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Developmental Developmental Presentation Transcript

  • Research Methodologies
    • cross-sectional: Examining groups of subjects who are of different ages.
    • longitudinal: Examining the same group of subjects two or more times as they age.
    • biographical: Studying developmental changes by reconstructing subjects’ past through interviews and investigating the effects of past events on current behaviors.
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
    • Advantages
    • inexpensive
    • relatively quick to complete
    • no high attrition rate
    • Disadvantages
    • different age groups may be dissimilar
    • age and maturity may not be equivalent
    • confounds cohort and age differences
  • Longitudinal Studies
    • Advantages
    • detailed info. about subjects
    • provides great detail of developmental changes
    • follows same cohort groups
    • Disadvantages
    • expensive and time-consuming
    • potential for high attrition rates
    • may confound age differences & differences in assessment tools
  • Biographical Studies
    • Advantages
    • rich detail about one individual’s life
    • allows for in-depth study of one individual
    • Disadvantages
    • individual’s recall is often untrustworthy
    • can be very time-consuming and expensive
  • Prenatal Development
    • prenatal development: Development from conception to birth.
    • embryo: 2 weeks after conception to 3 months.
    • fetus: 3 months after conception to birth.
  • Importance of the Placenta
    • The organ by which an embryo or fetus is attached to its mother’s uterus and that nourishes it during prenatal development.
    • The effects of alcohol and smoking by the mother readily cross the placenta.
  • Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
    • Heavy alcohol consumption by the mother during pregnancy results in facial deformities, heart defects, stunted growth, and cognitive impairments.
  • Neonate Reflexes
    • rooting reflex: A baby turns its head toward something touching its cheek and gropes around with its mouth.
    • sucking reflex: Sucking on any object placed in a baby’s mouth.
    • swallowing reflex: Enables the neonate to swallow liquids without choking.
  • Neonate Reflexes
    • grasping reflex: Neonates close their fists on anything that is placed in their hands.
    • stepping reflex: The light stepping motions made by neonates if they are held upright with their feet just touching a surface.
  • Temperament
    • The physical/emotional characteristics of the newborn child and young infant.
  • 3 Types of Temperaments (Thomas & Chess)
    • easy: good-natured and adaptable, easy to care for and please
    • difficult: moody and intense, reacting to new people and new situations negatively and strongly
    • “ slow-to-warm-up”: relatively inactive and slow to respond to new things, and when they do react, their reactions are mild
  • Visual Preferences of Infants
    • novel picture or pattern
    • picture/pattern with clear contrasts (e.g., black and white patterns)
    • their own mother rather than a stranger
  • Depth Perception (Visual Cliff Studies)
    • Crawling babies will not cross over onto deep side.
    • babies too young to crawl: no anxiety, but do demonstrate depth perception
    • 2-4 months old: begin to perceive patterns, objects, and depth
  • Developmental Trends
    • cephalocaudal: Development occurs in areas near the head (cephalo) first and areas farther from the head develop later ( caudal means tail).
    • proximodistal: Development occurs near the center of the body ( proximal ) first and near the extremities ( distal ) later.
  • Developmental Trends
    • gross to specific development: Children tend to gain control of gross (large muscle) movement before they gain control of specific (or fine motor control) movement.
  • Cognitive Development (Piaget)
    • sensory-motor stage (birth-2)
    • preoperational stage (2-7)
    • concrete operations (7-11)
    • formal operations (11-15)
  • Sensory-Motor Stage (birth to 2 years)
    • object permanence: The concept that things continue to exist even when they are out of sight.
    • mental representations: Mental images or symbols (such as words) used to think about or remember an object, a person, or an event.
  • Preoperational Stage (2 to 7 years)
    • A child becomes able to use mental representations and language to describe, remember, and reason about the world.
    • egocentric: Unable to see things from another person’s point of view.
  • Concrete-Operational Stage (7 to 11 years)
    • A child can attend to more than one thing at a time and understand someone else’s point of view, though thinking is limited to concrete matters.
    • A child can understand conservation .
  • Principles of Conservation
    • The concept that basic amounts remain constant despite superficial changes in appearances.
  • Formal-Operational Stage (11 to 15 years)
    • The individual becomes capable of abstract thought.
  • Criticisms of Piaget’s Theory
    • Piaget underestimated the cognitive ability of infants.
    • Cognitive milestones are reached sooner than Piaget believed.
    • He did not take the role of social interaction into account.
    • His theory does not address human diversity.