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  1. 1. Research Methodologies <ul><li>cross-sectional: Examining groups of subjects who are of different ages. </li></ul><ul><li>longitudinal: Examining the same group of subjects two or more times as they age. </li></ul><ul><li>biographical: Studying developmental changes by reconstructing subjects’ past through interviews and investigating the effects of past events on current behaviors. </li></ul>
  2. 2. Cross-Sectional Studies <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>inexpensive </li></ul><ul><li>relatively quick to complete </li></ul><ul><li>no high attrition rate </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>different age groups may be dissimilar </li></ul><ul><li>age and maturity may not be equivalent </li></ul><ul><li>confounds cohort and age differences </li></ul>
  3. 3. Longitudinal Studies <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>detailed info. about subjects </li></ul><ul><li>provides great detail of developmental changes </li></ul><ul><li>follows same cohort groups </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>expensive and time-consuming </li></ul><ul><li>potential for high attrition rates </li></ul><ul><li>may confound age differences & differences in assessment tools </li></ul>
  4. 4. Biographical Studies <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>rich detail about one individual’s life </li></ul><ul><li>allows for in-depth study of one individual </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>individual’s recall is often untrustworthy </li></ul><ul><li>can be very time-consuming and expensive </li></ul>
  5. 5. Prenatal Development <ul><li>prenatal development: Development from conception to birth. </li></ul><ul><li>embryo: 2 weeks after conception to 3 months. </li></ul><ul><li>fetus: 3 months after conception to birth. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Importance of the Placenta <ul><li>The organ by which an embryo or fetus is attached to its mother’s uterus and that nourishes it during prenatal development. </li></ul><ul><li>The effects of alcohol and smoking by the mother readily cross the placenta. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) <ul><li>Heavy alcohol consumption by the mother during pregnancy results in facial deformities, heart defects, stunted growth, and cognitive impairments. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Neonate Reflexes <ul><li>rooting reflex: A baby turns its head toward something touching its cheek and gropes around with its mouth. </li></ul><ul><li>sucking reflex: Sucking on any object placed in a baby’s mouth. </li></ul><ul><li>swallowing reflex: Enables the neonate to swallow liquids without choking. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Neonate Reflexes <ul><li>grasping reflex: Neonates close their fists on anything that is placed in their hands. </li></ul><ul><li>stepping reflex: The light stepping motions made by neonates if they are held upright with their feet just touching a surface. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Temperament <ul><li>The physical/emotional characteristics of the newborn child and young infant. </li></ul>
  11. 11. 3 Types of Temperaments (Thomas & Chess) <ul><li>easy: good-natured and adaptable, easy to care for and please </li></ul><ul><li>difficult: moody and intense, reacting to new people and new situations negatively and strongly </li></ul><ul><li>“ slow-to-warm-up”: relatively inactive and slow to respond to new things, and when they do react, their reactions are mild </li></ul>
  12. 12. Visual Preferences of Infants <ul><li>novel picture or pattern </li></ul><ul><li>picture/pattern with clear contrasts (e.g., black and white patterns) </li></ul><ul><li>their own mother rather than a stranger </li></ul>
  13. 13. Depth Perception (Visual Cliff Studies) <ul><li>Crawling babies will not cross over onto deep side. </li></ul><ul><li>babies too young to crawl: no anxiety, but do demonstrate depth perception </li></ul><ul><li>2-4 months old: begin to perceive patterns, objects, and depth </li></ul>
  14. 14. Developmental Trends <ul><li>cephalocaudal: Development occurs in areas near the head (cephalo) first and areas farther from the head develop later ( caudal means tail). </li></ul><ul><li>proximodistal: Development occurs near the center of the body ( proximal ) first and near the extremities ( distal ) later. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Developmental Trends <ul><li>gross to specific development: Children tend to gain control of gross (large muscle) movement before they gain control of specific (or fine motor control) movement. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Cognitive Development (Piaget) <ul><li>sensory-motor stage (birth-2) </li></ul><ul><li>preoperational stage (2-7) </li></ul><ul><li>concrete operations (7-11) </li></ul><ul><li>formal operations (11-15) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Sensory-Motor Stage (birth to 2 years) <ul><li>object permanence: The concept that things continue to exist even when they are out of sight. </li></ul><ul><li>mental representations: Mental images or symbols (such as words) used to think about or remember an object, a person, or an event. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Preoperational Stage (2 to 7 years) <ul><li>A child becomes able to use mental representations and language to describe, remember, and reason about the world. </li></ul><ul><li>egocentric: Unable to see things from another person’s point of view. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Concrete-Operational Stage (7 to 11 years) <ul><li>A child can attend to more than one thing at a time and understand someone else’s point of view, though thinking is limited to concrete matters. </li></ul><ul><li>A child can understand conservation . </li></ul>
  20. 20. Principles of Conservation <ul><li>The concept that basic amounts remain constant despite superficial changes in appearances. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Formal-Operational Stage (11 to 15 years) <ul><li>The individual becomes capable of abstract thought. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Criticisms of Piaget’s Theory <ul><li>Piaget underestimated the cognitive ability of infants. </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive milestones are reached sooner than Piaget believed. </li></ul><ul><li>He did not take the role of social interaction into account. </li></ul><ul><li>His theory does not address human diversity. </li></ul>