Long Term Effects• A decrease in fertility.• A decrease in the likely birth weight of a babyborn to a smoker.• An increase in the chances of miscarriages,complications at birth and complications inthe baby’s development in the womb.• A large increase in the chances of developingcervical cancer.
Long-term smoking greatly increases a persons chances of developingemphysema, chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD). All of these diseases hinder breathing, and many cause chroniccoughing, or "smokers cough." The longer a person smokes, the more difficult itis to control these diseases, and the end results are often oxygen tanks andultimately death.Smoking is linked to increased risk of cataracts and macular degeneration.Individuals who smoke are at higher risk for cataract surgery and glasses later inlife. The risk for developing age-related macular degeneration is greatlyincreased for long-term smokers. This disease is incurable and causes visionproblems that may lead to blindness.Smoking causes high blood pressure and narrowing of blood vessels andarteries, which greatly increases a persons chance for heart attack and stroke.Long-term smokers are also more apt to develop dangerous blood clots and poorcirculation.
Short Term Effects• Increased heart rate and increased bloodpressure, rarely beneficial to the health in anyperson.• Smoking increases the effect of irritants onany standing allergies, as well as irritating theeyes and nose itself.• An increase in acid in the stomach, which canbe painful.• A further effect is bad breath, a directconsequence of each cigarette smoked.
• Some people think that smoking is one of the ways to lose their bodyweight by reducing appetite, but in reality smoking is not the correct wayfor weight loss. It has been noticed that after quitting smoking thesmokers put on weight, this is because quitting smoking helps in gettingback their appetite in normal status. In such case body weight should bemaintained and controlled by a healthy diet and not by smoking.• Smoking, combined with the effects produced by nicotine, creates animbalance in the demand for oxygen by the cells and the amount ofoxygen the blood is able to supply.• A study printed in 2001 showed that smoking cigarettes, or morespecifically the nicotine in cigarettes, has a positive effect on short-termmemory.