Cce manual class_vi_vii_2010


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Cce manual class_vi_vii_2010

  1. 1. i Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation
  2. 2. Manual for Teachers on School Based Assessment Classes VI to VIII Price: Rs. First Edition 2010 © CBSE , India CBSE, Copies: All rights reserved No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the Central Board of Secondary Education.Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation Published by : The Secretary, Central Board of Secondary Education, Shiksha Kendra, 2, Community Centre, Preet Vihar, Delhi - 110092 Design & Layout by : Sabyasachi Panja Printed by : ii
  3. 3. AcknowledgementsAdvisoryShri Vineet Joshi, Chairman, Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE)Prof. Marmar Mukhopadhayay, Former Director, National University ofEducational Planning and Administration (NUEPA), New DelhiGroup of Schools (Used for trialling):• Blue Bells Model Sr. Sec. School, Sector-4, Gurgaon• Blue Bells Public School, Sector - 10, Gurgaon• CCA School, Sector-4, Gurgaon• DAV Public School, Sector-14, Gurgaon• Delhi Public School, Sector-45, Gurgaon• Raman Munjal Vidya Mandir, Sidhrawali, Gurgaon• Rotary Public School, Sector-22, Gurgaon• Ryan International School, Sohna Road, Bhondsi, Gurgaon• S. D. Adarsh Vidyalaya, Sohna Road, Sector - 47, Gurgaon• Salwan Public School, Sector-15 (II), Gurgaon• Sh. S. N. Siddeshwar Public School, Sector-9-A, Gurgaon• Sherwood Convent School, L-Block, DLF Phase-II, Gurgaon• St. P B. N. Public School, Sector-17, Gurgaon . Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation• Summer Fields School, DLF-I, Gurgaon• Suncity World School, Sector-54, Gurgaon• Tagore International School, DLF-III, Gurgaon• The Sagar School, Tijara, Alwar, RajasthanEditingDr. Sadhana Parashar, Head (Innovations & Research), Central Board ofSecondary Education (CBSE)Dr. Indu Khetarpal, Principal, Salwan Public School, GurgaonGrateful to:Mrs. Sugandh Sharma, Education Officer, Central Board of Secondary Education(CBSE)Mrs. Rita Kapur, Principal, Delhi Public School, GhaziabadMrs. Lata Vaidyanathan, Principal, Modern School, Barakhamba Road, New DelhiMrs. Bharti Sharma, Principal, Amity International School, Saket, New Delhi iii
  4. 4. Baart ka saMivaQaana hmaÊ Baart ko laaogaÊ Baart kao ³sampUNa- p`Bau%va saMpnna samaajavaadI pMqainarpoxa laaoktaM~a%mak gaNarajya´ banaanao ko ilaeÊ tqaa ]sako samast naagairkaoM kao: saamaaijakÊ Aaiqa- k AaO r rajanaO i tk nyaayaÊ ivacaarÊ AiBavyai@tÊ ivaSvaasaÊ Qama- AaO r ]pasanaa kI svatM ~ taÊ p`itYza AaOr Avasar kI samata p`aPt krnao ko ilaeÊ tqaa ]na saba maoMÊ vyai@t kI gairmaa AaOr ³raYT/ kI ekta AaOr AKNDta´ sauinaiScat krnao vaalaI baMQauta baZ,anao ko ilae dRZ,saMklp haokr ApnaI [sa saMivaQaana saBaa maoM Aaja tarIK 26 navambarÊ 1949 [-• kao etdWara [sa saMivaQaana kao AMgaIkRtÊ AiQainayaimat AaOr Aa%maip-t krto hOM. 1• saMivaQaana ³bayaalaIsavaaM saMSaaoQana´ AiQainayamaÊ 1976 kI Qaara 2 Wara ³3•1•1977 sao´Ê “p`Bau%va laaoktM~a%mak gaNarajya” ko sqaana pr p`itsqaaipt. 2• saMivaQaana ³bayaalaIsavaaM saMSaaoQana´ AiQainayamaÊ 1976 kI Qaara 2 Wara ³3•1•1977 sao´Ê “raYT/ kI ekta” ko sqaana pr p`itsqaaipt. Baaga 4 k maUla k<a-vyaContinuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 51 k• maUla k,<a-vya – Baart ko p`%yaok naagairk ka yah k<a-vya haogaa ik vah – ³k´ saMivaQaana ka palana kro AaOr ]sako AadSaao-Ê saMsqaaAaoMÊ raYT/Qvaja AaOr raYT/gaana ka Aadr kro ³K´ svatM~ta ko ilae hmaaro raYT/Iya AaMdaolana kao p`oirt krnao vaalao ]cca AadSaao- kao )dya maoM saMjaaoe rKo AaOr ]naka palana kro ³ga´ Baart kI p`BautaÊ ekta AaOr AKMDta kI rxaa kro AaOr ]sao AxauNNa rKo ³Ga´ doSa kI rxaa kro AaOr Aahvaana ike jaanao pr raYT/ kI saovaa kro ³D´ Baart ko saBaI laaogaaoM maoM samarsata AaOr samaana Ba`atR%va kI Baavanaa ka inamaa-Na krao jaao Qama-Ê BaaYaa AaOr p`doSa yaa vaga- ya vaga- pr AaQaairt saBaI BaodBaava sao pro haoMÊ eosaI p`qaaAaoM ka %yaaga kro jaao is~yaaoM ko sammaana ko iva$w hOM ³ca´ hmaarI saamaaijak saMskRit kI gaaOrvaSaalaI prMpra ka mah<va samaJaoM AaOr ]saka prIxaNa kroM ³C´ p`akRitk pyaa-varNa kI ijasako AMtga-t vanaÊ JaIlaÊ nadIÊ AaOr vanya jaIva hOMÊ rxaa kro AaOr ]saka saMvaQa-na kroM tqaa p`aiNamaa~ ko p`it dyaaBaava rKo ³ja´ vaO&ainak dRiYTkaoNaÊ maanavavaad AaOr &anaaja-na tqaa sauQaar kI Baavanaa ka ivakasa kroM ³Ja´ saava-jainak saMpi<a kao saurixat rKoM AaOr ihMsaa sao dUr rhoM ³Ha´ vyai@tgat AaOr saamaUihk gaitivaiQayaaoM ko saBaI xao~aoM maoM ]%kYa- kI Aaor baZ,nao ka satt p`yaasa kroM ijasasao raYT/ inarMtr baZ,to hue p`ya%na AaOr ]plaibQa kI na[- }^Mcaa[yaaoM kao CU laMo. iv
  5. 5. THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIAPREAMBLEWE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGNSOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure to all its citizens:JUSTICE, social, economic and political;LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship;EQUALITY of status and of opportunity; and to promote among them allFRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the [unity and integrity of the Nation];IN OUR CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY this twenty-sixth day of November, 1949, do HEREBYADOPT, ENACT AND GIVE TO OURSELVES THIS CONSTITUTION. 1. Subs. by the Constitution (Forty-Second Amendment) Act. 1976, sec. 2, for “Sovereign Democratic Republic (w.e.f. 3.1.1977) 2. Subs. by the Constitution (Forty-Second Amendment) Act. 1976, sec. 2, for “unity of the Nation (w.e.f. 3.1.1977) THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA Chapter IV A Fundamental Duties Continuous and Comprehensive EvaluationARTICLE 51AFundamental Duties – It shall be the duty of every citizen of India – (a) to abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the National Flag and the National Anthem; (b) to cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom; (c) to uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India; (d) to defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so; (e) to promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities; to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women; (f) to value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture; (g) to protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers, wild life and to have compassion for living creatures; (h) to develop the scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform; (i) to safeguard public property and to abjure violence; (j) to strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity so that the nation constantly rises to higher levels of endeavour and achievement. v
  6. 6. Preface The Manual for Teachers - Classes VI to VIII is an outcome of long deliberations among academicians, teachers, educators, principals and even students. It has taken a rather long time to reach its present form. The effort has been to make it easier to understand, for teachers, parents and the educators. Assessment is a form of communication and should be seen as an integral part of learning and teaching. Assessment can be diagnostic, formative and summative. Assessment for learning can be recognised as central to classroom practice. Teachers need to be sensitive and empathetic as all assessments have an emotional impact and can contribute to learner motivation. Formative Assessment helps in creating reflective learners and reflective teachers. The judgements that teachers make need to be based on effective criteria or standards, through information collected in a variety of ways. The overall goal of assessment is to improve student learning. Assessment provides students, parents and teachers with valid information concerning student progress. Assessment requires the gathering of evidence of student performance over a period of time to measure learning and understanding. Evidence of learning could take the form of dialogue, journals, written work, portfolios andContinuous and Comprehensive Evaluation tests along with many other learning tasks. We use the general term assessment to refer to all those activities undertaken by teachers and by their students in assessing themselves, that provide information to be used as feedback to modify teaching and learning activities. Such assessment becomes formative assessment when the evidence is actually used to adapt the teaching to meet student needs. Formative as well as Summative Assessment needs to be valid in that it tests a relevant skill or ability and reliable so that the same result is achieved if the assessment is repeated. The present Manual for teachers includes detailed information about the scheme of Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation, fundamentals of assessment in co-scholastic areas, essential dimensions of School based assessment, tools and techniques of evaluation in scholastic and co-scholastic domains, the proposed School Based Assessment Report Book and detailed guidelines for effective implementation of the scheme in schools. Care has been taken to include the essential theoretical framework as well as desired implementation procedures. The CCE School Based Assessment Report Book should be seen as a positive vi
  7. 7. interpretation of the profile dynamics of the learner. It is necessary to discussthe salient features of CCE Scheme with the teachers and convince them thatassessing children is not a separate activity nor is it an extra burden whichrequires additional effort or time. It needs to be woven into the teaching learningprocess as an integral part. The Scholastic Areas will be assessed on a ninepoint scale. All activities under the Co-scholastic domain will be assessed on afive point scale. The Value Education framework draws upon values from theConstitution of India.I hope that schools will follow the CCE Scheme of School Based Assessment inthe right spirit with academic integrity which will support better learning andenable the school to achieve one of the objectives of making learning moreenjoyable by all students.The Formative Assessment needs to be conducted through various modes rangingfrom student centric assessment tasks and peer assessment to teacher led tasks.Schools must, whenever possible, encourage teachers to attend trainingprogrammes run by the Board to build their teaching and testing skills.I also hope that parents will appreciate the need for holistic assessment andencourage their children to develop skills in all areas. Schools should also engagein a dialogue with parents to bring home to them the context and the meaningof the Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation so that they are active partners Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluationin realizing the potential of their children.I would like to thank Prof. Gabrielle Matters, Principal Research Fellow, ACERand Head, ACER, Brisbane, Australia for giving her valuable feedback on thisdocument.The tireless efforts of Prof. Marmar Mukhopadhayay, Former Director, NUEPA,New Delhi for his expert guidance in conceptualizing the scheme and finalizingthe document along with Dr. Sadhana Parashar, Head (Innovation & Research)and Dr. Indu Khetarpal, Principal, Salwan Public School, Gurgaon needs to beappreciated.I hope this Manual for Teachers - Classes VI to VIII is useful for everybodyinvolved in teaching and learning in the middle school at upper primary stage. Vineet Joshi Chairman, Central Board of Secondary Education vii
  8. 8. Foreword In this publication, Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation - Manual for Teachers, the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) provides teachers with rich and meaningful information about putting into practice an evaluation (assessment) model that is continuous in that assessment occurs over a period of time rather than on a single occasion and comprehensive in that it incorporates scholastic and non-scholastic aspects of learning. As well, this model places teacher judgment at the heart of the assessment process. As others have argued, teacher judgments can be important evidence of student achievement. But teachers need to develop principled ways of incorporating those judgments into the evidentiary record on which to base their formative and summative inferences about student achievement levels. The Manual for Teachers describes how to do this. The manual also refers to a monitoring process for grades awarded. The features of good assessment tasks are many and varied, but some are enduring: The task must be based on the curriculum, students must know what is expected, students must recognise the task as worthwhile and relevant, and the task must be capable of eliciting optimal performance from students.Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation Comprehensive assessment values both process and product, includes academic outcomes, social outcomes, and generic skills. It covers a wide range of discipline- specific knowledge dimensions (declarative, conditional and procedural); generic skills such as analysing and deducing that are used in working with ideas, information, artefacts and texts; and skills related to the personal, interpersonal and ethical dimensions of human life. School based formative assessment, incorporating features of continuous assessment, is common to many assessment regimes. A major tendency in such systems is for teachers to use external tests as models for their own assessment, undermining its formative role, or to relegate formative assessment to assessment of attitudes and behavior only, thus seriously devaluing higher-order thinking. The change in emphasis from assessment that is dominated by external summative testing to assessment where classroom teachers have not only a formative assessment role but also a summative assessment role can be linked to a shift viii
  9. 9. towards assessment tasks which emulate the kind of process-based higher-order tasks thought to represent good practice.Continuous assessment is a balance between the undesirable extremes ofincessant (e.g. daily) and quantum (e.g. annual) assessment.In implementing a program of continuous assessment, teachers need to providesufficient but not an excess of formative assessments to allow students to developresponse techniques for the range of assessment instruments and conditionsthat will be applied. When scheduling assessment tasks teachers need to beaware of the stage and rate of development of students to help ensure thatthere has been adequate time for students to learn sufficient subject content, sothat assessment of understanding and application is grounded in that knowledge.While continuous assessment makes demands on teachers, it also allowsteachers the flexibility to meet them. By spreading assessment decisions overboth time and tasks, not only is the evidence used to support judgments increased,so too are the opportunities for reflection on those judgments. Teachers candivide assessment into suitably timed and sized parts in such a way that the timeallowed is less likely to be a covert criterion of assessment quality. Furthermore,the time frame involved in continuous assessment is an important aspect of Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluationputting together student records and providing time for teachers to reflect onthe assessment and its outcomes. Continuous assessment also provides, in away that terminal evaluation cannot, both motivation and opportunities forstudents to reflect on their work, develop strategies for improvement, anddemonstrate improvement before the final (summative) assessment is made.Nevertheless, the difficulties involved for teachers in meeting the challenges posedby continuous assessment should not be understated. Experiences elsewhereshow that continuous assessment makes time-management demands onteachers and students, it can lead to over-assessment, and it can create tensionsbetween the formative and summative purposes of assessment.This manual includes some useful ideas on changing assessment practices.The various forms of formative assessment suggested in the manual seem capableof assessing a greater range, at least, of curriculum learning than do externalexaminations. Various distinctions are made in the manual as internal versus ix
  10. 10. external, formative versus summative, and authentic versus objective. It should be remembered, however, that the combination “internal/formative/authentic” is possible but not a necessary alignment of these distinctions. In other words, you can have internal assessment that is summative, and you can have internal assessment that is objective. But of course internal assessment is more likely to be authentic than external examinations not only because the assessment is occurring as close as possible to the learning but also because of the range of assessment instruments available. Assessment tasks can be long or short, not necessarily written, done in a controlled assessment space or not, completed in a specified time or not, by students working individually or in groups, with or without certain levels of teacher assistance, and so on. Student work may be an artifact, performance, oral presentation, computer program, extended writing, project work, rich task, fieldwork, practical work, or other demonstration of mastery. Some personal attributes contribute to academic performance; for example, a dedication to study can be acknowledged and recorded as an observed attribute in a student; it should also lead to the student doing well in academic assessment. The academic assessment, however, should focus on actual achievement, ratherContinuous and Comprehensive Evaluation than the personal attributes that contributed to it. In various educational systems the relative value attached to attributes and achievement may vary, but it is important not to get them confused with each other. Concerns are often expressed or at least implied that judgments about personal attributes in an education context are biased. To the extent that such assessment is based on teachers’ personal observations of students from day to day, it is inevitable that some assessment will be affected by teachers allowing personal preference influence their judgments but this should not undermine the desirable validity of teacher judgments based on solid evidence. Writing a manual for teachers in an era of assessment reform is a balancing act. The authors must balance being too prescriptive and not being sufficiently helpful. They must provide information that is technically sound in educational measurement terms and also practical for teachers at the “coal face”. This manual meets all those requirements and so I commend it to all teachers associated with the CBSE’s assessment reform. I wish them well in their x
  11. 11. endeavours in continuous and comprehensive assessment. This reform is infact a genuine exercise that requires teachers to change their practices fromexamination preparation to more authentic on-going assessment. If teachersdo the kind of things the reform is calling for, the change will be long-lasting,leading successfully to the kind of outcomes that were intended.The research on time-lags for achievement of change should be noted. It takesabout three years in an elementary school and (depending on size) about sixyears in a secondary school to see the effects of a reform. I look forward tobeing able to note the positive effects of this particular reform in India in theyears to come. Gabrielle Matters Principal Research Fellow at the Australian Council for Educational Research Gabrielle Matters is a Principal Research Fellow at the Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER) Melbourne, Head of ACER Brisbane, and Executive Secretary of the International Association for Educational Assessment. She is Adjunct Professor, Faculty of Education, Queensland Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation University of Technology, with a doctorate in the field of psychometrics. She holds a Bachelor of Science degree from The University of Queensland and a diploma in piano (AMusA) from the Queensland Conservatorium of Music. Dr Matters has had extensive experience in education as a classroom teacher (physical sciences), school administrator, university lecturer, researcher, advisor, test designer and author. She has held executive management positions within the Australian education sector and has worked with education systems in Australia and overseas, most recently in Tajikistan and Ethiopia. Her areas of expertise are in the fields of educational measurement, educational administration, test design and marking, the curriculum ‘wars’, the underachievement of boys, educational research (policy and practice), and system/school reform. xi
  12. 12. Free The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009 No. 35 of 2009 Every child of the age of six to fourteen years shall have a right to free and compulsory education in a neighbourhood school till completion of elementary education [Chapter No. II Part 3 clause (i)]Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation No child admitted in a school shall be held back in any class or expelled from school till the completion of elementary education [Chapter No. IV Part 16] xii
  13. 13. ContentsChapter 1Continuous and Comprehensive 1-16EvaluationChapter 2School Based Continuous and 17-21Comprehensive EvaluationChapter 3CCE in Middle School Level 22-38Chapter 4Assessing Co-scholastic Areas 39-64Chapter 5Tools and Techniques of Evaluation 65-90 Continuous and Comprehensive EvaluationChapter 6Implications for Schools 91-100Annexure 1Tools and Techniques for Assessing 101-107Children’s Learning: The Choice AvailableAnnexure 2Glossary of Terms 108-110Annexure 3CCE Circulars 112-146Suggestions/Feedback Form 147 xiii
  14. 14. Chapter 1 Manual for Teachers Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation Aim of Education Education aims at making children capable of becoming responsible, productive and useful members of a society. Knowledge, skills and Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation attitudes are built through learning experiences and opportunities created for learners in school. It is in the classroom that learners can analyse and evaluate their experiences, learn to doubt, to question, to investigate and to think independently. The aim of education simultaneously reflects the current needs and aspirations of a society as well as its lasting values and human ideals. At any given time and place it can be called the contemporary and contextual articulations of broad and lasting human aspirations and values. An understanding of learners, educational aims, the nature of knowledge, and the nature of the school as a social organization can help us arrive at principles to guide classroom practices. Conceptual development is thus a continuous process of 1
  15. 15. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation deepening and enriching connections and acquiring new layers of meaning. Simultaneously theories that children have about the natural and social world, develop, including about themselves in relation to others, which provide them with explanations for why things are the way they are and the relationship between the cause and its effect. Attitudes, emotions and values are thus an integral part of cognitive development, and are linked to the development of language, mental representations, concepts and reasoning. As children’s metacognitive capabilities develop, they become more aware of their own beliefs and capable of regulating their own learning. Characteristics of learning All children are naturally motivated to learn and are capable of learning. Understanding and developing the capacity for abstract thinking, reflection and work are the most important aspects of learning. Children learn in a variety of ways-through experience, making and doing things, experimentation, reading, discussion, asking,Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation listening, thinking and reflecting, and expressing oneself in speech or writing both individually and with others. They require opportunities of all these kinds in the course of their development. Teaching something before the child is cognitively ready takes away real learning. Children may ‘remember’ many facts but they may not understand them or be able to relate them to the world around them. Learning takes place both within school and outside school. Learning is enriched if these two arenas interact with each other. Art and work provide opportunities for holistic learning that is rich in tacit and aesthetic components. Such experiences are essential to be learnt through direct experience and integrated with life. Learning must be paced so that it allows learners to engage with concepts and deepen the understanding rather than remembering only to forget after examinations. At the same time learning must provide variety and challenge, and be interesting and engaging. 2
  16. 16. Manual for Teachers Boredom is a sign that the task may have become mechanically repetitive for the child and of little cognitive value. Learning can take place with or without mediation. In the case of the latter, the social context and interactions, especially with those who are capable, provide avenues for learners to work at cognitive levels above their own. Source : NCF 2005Historical view of various Recommendations andReportsExaminations are an indispensable part of the educational process assome form of assessment is necessary to determine the effectiveness ofteaching learning process and their internalization by learners. VariousCommissions and Committees have felt the need for examination reforms.The Hunter Commission (1882), Calcutta University Commission or SadlerCommission (1917-1919), Hartog Committee Report (1929), the Reportof Central Advisory Board or Sargeant Plan (1944), Secondary Education Continuous and Comprehensive EvaluationCommission or Mudaliar Commission (1952-53) have all maderecommendations regarding reducing emphasis on external examinationand encouraging internal assessment through Continuous andComprehensive Evaluation.The need for Continuous and Comprehensive School Based Evaluationhas been reiterated over the last few decades. The Kothari Commissionreport (1966) observed, ‘On the completion of the course, at the end ofthe lower or higher secondary stage, the student should receive a certificatefrom the school also giving the record of his internal assessment as containedin his cumulative record. This certificate may be attached to that given bythe Board in connection with the external examination…’ (9.81). It furtheradds, ‘This internal assessment or evaluation conducted by the schools isof greater significance and should be given increasing importance. It shouldbe comprehensive, evaluating all those aspects of students’ growth thatare measured by the external examination and also those personality traits,interests and attitudes which cannot be assessed by it.’ (9.84). 3
  17. 17. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation This aspect has been strongly taken care of in the National Policy on Education (1986) which states that “Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation that incorporates both scholastic and non-scholastic aspects of evaluation, spread over the total span of instructional time” {8.24 (iii)} should be followed. Report on the Committee for Review of NPE (1986) recommendation brought out by Government of India in 1991 lays down norms for “continuous comprehensive internal evaluation and suggests safeguards against abuse of this evaluation system”{268(iv)}. Report on the CABE Committee on Policy brought out by Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD), Govt. of India in January, 1992 has also referred to the provisions of NPE with regard to evaluation process and examination reforms and also suggested ‘continuous and comprehensive internal evaluation of the scholastic and non-scholastic achievement of the students’ (16.8). The Report of the Task Force on the Role and status of the Board of Secondary Education (1997) observed: In our scheme of things, it is theContinuous and Comprehensive Evaluation School Boards which are expected to play the central role in the academic renovation of the school system. In other words, leadership has to come from the Board. Once the Boards get committed to this vital and supplementary system of evaluation and push it vigorously, this innovation will come to be accepted by more and more schools. “Learning without Burden”- Report of the National Advisory Committee appointed by the MHRD, Department of Education, Govt. of India has stated - “Board examination, taken at the end of Class X and XII, have remained rigid, bureaucratic, and essentially uneducative…” Accordingly, National Curriculum Framework, 2005 proposing Examination Reforms stated, “Indeed, boards should consider, as a long-term measure, making the Class X examination optional, thus permitting students continuing in the same school (and who do not need a board certificate) to take an internal school examination instead” and continues, 4
  18. 18. Manual for Teachers“Excellence in diverse areas should be recognized and rewarded. And it ischildren’s responsiveness to what is taught rather than just their capacity toretain it, that should be the focus of evaluation”, As a sequel to above, the Position Paper on ‘Examination Reforms’ by NCERT 2006, states, “Indeed, it is our view that the tenth grade exam be made optional forthwith. Tenth-graders who intend continuing in the eleventh grade at the same school and do not need the Board certificate for any immediate purpose, should be free to take a school conducted exam instead of the Board exam.”Place of Evaluation in the CurriculumA curriculum is what constitutes a total teaching-learning programcomprising overall aims, syllabus, materials, methods and assessment.In short it provides a framework of knowledge and capabilities, seen as Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluationappropriate to a particular level. Evaluation not only measures theprogress and achievement of the learners but also the effectiveness ofthe teaching materials and methods used for transaction. Hence,evaluation should be viewed as a component of curriculum with the twinpurpose of effective delivery and further improvement in the teachinglearning process.If properly understood, evaluation or assessment will not be perceivedas something administered by the teachers and taken by the learners onthe conclusion of a period of learning. When evaluation is seen as anend of the learning exercise, both the teachers and the learners will tendto keep it outside the teaching-learning process, rendering assessmentbroadly irrelevant and alien to the curriculum. Further, such a perceptionassociates anxiety and stress with evaluation for learners. On the contrary,if evaluation is seen as an integral part built into the teaching learningprocess; learners will not perceive tests and examination with fear. It willlead to diagnosis, remedial action and enhancement of learning. 5
  19. 19. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation The scope of evaluation in schools extends to almost all the areas of learners’ personality development. It should include both scholastic and co-scholastic areas, i.e. it should be comprehensive in nature. This is in line with the goals of education. Evaluation is continuous and reveals the strengths and weaknesses of learners more frequently, so that the learners have better opportunity to understand and improve themselves. It also provides feedback to the teachers for modifying their teaching strategies. In view of getting a complete picture of the child’s learning, learner’s assessment should focus on the learner ’s ability to: Learn and acquire desired skills related to different subject areas Acquire a level of achievement in different subject areas in the requisite measure Develop child’s individual skills, interests, attitudes and motivation Understand and lead a healthy and productive life Monitor the changes taking place in child’s learning, behaviour and progress over a period of time Respond to different situations and opportunities both in and outContinuous and Comprehensive Evaluation of school Apply what is learnt in a variety of environment, circumstances and situations Work independently, collaboratively and harmoniously Analyze and evaluate Be aware of social and environmental issues Participate in social and environmental projects Retain what is learned over a period of time 6
  20. 20. Manual for TeachersThus assessment is a useful, desirable and an enabling process. To realizethis, one needs to keep the following parameters in mind. Assessment needs to: Use a variety of ways to collect information about the learner’s learning and progress in all subjects Collect information continuously and record the same Give importance to each learner’s way of responding and learning and time it takes to do so Report on a continuous basis and be sensitive to every learner’s response Provide feedback that will lead to positive action and help the learner to do better NOT In the assessment process, one should be careful NOT to: Label learners as slow, poor, intelligent etc. Make comparisons between them Make negative statements Continuous and Comprehensive EvaluationContinuous and Comprehensive EvaluationContinuous and Comprehensive Evaluation (CCE) refers to a system ofschool based evaluation of a student that covers all aspects of a studentdevelopment. It is a developmental process of student which emphasizeson two fold objectives. These objectives are continuity in evaluation andassessment of broad based learning and behaviourial outcomes on theother.The term ‘continuous’ is meant to emphasise that evaluation of identifiedaspects of students ‘growth and development’ is a continuous processrather than an event, built into the total teaching-learning process andspread over the entire span of academic session. It means regularity ofassessment, frequency of unit testing, diagnosis of learning gaps, use ofcorrective measures, retesting and feedback of evidence to teachers andstudents for their self evaluation. 7
  21. 21. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation The second term ‘comprehensive’ means that the scheme attempts to cover both the scholastic and the co-scholastic aspects of the students’ growth and development. Since abilities, attitudes and aptitudes can manifest themselves in forms other than the written word, the term refers to application of variety of tools and techniques (both testing and non-testing) and aims at assessing a learner’s development in areas of learning, like:- Knowledge Understanding Applying Analyzing Evaluating Creating (a) The objectives are: To help develop cognitive, psychomotor and affective skillsContinuous and Comprehensive Evaluation To lay emphasis on thought process and de-emphasise memorization To make evaluation an integral part of teaching-learning process To use evaluation for improvement of students achievement and teaching-learning strategies on the basis of regular diagnosis followed by remedial instructions To use evaluation as a quality control device to maintain desired standard of performance To determine social utility, desirability or effectiveness of a programme and take appropriate decisions about the learner, the process of learning and the learning environment To make the process of teaching and learning a learner-centered activity 8
  22. 22. Manual for Teachers Features (b) The Features are: The ‘continuous’ aspect of CCE takes care of ‘continual’ and ‘periodicity’ aspect of evaluation Continual means assessment of students in the beginning of instructions (placement evaluation) and assessment during the instructional process (formative evaluation) done informally using multiple techniques of evaluation Periodicity means assessment of performance done frequently at the end of unit/term (summative evaluation) The ‘comprehensive’ component of CCE takes care of assessment of all round development of the child’s personality. It includes assessment in Scholastic as well as Co-Scholastic aspects of the pupil’s growth Scholastic aspects include curricular areas or subject specific areas, whereas Co-Scholastic aspects include Life Skills, Co-Curricular Activities, Attitudes and Values Assessment in Scholastic areas is done informally and formally using multiple techniques of evaluation continually and Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation periodically. The diagnostic evaluation takes place at the end of unit/term test. The causes of poor performance in some units are diagnosed using diagnostic tests. These are followed with appropriate interventions followed by retesting Assessment in Co-Scholastic areas is done using multiple techniques on the basis of identified criteria, while assessment in Life Skills is done on the basis of Indicators of Assessment and Checklists Source - Examination Reforms, NCERT(c) The functions are: It helps the teacher to organize effective teaching strategies Continuous evaluation helps in regular assessment to the extent and degree of Learner’s progress (ability and achievement with reference to specific Scholastic and Co-Scholastic areas) 9
  23. 23. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation Continuous evaluation serves to diagnose weaknesses and permits the teacher to ascertain an individual learner’s strengths and weaknesses and her needs. It provides immediate feedback to the teacher, who can then decide whether a particular unit or concept needs a discussion again in the whole class or whether a few individuals are in need of remedial instruction By continuous evaluation, children can know their strengths and weaknesses. It provides the child a realistic self assessment of how he/she studies. It can motivate children to develop good study habits, to correct errors, and to direct their activities towards the achievement of desired goals. It helps a learner to determine the areas of instruction in where more emphasis is required Continuous and comprehensive evaluation identifies areas of aptitude and interest. It helps in identifying changes in attitudes and value systems It helps in making decisions for the future, regarding choice of subjects, courses and careers It provides information/reports on the progress of students in Scholastic and Co-Scholastic areas and thus helps in predicting the future success of the learnerContinuous and Comprehensive Evaluation Continuous evaluation helps in bringing awareness of the achievement to the child, teachers and parents from time to time. They can look into the probable cause of the fall in performance if any, and may take remedial measures of instruction in which more emphasis is required. Many times, because of some personal reasons, family problems or adjustment problems, the children start neglecting their studies, resulting in sudden drop in their performance. If the teacher, child and parents do not notice the sudden drop in the performance of the child in academics, it could result in a permanent deficiency in the childs’ learning. The major emphasis of CCE is on the continuous growth of students ensuring their intellectual, emotional, physical, cultural and social development and therefore, it will not be merely limited to assessment of learner’s scholastic attainments. CCE uses assessment as a means of motivating learners to provide feedback and follow up work to improve upon the learning in the classroom and to present a comprehensive picture of a learner’s profile. 10
  24. 24. Manual for TeachersIt is this that has led to the emergence of the concept of School BasedContinuous and Comprehensive EvaluationEvaluation. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation Source: NCERT, 2008 11
  25. 25. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation Scholastic and Co-Scholastic Assessment In order to have Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation, both Scholastic and Co-Scholastic aspects need to be given due recognition. Such a holistic assessment requires maintaining an ongoing and comprehensive profile for each learner that is honest, encouraging and discreet. While teachers frequently reflect, plan and implement remedial strategies, the child’s ability to retain and articulate what has been learned over a period of time also requires periodic assessment. These assessments can take many forms but all of them should be as comprehensive and discreet as possible. Weekly, fortnightly, or quarterly reviews (depending on the learning area), that do not openly compare one learner with another are generally recommended. The objective is to promote and enhance not just learning and retention among children, but their soft skills as well. Scholastic Assessment The objectives of the Scholastic domain are:- Desirable behaviour related to the learner’s knowledge, understanding,Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation application, evaluation, analysis and the ability to apply it in an unfamiliar situation. To improve the teaching learning process. Assessment should be both Formative and Summative. Formative and Summative Assessment Formative Assessment is a tool used by the teacher to continuously monitor student progress in a non threatening, supportive environment. It involves regular descriptive feedback, a chance for the student to reflect on the performance, take advice and improve upon it. It involves the students’ being an essential part of assessment from designing criteria to assessing self or peers. If used effectively, it can improve student performance tremendously while raising the self esteem of the child and reducing the work load of the teacher. Formative Assessment is carried out during a course of instruction for providing continuous feedback to both the teachers and the learners. It is 12
  26. 26. Manual for Teachersalso carried out for taking decisions regarding appropriate modificationsin the transactional procedures and learning activities. ‘… often means no more than that the assessment is carried out frequently and is planned at the same time as teaching.’ (Black and Wiliam, 1999) ‘… provides feedback which leads to students recognizing the (learning) gap and closing it … it is forward looking …’ (Harlen, 1998) ‘ … includes both feedback and self-monitoring.’ (Sadler, 1989) ‘… is used essentially to get a feed back into the teaching and learning process.’ (Tunstall and Gipps, 1996)Features of Formative Assessment Formative Is diagnostic and remedial Makes provision for effective feedback Provides a platform for the active involvement of students in their own learning Enables teachers to adjust teaching to take account of the results Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation of assessment Recognizes the profound influence assessment has on the motivation and self-esteem of students, both of which are crucial influences on learning Recognizes the need for students to be able to assess themselves and understand how to improve Builds on students’ prior knowledge and experience in designing what is taught Incorporates varied learning styles to decide how and what to teach Encourages students to understand the criteria that will be used to judge their work Offers an opportunity to students to improve their work after they get the feedback Helps students to support their peer group and vice-versa 13
  27. 27. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation Summative Assessment is carried out at the end of a course of learning. It measures or ‘sums-up’ how much a student has learned from the course. It is usually a graded test, i.e., it is marked according to a scale or set of grades. Assessment that is predominantly of summative nature will not by itself be able to yield a valid measure of the growth and development of the student. It, at best, certifies the level of achievement only at a given point of time. The paper pencil tests are basically a one- time mode of assessment and to exclusively rely on it to decide about the development of a student is not only unfair but also unscientific. Overemphasis on examination marks that focus on only scholastic aspects in turn makes student assume that assessment is different from learning, resulting in the ‘learn and forget’ syndrome. Besides encouraging unhealthy competition, the overemphasis on Summative Assessment system also produces enormous stress and anxiety among the learners. “Good summative assessments—tests and other graded evaluations— must be demonstrably reliable, valid, and free of bias” (Angelo and Cross, 1993). ‘…assessment (that) has increasingly been used to sum up learning’Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation (Black and Wiliam, 1999) ‘… looks at past achievements … adds procedures or tests to existing work ... involves only marking and feedback grades to student … is separated from teaching … is carried out at intervals when achievement has to be summarized and reported.’ (Harlen, 1998) Features of Summative Assessment Assessment of learning Generally taken by students at the end of a unit or semester to demonstrate the “sum” of what they have or have not learned Summative assessment methods are the most traditional way of evaluating student work 14
  28. 28. Manual for Teachers (Part Scholastic Assessment (Part I) F ormative Sum mative Summative Assessment As sessment Assessment (Flexible Timing) (Written, End of Term) Tools Techniques Questions Examination Objective type Observation Assignments Short answer schedule Quizzes and Long answer Interview schedule competitions Checklist Projects Rating scale Debates Anecdotal records Elocution Document analysis Group discussions Tests and Club activities inventories Experiments Portfolio analysis Research Continuous and Comprehensive EvaluationCo-Scholastic AssessmentThe desirable behaviour related to learner’s life skills, attitudes, interests,values, co-curricular activities and physical health are described as skillsto be acquired in co-scholastic domain.The process of assessing the students’ progress in achieving objectivesrelated to scholastic and co-scholastic domain is called comprehensiveevaluation. It has been observed that usually under the scholastic domainsuch as knowledge and understanding of the facts, concepts, principlesetc. of a subject are assessed. The Co-Scholastic elements are eitheraltogether excluded from the evaluation process or they are not givenadequate attention. For making the evaluation comprehensive, bothScholastic and Co-Scholastic aspects should be given importance. Simpleand manageable means of assessment of Co-Scholastic aspects of growthmust be included in the comprehensive evaluation scheme. 15
  29. 29. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation Co - Scholastic Areas (Part II) Co- (Part Co-Scholastic Areas (2A, B, C & D and 3A, B) 2(A): 2 (B): 2(C) 2(D) Life Skills Work Education Visual and Attitudes and Performing Arts Values 1 Self Awareness 1.1. Teachers 2 Problem Solving 1.2 School mates 3 Decision Making 1.3 School 4 Critical Thinking Programmes and 5 Creative Thinking Environment 6 Interpersonal Relationships 2. Value Systems 7 Effective Communication 8 Empathy 3. Co-Curricular 9 Managing Emotions ActivitiesContinuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 10 Dealing with stress 3 (A) Activities (any two): 3 (B) Health and Physical • Literary and Creative Skills Education (any two): • Scientific Skills • Sports/Indigenous Sports • Information and • NCC/NSS Communication Technology • Scouting and Guiding (ICT) • Swimming • Organizational and • Gymnastics Leadership Skills (Clubs) • Yoga • First Aid • Gardening/Shramdaan Comprehensive evaluation would necessitate the use of a variety of tools and techniques. This will be so because both different and specific areas of learner’s growth can be evaluated through certain special techniques. 16
  30. 30. Manual for TeachersChapter 2 School Based Continuous & Comprehensive Evaluation Need School Based Continuous and Comprehensive Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation Evaluation system should be established to: Reduce stress on children Make evaluation comprehensive and regular Provide space for the teacher for creative teaching Provide a tool of diagnosis and remedial action Produce learners with greater skills Position Paper on Aims of Education - NCF 2005, NCERT Aim of School Based CCE Elimination of chance element and subjectivity (as far as possible), de-emphasis on memorization, encouraging comprehensive evaluation 17
  31. 31. School Based Continuous & Comprehensive Evaluation incorporating both Scholastic and Co-Scholastic aspects of learners development Continuous evaluation spread over the total span of the instructional time as an integral built-in aspect of the total teaching-learning process Functional and meaningful declaration of results for effective use by teachers, students, parents and the society Wider uses of test results for purposes not merely of the assessment of levels of pupils’ achievements and proficiencies, but mainly for their improvement, thorough diagnosis and remedial/enrichment programmes Improvement in the mechanics of conducting examinations for realizing a number of other allied purposes Introduction of concomitant changes in instructional materials and methodology Introduction of the semester system The use of grades in place of marks in determining and declaring the level of pupil performance and proficiencyContinuous and Comprehensive Evaluation The above goals are relevant for both external examination and evaluation in schools. Its Characteristics School Based Evaluation has the following characteristics: Is broader, more comprehensive and continuous than traditional system Aims primarily to help learners for systematic learning and development Takes care of the needs of the learner as responsible citizens of the future Is more transparent, futuristic and provides more scope for association among learners, teachers and parents 18
  32. 32. Manual for TeachersSchool based evaluation provides opportunities to teachers to know learners:the following about their learners What they learn? How they learn? What type of difficulties / limitations they face in working in tandem? What do the children think? What do the children feel? What are their interests and dispositions?The focus has shifted to developing a deep learning environment. Thereis a paradigm shift in the pedagogy and competencies from ‘controlling’to ‘enriching’ to ‘empowering’ schools. Traditional Enriching Empowering Schooling Schooling Schooling Teacher centred Student centred Experience centred Subjects and Self directed Virtual authenticity classes - teacher Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation directed Sorting and Continuous Multi literacies ranking assessment individuals Competency: Competency: Competency: Memory Critical thinking Risk taking Competitive Collaborative Ethical Creative Interactive ParadigmsThere are four Assessment Paradigms(1) Assessment of LearningThe ‘assessment of learning’ is defined as a process whereby someoneattempts to describe and quantify the knowledge, attitudes or skillspossessed by another. Teacher direction is paramount and the student 19
  33. 33. School Based Continuous & Comprehensive Evaluation has little involvement in the design or implementation of the assessment process in these circumstances. Teacher designs learning Teacher collects evidence Teacher judges what has been learnt (and what has not been learnt) Learning (2) Assessment for Learnin g The ‘assessment for learning’ involves increased level of student autonomy, but not without teacher guidance and collaboration. The assessment for learning is sometimes seen as being akin to ‘formative assessment’. There is more emphasis towards giving useful advice to the student and less emphasis on the giving of marks and the grading function. Teacher designs learning Teacher designs assessment with feedback to student Teacher judges what has been learnt (student develops insight into what has not)Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation (3) Assessment as Learning The ‘assessment as learning’ is perhaps more connected with diagnostic assessment and can be constructed with more of an emphasis on peer learning. Assessment as learning generates opportunities for self assessment and peer assessment. Students take on increased responsibility to generate quality information about their learning and that of others. Teacher and student co-construct learning Teacher and student co-construct assessment Teacher and student co-construct learning progress map Assessment for learning and assessment as learning activities should be deeply embedded in teaching and learning and be the source of interactive feedback, allowing students to adjust, re-think and re-learn. 20
  34. 34. Manual for Teachers(4) Assessment in LearningThe ‘assessment in learning’ places the question at the centre of teachingand learning. It deflects the teaching from its focus on a ‘correct answer’to a focus on ‘a fertile question’. Through enquiry students engage inprocesses that generates feedback about their learning, which comefrom multiple sources and activities. It contributes to the construction ofother learning activities, line of enquiry and the generation of otherquestions. Student as the centre of learning Student monitors, assesses and reflects on learning Student initiates demonstration of learning (to self and others) Teacher as coach and mentorTeachers and students need to understand the purpose of each assessmentstrategy. The overall assessment ‘package’ being used by learners andteachers should accurately capture, generate and use meaningful learninginformation to generate deep learning and understanding. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 21
  35. 35. Chapter 3 CCE in Middle School Level Emergence of the Concept in CBSE The Central Board of Secondary Education has introduced the scheme of Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation in its schools in a phased manner. In 2004, CCE was implemented in primary classes at I-V (Vide Circulars No. 5/18/25/04). Besides doing away with the concept of pass/ fail system upto class V, the assessment focused on the positive aspects of the child’s developmentContinuous and Comprehensive Evaluation during this stage. Accordingly Achievement Records for the primary classes (for Classes I & II and Classes III to V) were also developed and recommended to schools with the objective of facilitating holistic learning. As a follow up, the Board decided to extend CCE to classes VI to VIII in 2006 (Circular No. 2/06). In the year 2000, the Board implemented the concept of an independent Certificate of School Based Evaluation to be awarded by the school to all students who passed CBSE Class X Examination. This certificate was awarded in addition to the Board’s regular certificate and marks statement related to external examination. It carried a footnote that a certificate of CCE is being issued by the school and should be studied for judging the total personality of the student. Besides Scholastic Areas, Co- Scholastic Areas were included in CCE for assessment over a continuous period of two years i.e. Classes IX and X. 22
  36. 36. Manual for TeachersI. Details of CCE Report Book for Classes VI, VII and VIIIPart 1 consists of the evaluation of Scholastic Areas.Part 1: Scholastic Areas There will be two terms. The First Term will be from April -September and the Second Term from October-March of the subsequent year. Each term will have two Formative and one Summative Assessment. Assessment will be indicated in Grades. The Grading Scale for the Scholastic Areas is a Nine Point Grading Scale. Overall grade of Formative Assessments over the two terms (FA1+FA2+FA3+FA4) and the overall grade of Summative Assessment (SA1+SA2) must be given. The total of the two grades which comprises (Formative and Summative) needs to be given in the relevant column. Continuous and Comprehensive EvaluationPart -2: Co - Scholastic Areas art-2: Co-Part 2 consists of Co-Scholastic Areas where students’ are assessed infour parts on a Five Point Grading Scale once in a sessionPart 2(A):Life Skills consists of - - Self Awareness - Problem Solving - Decision Making - Critical Thinking - Creative Thinking - Interpersonal Relationships 23
  37. 37. CCE in Middle School Level - Effective Communication - Empathy - Managing Emotions - Dealing with Stress Part 2(B): Work Education Part 2(C): Visual and Performing Arts Part 2(D): Attitudes & Values Values Attitudes towards Teachers, Schoolmates, School Programmes and Environment . Value systems refers to the framework which must be developed right through Primary to Secondary level. These are to be filled in after a period of observation over the year byContinuous and Comprehensive Evaluation the Class Teacher in consultation with the subject teachers. The guidelines for filling this are given in detail (Chapter 4) Part 3: Co - Curricular Activities Co- Part 3 consists of Co-curricular Activities wherein choice in participation and assessment thereof is available. It has two sub parts to be assessed on a five-point grading scale. Part 3(A) 1. Literary and Creative Skills 2. Scientific Skills 3. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) 4. Organizational and Leadership Skills (Clubs) A student will be expected to choose two activities from these four groups and will be assessed on their level of participation and achievement. 24
  38. 38. Manual for TeachersPart 3(B) Health and Physical ActivitiesEight different kinds of Health and Physical Activities have been provided. 1. Sports/ Indigenous sports (Kho-Kho etc.) 2. NCC / NSS 3. Scouting and Guiding 4. Swimming 5. Gymnastics 6. Yoga 7. First Aid 8. Gardening/ShramdaanStudents will be assessed on any two activities that are chosen fromwithin the eight different activities. The objective is to benefit from Physicalactivities to maximize health benefits. They will be assessed by teachersinvolved in various activities in school. Continuous and Comprehensive EvaluationThe areas given in the Report Book provide adequate opportunities tothe learners for all round development. It has been widely understoodthat class room transaction in academic subjects alone cannot fosterdevelopment in all areas or help to develop Life Skills. The developmentof qualities such as Self Esteem, Positive Attitude and Life Skills requiredevelopment of positive and adaptive behaviors over a period of time.These Life Skills can be integrated into the entire personality of a learnerover the ten years of schooling and are essential for fostering personalqualities, nurturing good relationships and developing effectiveCommunication Skills. The development of good physical health,formation of positive attitude towards others including environment andcultivation of universal values is possible only through learner’s involvementin Life Skills and Co-Curricular Activities. 25
  39. 39. CCE in Middle School Level II. Evaluation of Scholastic aspect: Part 1: Scholastic Areas Evaluation of Academic Subjects in Classes VI to VIII. Six assessments are proposed: T ype of assessment Percentage of Month Term wise weighting in weighting academic session First Term First Term Formative 10% April-May FA1+FA2=20% 20% Assessment-1 Formative 10% July-August Assessment-2 Summative 30% September SA1=30% 30% Assessment-1 Term Second Term Formative 10% October - FA3+FA4=20% 20% Assessment-3 NovemberContinuous and Comprehensive Evaluation Formative 10% January - Assessment-4 February Summative 30% March SA2=30% 30% Assessment-2 Total: Formative Assessments (FA) = FA1+FA2+ FA3+FA4 = 40% Summative Assessments (SA) = SA1+SA2 = 60% All across the schools, the most commonly used tools/techniques are those developed by teachers themselves. Among these are paper-pencil tests/tasks, written and oral tests, questions on pictures, simulated activities and discussion with students. Short class tests are used by most teachers as a quick and easy way of assessing the learning progress of children. As these are generally conducted at the end of a unit/month covering the specified content taught during that period, these are no doubt useful but they need to be used effectively. * (i) Teachers will arrive at the Formative Assessment using an acceptable method for combining scores. (ii) They will be given opportunity to develop this practice during implementation. 26