyptNYT room for debate about Egypt