Perceptual and motor development


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Perceptual and motor development

  1. 1. Perceptual and Motor Development California Infant/Toddler Learning and Development Foundations (2009) Teaching Strategies, CDA Training (1999) Feeny, Christensen, Moravcik (2001) Who Am I in the Lives of Children
  2. 2. Physical Curriculum <ul><li>The body is a young child’s connection to the world </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory and motor development have to come first </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensory Development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large Muscle Development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small Muscle Development </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Perception <ul><li>Process of taking in, organizing, and interpreting sensory information </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple sensory inputs contribute to motor responses </li></ul><ul><li>Strong relationship between perception and motor development </li></ul>California Infant/Toddler Learning and Development Foundations, 2009
  4. 4. Perceptual Development <ul><li>Infants distinguish features of the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Perceive commonalities and differences between objects </li></ul><ul><li>Explore objects differently depending up features – weight, texture, sound, rigidity </li></ul><ul><li>Exhibits “exploratory behavior” </li></ul><ul><li>Strongly related to the social-emotional domain </li></ul>California Infant/Toddler Learning and Development Foundations, 2009
  5. 5. Perceptional Development Foundation <ul><li>The developing ability to become aware of the social and physical environment through the senses. </li></ul><ul><li>8 months – use senses to explore objects and people in the environment </li></ul><ul><li>18 months – use information received from the senses to change the way they interact with the environment </li></ul><ul><li>36 months – quickly and easily use the information received from the senses to change the way they interact with the environment. </li></ul>California Infant/Toddler Learning and Development Foundations, 2009
  6. 6. Sensory Development <ul><li>Kinesthetic sense: movement and position </li></ul><ul><li>Auditory sense: hearing </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of touch </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Skin - Organ of touch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need human touch </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sense of Smell </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of Taste </li></ul>
  7. 7. Jean Piaget Stages of Cognitive Development <ul><li>Sensorimotor Stage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Birth to two </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Objects exist outside of their visual field - object permanence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn strictly through sensory experience within their environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>KINESTHETIC </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Motor Development <ul><li>Changes in children’s ability to control their body’s movements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From infants’ first spontaneous waving and kicking movements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To control of reaching, locomotion, and complex sports skills </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Motor development influenced by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Child’s Interest in exploration </li></ul></ul>California Infant/Toddler Learning and Development Foundations, 2009
  9. 9. What is Motor Development? <ul><li>Gradually gaining control over large and small muscles. </li></ul><ul><li>Gross Motor Skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sitting, crawling, walking, running, throwing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fine Motor Skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>holding, pinching, flexing fingers and toes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Coordination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinate large and small muscles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use senses - sight, sound, and touch </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Gross Motor Foundation <ul><li>The developing ability to move the large muscles </li></ul><ul><li>8 months – demonstrate the ability to maintain their posture in a sitting position and to shift between sitting and other positions </li></ul><ul><li>18 months – move from one place to another by walking and running with basic control and coordination </li></ul><ul><li>36 months – move with ease, coordinating movements and performing a variety of movements </li></ul>
  11. 11. Large Muscle Movement <ul><li>Gross motor skills </li></ul><ul><li>Development of arms, legs, and torso </li></ul><ul><li>Develop strength and endurance </li></ul><ul><li>Retain flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>Develop coordination and agility </li></ul><ul><li>Provide pleasurable play situations </li></ul><ul><li>Play with children </li></ul><ul><li>Creative movement </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Provide balls, equipment, materials, and activities for ALL children </li></ul>
  12. 12. Fine Motor Foundation <ul><li>The developing ability to move the small muscles </li></ul><ul><li>8 months – children easily reach for and grasp things and use eyes and hands to explore objects actively </li></ul><ul><li>18 months – are able to hold small objects in one hand and sometimes use both hands together to manipulate objects </li></ul><ul><li>36 months – coordinate the fine movements of the fingers, wrists, and hands to skillfully manipulate a wide range of objects and materials in intricate ways; often use one hand to stabilize an object while manipulating it. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Small Muscle Movement <ul><li>Infants – feel, grasp, and manipulate </li></ul><ul><li>Leads to competent use of tools </li></ul><ul><li>Fine motor activities </li></ul><ul><li>Build control, agility, strength, coordination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>hands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fingers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>wrists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>arms </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Small Muscle Movement <ul><li>Time, practice, and experience required </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory and muscular interplay </li></ul><ul><li>Hand-eye coordination </li></ul><ul><li>Coordination of two hands </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled use of hands and fingers </li></ul><ul><li>Sensitive to individual differences </li></ul><ul><li>Cutting, writing, drawing, hole punches, tongs, tweezers, staplers, etc. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Developmental Domains <ul><li>Linked with each other - interrelated and interdependent </li></ul><ul><li>Linked to other factors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mental health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brain functioning </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Developmental Charts <ul><li>Show development “unfolding in a smooth upward progression toward mastery” </li></ul><ul><li>Reality - “development of individual children does not follow a smooth trajectory.” </li></ul><ul><li>Infants actively adapt to varying circumstances and new tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Development influenced by cultural and historical factors. </li></ul>California Infant/Toddler Learning and Development Foundations, 2009
  17. 17. Developmental Milestones <ul><li>The Whold Child – PBS </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical Development - </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Medline Plus - </li></ul><ul><li>The Baby Center Milestone Charts - </li></ul>
  18. 18. A Child’s First Three Years <ul><li>Learn to control body muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Practice physical skills they will use for the rest of their lives </li></ul><ul><li>Need opportunities to learn and practice </li></ul><ul><li>Use senses to understand the world around them – sight, sound, touch </li></ul><ul><li>Important for developing self-esteem. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Young Infants <ul><li>Do not have control over how they move </li></ul><ul><li>Some kicking, squirming, wiggling is random, without purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Reflexive movements – automatic </li></ul><ul><li>Begin to gain control over how they move </li></ul><ul><li>Develop at different rates </li></ul><ul><li>Follow head to toe general pattern </li></ul><ul><li>Gross motor skills come before fine motor skills </li></ul>Lift Head Sit Crawl Walk
  20. 20. From Newborn to 18 Months <ul><li>Eye-hand coordination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bringing hands to mouth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reaching for things </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Letting go of things </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moving a toy from one hand to another </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grasping things with fingers and thumbs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Make physical contact with a piece of their world </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A sight and sound of a rattle, bell, book </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crawlers feel soft rug, hard floor, sponge pillows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New walkers discover places, things, toys </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Toddlers <ul><li>Wide range of large and small muscle skills </li></ul><ul><li>Walk, run, climb, and squat </li></ul><ul><li>Move about without their hands to support themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Begin to throw and catch </li></ul><ul><li>Hop and jump </li></ul><ul><li>Gain control of bladder and bowel muscles </li></ul>
  22. 22. Toddler Fine Motor Skills <ul><li>Fit pieces into simple puzzle </li></ul><ul><li>Build with blocks </li></ul><ul><li>Pour juice from a pitcher </li></ul><ul><li>Hands free to touch, lift, grasp, push, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>May show preference for right/left hand </li></ul><ul><li>Reach for objects </li></ul><ul><li>Use eating utensils </li></ul><ul><li>Turn pages of book </li></ul><ul><li>Pretend to write </li></ul><ul><li>Draw and paint </li></ul>
  23. 23. Three-Year-Olds Gross Motor Skills <ul><li>Usually sure and nimble on their feet </li></ul><ul><li>Walk, run, turn sharp corners with ease </li></ul><ul><li>Often hold arms out to their sides for balance </li></ul><ul><li>Walk up stairs using alternate feet </li></ul><ul><li>Jump from stairs and land on both feet </li></ul><ul><li>Gallop and dance to music </li></ul><ul><li>Hop several times in a row on one foot </li></ul><ul><li>Walk along a line made of tape </li></ul><ul><li>Push and pedal tricycles and swing </li></ul><ul><li>Throw, catch, and kick large balls </li></ul>
  24. 24. Three-Year-Olds Fine Motor Skills <ul><li>Prefer gross motor activities </li></ul><ul><li>Gaining control of fingers, hands, wrists </li></ul><ul><li>Family-style meals good for active participation – using spoons to serve, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Have learned to dress themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Can wash own hands </li></ul><ul><li>String beads, build towers with blocks, play with puzzles, use scissors, </li></ul><ul><li>Hold crayons and scribble </li></ul><ul><li>Explore through playdough, sand, water, clay </li></ul>
  25. 25. Caregivers Role <ul><li>Schedule time for active play everyday </li></ul><ul><li>Help and encourage children when they are learning new skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage children to use large and small muscles in a coordinated way </li></ul><ul><li>Help develop awareness of rhythm for coordination </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage children to use all senses to explore size, shape, volume, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Give children time to practice new skills. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Environment <ul><li>Set up room so infants have freedom and opportunities to explore safely </li></ul><ul><li>Use materials and equipment that require children to use large muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Play indoor and outdoor non-competitive games with children </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage development of self-help skills </li></ul><ul><li>Plan increasingly difficult activities using large muscles – moving objects, furniture </li></ul>
  27. 27. Materials <ul><li>Use materials that require children to use small muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Give infants opportunities to develop small muscles like grasping, pulling, dropping, fingering </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage self-help skills – dressing, eating </li></ul><ul><li>Plan activities – fingerplays, cooking, etc. </li></ul>