Smoking Prevention and Cessation Berndel Magamay, BSN, RN
National Cancer Institute • A smokers risk of cancer is 2-10 times greater than a nonsmokers risk, depending on how much a person has smoked • Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths for both men and women.
American Lung Association • Nearly 4,000 children under the age of 18 begin smoking each day in the United States • Nearly 1,100 of these will become regular smokers
Smoking is a risk factor for: • Hypertension • Heart disease • Peripheral vascular disease • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) • Cancer of the: – lung, colon, larynx, oral cavity, esophagus, bladder, pancreas, kidney.
• Smoking worsens such conditions as – Respiratory infections – Peptic ulcers – Hiatal hernia – Gastroesophageal reflux
Not Smoking • Promotes health by: – Increasing exercise tolerance – Enhancing taste bud function – Avoiding facial wrinkles – Avoiding bad breath
Smoking Prevention Education • Should begin during childhood • Should be stressed during adolescence (a time when peer modeling and confusion over self- image may lead to smoking)
• Smoking cessation can be accomplished through an individualized, multidimensional program.
Smoking Cessation • Information on the short- and long- term health effects of smoking
Smoking Cessation • Practical behavior-modification techniques to help break the habit
Providing Oral Stimulation– Gum chewing– Snacking on carrot and celery sticks– Sucking on mints and hard candy
Providing Tactile Stimulation– Working modeling clay– Knitting
– Avoiding coffee shops, bars, or other situations that smokers frequent– Delaying each cigarette and recording each cigarette in a log before it is smoked
Incentive Plans• Saving money for each cigarette not smoked• Rewarding oneself when a goal is reached
Smoking Cessation • Use of medications designed to reduce physical dependence and minimize withdrawal symptoms – Nicotine chewing gum – Nasal spray – Inhaler system – Transdermal patches
Smoking Cessation – Oral medication (bupropion) • Acts on neurotransmitters in the central nervous system, and varenicline, a selective nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist
Smoking Cessation • Use of support groups • Frequent reinforcement • Follow-up • Encourage additional attempts if relapse occurs
References:• National Cancer Institute. (2007). Prevention and cessation of cigarette smoking: Control of tobacco use. U.S. National Institutes of Health.• Available: www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/prevention/control-of- tobacco-use/patient/allpages• Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2005). Results from the 2004 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: (Office of Applied Studies, NSDUH Series H-27, DHHS Publication No. SMA 05-4061).• Available: http://oas.samhsa.gov/NSDUH/2k4nsduh/2k4Results/2k4Resul ts/pdf