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Cce manual class_vi_vii_2010
Cce manual class_vi_vii_2010
Cce manual class_vi_vii_2010
Cce manual class_vi_vii_2010
Cce manual class_vi_vii_2010
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Cce manual class_vi_vii_2010

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  • 1. i Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation
  • 2. Manual for Teachers on School Based Assessment Classes VI to VIII Price: Rs. First Edition 2010 © CBSE , India CBSE, Copies: All rights reserved No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the Central Board of Secondary Education.Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation Published by : The Secretary, Central Board of Secondary Education, Shiksha Kendra, 2, Community Centre, Preet Vihar, Delhi - 110092 Design & Layout by : Sabyasachi Panja Printed by : ii
  • 3. AcknowledgementsAdvisoryShri Vineet Joshi, Chairman, Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE)Prof. Marmar Mukhopadhayay, Former Director, National University ofEducational Planning and Administration (NUEPA), New DelhiGroup of Schools (Used for trialling):• Blue Bells Model Sr. Sec. School, Sector-4, Gurgaon• Blue Bells Public School, Sector - 10, Gurgaon• CCA School, Sector-4, Gurgaon• DAV Public School, Sector-14, Gurgaon• Delhi Public School, Sector-45, Gurgaon• Raman Munjal Vidya Mandir, Sidhrawali, Gurgaon• Rotary Public School, Sector-22, Gurgaon• Ryan International School, Sohna Road, Bhondsi, Gurgaon• S. D. Adarsh Vidyalaya, Sohna Road, Sector - 47, Gurgaon• Salwan Public School, Sector-15 (II), Gurgaon• Sh. S. N. Siddeshwar Public School, Sector-9-A, Gurgaon• Sherwood Convent School, L-Block, DLF Phase-II, Gurgaon• St. P B. N. Public School, Sector-17, Gurgaon . Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation• Summer Fields School, DLF-I, Gurgaon• Suncity World School, Sector-54, Gurgaon• Tagore International School, DLF-III, Gurgaon• The Sagar School, Tijara, Alwar, RajasthanEditingDr. Sadhana Parashar, Head (Innovations & Research), Central Board ofSecondary Education (CBSE)Dr. Indu Khetarpal, Principal, Salwan Public School, GurgaonGrateful to:Mrs. Sugandh Sharma, Education Officer, Central Board of Secondary Education(CBSE)Mrs. Rita Kapur, Principal, Delhi Public School, GhaziabadMrs. Lata Vaidyanathan, Principal, Modern School, Barakhamba Road, New DelhiMrs. Bharti Sharma, Principal, Amity International School, Saket, New Delhi iii
  • 4. Baart ka saMivaQaana hmaÊ Baart ko laaogaÊ Baart kao ³sampUNa- p`Bau%va saMpnna samaajavaadI pMqainarpoxa laaoktaM~a%mak gaNarajya´ banaanao ko ilaeÊ tqaa ]sako samast naagairkaoM kao: saamaaijakÊ Aaiqa- k AaO r rajanaO i tk nyaayaÊ ivacaarÊ AiBavyai@tÊ ivaSvaasaÊ Qama- AaO r ]pasanaa kI svatM ~ taÊ p`itYza AaOr Avasar kI samata p`aPt krnao ko ilaeÊ tqaa ]na saba maoMÊ vyai@t kI gairmaa AaOr ³raYT/ kI ekta AaOr AKNDta´ sauinaiScat krnao vaalaI baMQauta baZ,anao ko ilae dRZ,saMklp haokr ApnaI [sa saMivaQaana saBaa maoM Aaja tarIK 26 navambarÊ 1949 [-• kao etdWara [sa saMivaQaana kao AMgaIkRtÊ AiQainayaimat AaOr Aa%maip-t krto hOM. 1• saMivaQaana ³bayaalaIsavaaM saMSaaoQana´ AiQainayamaÊ 1976 kI Qaara 2 Wara ³3•1•1977 sao´Ê “p`Bau%va laaoktM~a%mak gaNarajya” ko sqaana pr p`itsqaaipt. 2• saMivaQaana ³bayaalaIsavaaM saMSaaoQana´ AiQainayamaÊ 1976 kI Qaara 2 Wara ³3•1•1977 sao´Ê “raYT/ kI ekta” ko sqaana pr p`itsqaaipt. Baaga 4 k maUla k<a-vyaContinuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 51 k• maUla k,<a-vya – Baart ko p`%yaok naagairk ka yah k<a-vya haogaa ik vah – ³k´ saMivaQaana ka palana kro AaOr ]sako AadSaao-Ê saMsqaaAaoMÊ raYT/Qvaja AaOr raYT/gaana ka Aadr kro ³K´ svatM~ta ko ilae hmaaro raYT/Iya AaMdaolana kao p`oirt krnao vaalao ]cca AadSaao- kao )dya maoM saMjaaoe rKo AaOr ]naka palana kro ³ga´ Baart kI p`BautaÊ ekta AaOr AKMDta kI rxaa kro AaOr ]sao AxauNNa rKo ³Ga´ doSa kI rxaa kro AaOr Aahvaana ike jaanao pr raYT/ kI saovaa kro ³D´ Baart ko saBaI laaogaaoM maoM samarsata AaOr samaana Ba`atR%va kI Baavanaa ka inamaa-Na krao jaao Qama-Ê BaaYaa AaOr p`doSa yaa vaga- ya vaga- pr AaQaairt saBaI BaodBaava sao pro haoMÊ eosaI p`qaaAaoM ka %yaaga kro jaao is~yaaoM ko sammaana ko iva$w hOM ³ca´ hmaarI saamaaijak saMskRit kI gaaOrvaSaalaI prMpra ka mah<va samaJaoM AaOr ]saka prIxaNa kroM ³C´ p`akRitk pyaa-varNa kI ijasako AMtga-t vanaÊ JaIlaÊ nadIÊ AaOr vanya jaIva hOMÊ rxaa kro AaOr ]saka saMvaQa-na kroM tqaa p`aiNamaa~ ko p`it dyaaBaava rKo ³ja´ vaO&ainak dRiYTkaoNaÊ maanavavaad AaOr &anaaja-na tqaa sauQaar kI Baavanaa ka ivakasa kroM ³Ja´ saava-jainak saMpi<a kao saurixat rKoM AaOr ihMsaa sao dUr rhoM ³Ha´ vyai@tgat AaOr saamaUihk gaitivaiQayaaoM ko saBaI xao~aoM maoM ]%kYa- kI Aaor baZ,nao ka satt p`yaasa kroM ijasasao raYT/ inarMtr baZ,to hue p`ya%na AaOr ]plaibQa kI na[- }^Mcaa[yaaoM kao CU laMo. iv
  • 5. THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIAPREAMBLEWE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGNSOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure to all its citizens:JUSTICE, social, economic and political;LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship;EQUALITY of status and of opportunity; and to promote among them allFRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the [unity and integrity of the Nation];IN OUR CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY this twenty-sixth day of November, 1949, do HEREBYADOPT, ENACT AND GIVE TO OURSELVES THIS CONSTITUTION. 1. Subs. by the Constitution (Forty-Second Amendment) Act. 1976, sec. 2, for “Sovereign Democratic Republic (w.e.f. 3.1.1977) 2. Subs. by the Constitution (Forty-Second Amendment) Act. 1976, sec. 2, for “unity of the Nation (w.e.f. 3.1.1977) THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA Chapter IV A Fundamental Duties Continuous and Comprehensive EvaluationARTICLE 51AFundamental Duties – It shall be the duty of every citizen of India – (a) to abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the National Flag and the National Anthem; (b) to cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom; (c) to uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India; (d) to defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so; (e) to promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities; to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women; (f) to value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture; (g) to protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers, wild life and to have compassion for living creatures; (h) to develop the scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform; (i) to safeguard public property and to abjure violence; (j) to strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity so that the nation constantly rises to higher levels of endeavour and achievement. v
  • 6. Preface The Manual for Teachers - Classes VI to VIII is an outcome of long deliberations among academicians, teachers, educators, principals and even students. It has taken a rather long time to reach its present form. The effort has been to make it easier to understand, for teachers, parents and the educators. Assessment is a form of communication and should be seen as an integral part of learning and teaching. Assessment can be diagnostic, formative and summative. Assessment for learning can be recognised as central to classroom practice. Teachers need to be sensitive and empathetic as all assessments have an emotional impact and can contribute to learner motivation. Formative Assessment helps in creating reflective learners and reflective teachers. The judgements that teachers make need to be based on effective criteria or standards, through information collected in a variety of ways. The overall goal of assessment is to improve student learning. Assessment provides students, parents and teachers with valid information concerning student progress. Assessment requires the gathering of evidence of student performance over a period of time to measure learning and understanding. Evidence of learning could take the form of dialogue, journals, written work, portfolios andContinuous and Comprehensive Evaluation tests along with many other learning tasks. We use the general term assessment to refer to all those activities undertaken by teachers and by their students in assessing themselves, that provide information to be used as feedback to modify teaching and learning activities. Such assessment becomes formative assessment when the evidence is actually used to adapt the teaching to meet student needs. Formative as well as Summative Assessment needs to be valid in that it tests a relevant skill or ability and reliable so that the same result is achieved if the assessment is repeated. The present Manual for teachers includes detailed information about the scheme of Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation, fundamentals of assessment in co-scholastic areas, essential dimensions of School based assessment, tools and techniques of evaluation in scholastic and co-scholastic domains, the proposed School Based Assessment Report Book and detailed guidelines for effective implementation of the scheme in schools. Care has been taken to include the essential theoretical framework as well as desired implementation procedures. The CCE School Based Assessment Report Book should be seen as a positive vi
  • 7. interpretation of the profile dynamics of the learner. It is necessary to discussthe salient features of CCE Scheme with the teachers and convince them thatassessing children is not a separate activity nor is it an extra burden whichrequires additional effort or time. It needs to be woven into the teaching learningprocess as an integral part. The Scholastic Areas will be assessed on a ninepoint scale. All activities under the Co-scholastic domain will be assessed on afive point scale. The Value Education framework draws upon values from theConstitution of India.I hope that schools will follow the CCE Scheme of School Based Assessment inthe right spirit with academic integrity which will support better learning andenable the school to achieve one of the objectives of making learning moreenjoyable by all students.The Formative Assessment needs to be conducted through various modes rangingfrom student centric assessment tasks and peer assessment to teacher led tasks.Schools must, whenever possible, encourage teachers to attend trainingprogrammes run by the Board to build their teaching and testing skills.I also hope that parents will appreciate the need for holistic assessment andencourage their children to develop skills in all areas. Schools should also engagein a dialogue with parents to bring home to them the context and the meaningof the Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation so that they are active partners Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluationin realizing the potential of their children.I would like to thank Prof. Gabrielle Matters, Principal Research Fellow, ACERand Head, ACER, Brisbane, Australia for giving her valuable feedback on thisdocument.The tireless efforts of Prof. Marmar Mukhopadhayay, Former Director, NUEPA,New Delhi for his expert guidance in conceptualizing the scheme and finalizingthe document along with Dr. Sadhana Parashar, Head (Innovation & Research)and Dr. Indu Khetarpal, Principal, Salwan Public School, Gurgaon needs to beappreciated.I hope this Manual for Teachers - Classes VI to VIII is useful for everybodyinvolved in teaching and learning in the middle school at upper primary stage. Vineet Joshi Chairman, Central Board of Secondary Education vii
  • 8. Foreword In this publication, Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation - Manual for Teachers, the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) provides teachers with rich and meaningful information about putting into practice an evaluation (assessment) model that is continuous in that assessment occurs over a period of time rather than on a single occasion and comprehensive in that it incorporates scholastic and non-scholastic aspects of learning. As well, this model places teacher judgment at the heart of the assessment process. As others have argued, teacher judgments can be important evidence of student achievement. But teachers need to develop principled ways of incorporating those judgments into the evidentiary record on which to base their formative and summative inferences about student achievement levels. The Manual for Teachers describes how to do this. The manual also refers to a monitoring process for grades awarded. The features of good assessment tasks are many and varied, but some are enduring: The task must be based on the curriculum, students must know what is expected, students must recognise the task as worthwhile and relevant, and the task must be capable of eliciting optimal performance from students.Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation Comprehensive assessment values both process and product, includes academic outcomes, social outcomes, and generic skills. It covers a wide range of discipline- specific knowledge dimensions (declarative, conditional and procedural); generic skills such as analysing and deducing that are used in working with ideas, information, artefacts and texts; and skills related to the personal, interpersonal and ethical dimensions of human life. School based formative assessment, incorporating features of continuous assessment, is common to many assessment regimes. A major tendency in such systems is for teachers to use external tests as models for their own assessment, undermining its formative role, or to relegate formative assessment to assessment of attitudes and behavior only, thus seriously devaluing higher-order thinking. The change in emphasis from assessment that is dominated by external summative testing to assessment where classroom teachers have not only a formative assessment role but also a summative assessment role can be linked to a shift viii
  • 9. towards assessment tasks which emulate the kind of process-based higher-order tasks thought to represent good practice.Continuous assessment is a balance between the undesirable extremes ofincessant (e.g. daily) and quantum (e.g. annual) assessment.In implementing a program of continuous assessment, teachers need to providesufficient but not an excess of formative assessments to allow students to developresponse techniques for the range of assessment instruments and conditionsthat will be applied. When scheduling assessment tasks teachers need to beaware of the stage and rate of development of students to help ensure thatthere has been adequate time for students to learn sufficient subject content, sothat assessment of understanding and application is grounded in that knowledge.While continuous assessment makes demands on teachers, it also allowsteachers the flexibility to meet them. By spreading assessment decisions overboth time and tasks, not only is the evidence used to support judgments increased,so too are the opportunities for reflection on those judgments. Teachers candivide assessment into suitably timed and sized parts in such a way that the timeallowed is less likely to be a covert criterion of assessment quality. Furthermore,the time frame involved in continuous assessment is an important aspect of Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluationputting together student records and providing time for teachers to reflect onthe assessment and its outcomes. Continuous assessment also provides, in away that terminal evaluation cannot, both motivation and opportunities forstudents to reflect on their work, develop strategies for improvement, anddemonstrate improvement before the final (summative) assessment is made.Nevertheless, the difficulties involved for teachers in meeting the challenges posedby continuous assessment should not be understated. Experiences elsewhereshow that continuous assessment makes time-management demands onteachers and students, it can lead to over-assessment, and it can create tensionsbetween the formative and summative purposes of assessment.This manual includes some useful ideas on changing assessment practices.The various forms of formative assessment suggested in the manual seem capableof assessing a greater range, at least, of curriculum learning than do externalexaminations. Various distinctions are made in the manual as internal versus ix
  • 10. external, formative versus summative, and authentic versus objective. It should be remembered, however, that the combination “internal/formative/authentic” is possible but not a necessary alignment of these distinctions. In other words, you can have internal assessment that is summative, and you can have internal assessment that is objective. But of course internal assessment is more likely to be authentic than external examinations not only because the assessment is occurring as close as possible to the learning but also because of the range of assessment instruments available. Assessment tasks can be long or short, not necessarily written, done in a controlled assessment space or not, completed in a specified time or not, by students working individually or in groups, with or without certain levels of teacher assistance, and so on. Student work may be an artifact, performance, oral presentation, computer program, extended writing, project work, rich task, fieldwork, practical work, or other demonstration of mastery. Some personal attributes contribute to academic performance; for example, a dedication to study can be acknowledged and recorded as an observed attribute in a student; it should also lead to the student doing well in academic assessment. The academic assessment, however, should focus on actual achievement, ratherContinuous and Comprehensive Evaluation than the personal attributes that contributed to it. In various educational systems the relative value attached to attributes and achievement may vary, but it is important not to get them confused with each other. Concerns are often expressed or at least implied that judgments about personal attributes in an education context are biased. To the extent that such assessment is based on teachers’ personal observations of students from day to day, it is inevitable that some assessment will be affected by teachers allowing personal preference influence their judgments but this should not undermine the desirable validity of teacher judgments based on solid evidence. Writing a manual for teachers in an era of assessment reform is a balancing act. The authors must balance being too prescriptive and not being sufficiently helpful. They must provide information that is technically sound in educational measurement terms and also practical for teachers at the “coal face”. This manual meets all those requirements and so I commend it to all teachers associated with the CBSE’s assessment reform. I wish them well in their x
  • 11. endeavours in continuous and comprehensive assessment. This reform is infact a genuine exercise that requires teachers to change their practices fromexamination preparation to more authentic on-going assessment. If teachersdo the kind of things the reform is calling for, the change will be long-lasting,leading successfully to the kind of outcomes that were intended.The research on time-lags for achievement of change should be noted. It takesabout three years in an elementary school and (depending on size) about sixyears in a secondary school to see the effects of a reform. I look forward tobeing able to note the positive effects of this particular reform in India in theyears to come. Gabrielle Matters Principal Research Fellow at the Australian Council for Educational Research Gabrielle Matters is a Principal Research Fellow at the Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER) Melbourne, Head of ACER Brisbane, and Executive Secretary of the International Association for Educational Assessment. She is Adjunct Professor, Faculty of Education, Queensland Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation University of Technology, with a doctorate in the field of psychometrics. She holds a Bachelor of Science degree from The University of Queensland and a diploma in piano (AMusA) from the Queensland Conservatorium of Music. Dr Matters has had extensive experience in education as a classroom teacher (physical sciences), school administrator, university lecturer, researcher, advisor, test designer and author. She has held executive management positions within the Australian education sector and has worked with education systems in Australia and overseas, most recently in Tajikistan and Ethiopia. Her areas of expertise are in the fields of educational measurement, educational administration, test design and marking, the curriculum ‘wars’, the underachievement of boys, educational research (policy and practice), and system/school reform. xi
  • 12. Free The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009 No. 35 of 2009 Every child of the age of six to fourteen years shall have a right to free and compulsory education in a neighbourhood school till completion of elementary education [Chapter No. II Part 3 clause (i)]Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation No child admitted in a school shall be held back in any class or expelled from school till the completion of elementary education [Chapter No. IV Part 16] xii
  • 13. ContentsChapter 1Continuous and Comprehensive 1-16EvaluationChapter 2School Based Continuous and 17-21Comprehensive EvaluationChapter 3CCE in Middle School Level 22-38Chapter 4Assessing Co-scholastic Areas 39-64Chapter 5Tools and Techniques of Evaluation 65-90 Continuous and Comprehensive EvaluationChapter 6Implications for Schools 91-100Annexure 1Tools and Techniques for Assessing 101-107Children’s Learning: The Choice AvailableAnnexure 2Glossary of Terms 108-110Annexure 3CCE Circulars 112-146Suggestions/Feedback Form 147 xiii
  • 14. Chapter 1 Manual for Teachers Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation Aim of Education Education aims at making children capable of becoming responsible, productive and useful members of a society. Knowledge, skills and Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation attitudes are built through learning experiences and opportunities created for learners in school. It is in the classroom that learners can analyse and evaluate their experiences, learn to doubt, to question, to investigate and to think independently. The aim of education simultaneously reflects the current needs and aspirations of a society as well as its lasting values and human ideals. At any given time and place it can be called the contemporary and contextual articulations of broad and lasting human aspirations and values. An understanding of learners, educational aims, the nature of knowledge, and the nature of the school as a social organization can help us arrive at principles to guide classroom practices. Conceptual development is thus a continuous process of 1
  • 15. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation deepening and enriching connections and acquiring new layers of meaning. Simultaneously theories that children have about the natural and social world, develop, including about themselves in relation to others, which provide them with explanations for why things are the way they are and the relationship between the cause and its effect. Attitudes, emotions and values are thus an integral part of cognitive development, and are linked to the development of language, mental representations, concepts and reasoning. As children’s metacognitive capabilities develop, they become more aware of their own beliefs and capable of regulating their own learning. Characteristics of learning All children are naturally motivated to learn and are capable of learning. Understanding and developing the capacity for abstract thinking, reflection and work are the most important aspects of learning. Children learn in a variety of ways-through experience, making and doing things, experimentation, reading, discussion, asking,Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation listening, thinking and reflecting, and expressing oneself in speech or writing both individually and with others. They require opportunities of all these kinds in the course of their development. Teaching something before the child is cognitively ready takes away real learning. Children may ‘remember’ many facts but they may not understand them or be able to relate them to the world around them. Learning takes place both within school and outside school. Learning is enriched if these two arenas interact with each other. Art and work provide opportunities for holistic learning that is rich in tacit and aesthetic components. Such experiences are essential to be learnt through direct experience and integrated with life. Learning must be paced so that it allows learners to engage with concepts and deepen the understanding rather than remembering only to forget after examinations. At the same time learning must provide variety and challenge, and be interesting and engaging. 2
  • 16. Manual for Teachers Boredom is a sign that the task may have become mechanically repetitive for the child and of little cognitive value. Learning can take place with or without mediation. In the case of the latter, the social context and interactions, especially with those who are capable, provide avenues for learners to work at cognitive levels above their own. Source : NCF 2005Historical view of various Recommendations andReportsExaminations are an indispensable part of the educational process assome form of assessment is necessary to determine the effectiveness ofteaching learning process and their internalization by learners. VariousCommissions and Committees have felt the need for examination reforms.The Hunter Commission (1882), Calcutta University Commission or SadlerCommission (1917-1919), Hartog Committee Report (1929), the Reportof Central Advisory Board or Sargeant Plan (1944), Secondary Education Continuous and Comprehensive EvaluationCommission or Mudaliar Commission (1952-53) have all maderecommendations regarding reducing emphasis on external examinationand encouraging internal assessment through Continuous andComprehensive Evaluation.The need for Continuous and Comprehensive School Based Evaluationhas been reiterated over the last few decades. The Kothari Commissionreport (1966) observed, ‘On the completion of the course, at the end ofthe lower or higher secondary stage, the student should receive a certificatefrom the school also giving the record of his internal assessment as containedin his cumulative record. This certificate may be attached to that given bythe Board in connection with the external examination…’ (9.81). It furtheradds, ‘This internal assessment or evaluation conducted by the schools isof greater significance and should be given increasing importance. It shouldbe comprehensive, evaluating all those aspects of students’ growth thatare measured by the external examination and also those personality traits,interests and attitudes which cannot be assessed by it.’ (9.84). 3
  • 17. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation This aspect has been strongly taken care of in the National Policy on Education (1986) which states that “Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation that incorporates both scholastic and non-scholastic aspects of evaluation, spread over the total span of instructional time” {8.24 (iii)} should be followed. Report on the Committee for Review of NPE (1986) recommendation brought out by Government of India in 1991 lays down norms for “continuous comprehensive internal evaluation and suggests safeguards against abuse of this evaluation system”{268(iv)}. Report on the CABE Committee on Policy brought out by Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD), Govt. of India in January, 1992 has also referred to the provisions of NPE with regard to evaluation process and examination reforms and also suggested ‘continuous and comprehensive internal evaluation of the scholastic and non-scholastic achievement of the students’ (16.8). The Report of the Task Force on the Role and status of the Board of Secondary Education (1997) observed: In our scheme of things, it is theContinuous and Comprehensive Evaluation School Boards which are expected to play the central role in the academic renovation of the school system. In other words, leadership has to come from the Board. Once the Boards get committed to this vital and supplementary system of evaluation and push it vigorously, this innovation will come to be accepted by more and more schools. “Learning without Burden”- Report of the National Advisory Committee appointed by the MHRD, Department of Education, Govt. of India has stated - “Board examination, taken at the end of Class X and XII, have remained rigid, bureaucratic, and essentially uneducative…” Accordingly, National Curriculum Framework, 2005 proposing Examination Reforms stated, “Indeed, boards should consider, as a long-term measure, making the Class X examination optional, thus permitting students continuing in the same school (and who do not need a board certificate) to take an internal school examination instead” and continues, 4
  • 18. Manual for Teachers“Excellence in diverse areas should be recognized and rewarded. And it ischildren’s responsiveness to what is taught rather than just their capacity toretain it, that should be the focus of evaluation”, As a sequel to above, the Position Paper on ‘Examination Reforms’ by NCERT 2006, states, “Indeed, it is our view that the tenth grade exam be made optional forthwith. Tenth-graders who intend continuing in the eleventh grade at the same school and do not need the Board certificate for any immediate purpose, should be free to take a school conducted exam instead of the Board exam.”Place of Evaluation in the CurriculumA curriculum is what constitutes a total teaching-learning programcomprising overall aims, syllabus, materials, methods and assessment.In short it provides a framework of knowledge and capabilities, seen as Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluationappropriate to a particular level. Evaluation not only measures theprogress and achievement of the learners but also the effectiveness ofthe teaching materials and methods used for transaction. Hence,evaluation should be viewed as a component of curriculum with the twinpurpose of effective delivery and further improvement in the teachinglearning process.If properly understood, evaluation or assessment will not be perceivedas something administered by the teachers and taken by the learners onthe conclusion of a period of learning. When evaluation is seen as anend of the learning exercise, both the teachers and the learners will tendto keep it outside the teaching-learning process, rendering assessmentbroadly irrelevant and alien to the curriculum. Further, such a perceptionassociates anxiety and stress with evaluation for learners. On the contrary,if evaluation is seen as an integral part built into the teaching learningprocess; learners will not perceive tests and examination with fear. It willlead to diagnosis, remedial action and enhancement of learning. 5
  • 19. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation The scope of evaluation in schools extends to almost all the areas of learners’ personality development. It should include both scholastic and co-scholastic areas, i.e. it should be comprehensive in nature. This is in line with the goals of education. Evaluation is continuous and reveals the strengths and weaknesses of learners more frequently, so that the learners have better opportunity to understand and improve themselves. It also provides feedback to the teachers for modifying their teaching strategies. In view of getting a complete picture of the child’s learning, learner’s assessment should focus on the learner ’s ability to: Learn and acquire desired skills related to different subject areas Acquire a level of achievement in different subject areas in the requisite measure Develop child’s individual skills, interests, attitudes and motivation Understand and lead a healthy and productive life Monitor the changes taking place in child’s learning, behaviour and progress over a period of time Respond to different situations and opportunities both in and outContinuous and Comprehensive Evaluation of school Apply what is learnt in a variety of environment, circumstances and situations Work independently, collaboratively and harmoniously Analyze and evaluate Be aware of social and environmental issues Participate in social and environmental projects Retain what is learned over a period of time 6
  • 20. Manual for TeachersThus assessment is a useful, desirable and an enabling process. To realizethis, one needs to keep the following parameters in mind. Assessment needs to: Use a variety of ways to collect information about the learner’s learning and progress in all subjects Collect information continuously and record the same Give importance to each learner’s way of responding and learning and time it takes to do so Report on a continuous basis and be sensitive to every learner’s response Provide feedback that will lead to positive action and help the learner to do better NOT In the assessment process, one should be careful NOT to: Label learners as slow, poor, intelligent etc. Make comparisons between them Make negative statements Continuous and Comprehensive EvaluationContinuous and Comprehensive EvaluationContinuous and Comprehensive Evaluation (CCE) refers to a system ofschool based evaluation of a student that covers all aspects of a studentdevelopment. It is a developmental process of student which emphasizeson two fold objectives. These objectives are continuity in evaluation andassessment of broad based learning and behaviourial outcomes on theother.The term ‘continuous’ is meant to emphasise that evaluation of identifiedaspects of students ‘growth and development’ is a continuous processrather than an event, built into the total teaching-learning process andspread over the entire span of academic session. It means regularity ofassessment, frequency of unit testing, diagnosis of learning gaps, use ofcorrective measures, retesting and feedback of evidence to teachers andstudents for their self evaluation. 7
  • 21. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation The second term ‘comprehensive’ means that the scheme attempts to cover both the scholastic and the co-scholastic aspects of the students’ growth and development. Since abilities, attitudes and aptitudes can manifest themselves in forms other than the written word, the term refers to application of variety of tools and techniques (both testing and non-testing) and aims at assessing a learner’s development in areas of learning, like:- Knowledge Understanding Applying Analyzing Evaluating Creating (a) The objectives are: To help develop cognitive, psychomotor and affective skillsContinuous and Comprehensive Evaluation To lay emphasis on thought process and de-emphasise memorization To make evaluation an integral part of teaching-learning process To use evaluation for improvement of students achievement and teaching-learning strategies on the basis of regular diagnosis followed by remedial instructions To use evaluation as a quality control device to maintain desired standard of performance To determine social utility, desirability or effectiveness of a programme and take appropriate decisions about the learner, the process of learning and the learning environment To make the process of teaching and learning a learner-centered activity 8
  • 22. Manual for Teachers Features (b) The Features are: The ‘continuous’ aspect of CCE takes care of ‘continual’ and ‘periodicity’ aspect of evaluation Continual means assessment of students in the beginning of instructions (placement evaluation) and assessment during the instructional process (formative evaluation) done informally using multiple techniques of evaluation Periodicity means assessment of performance done frequently at the end of unit/term (summative evaluation) The ‘comprehensive’ component of CCE takes care of assessment of all round development of the child’s personality. It includes assessment in Scholastic as well as Co-Scholastic aspects of the pupil’s growth Scholastic aspects include curricular areas or subject specific areas, whereas Co-Scholastic aspects include Life Skills, Co-Curricular Activities, Attitudes and Values Assessment in Scholastic areas is done informally and formally using multiple techniques of evaluation continually and Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation periodically. The diagnostic evaluation takes place at the end of unit/term test. The causes of poor performance in some units are diagnosed using diagnostic tests. These are followed with appropriate interventions followed by retesting Assessment in Co-Scholastic areas is done using multiple techniques on the basis of identified criteria, while assessment in Life Skills is done on the basis of Indicators of Assessment and Checklists Source - Examination Reforms, NCERT(c) The functions are: It helps the teacher to organize effective teaching strategies Continuous evaluation helps in regular assessment to the extent and degree of Learner’s progress (ability and achievement with reference to specific Scholastic and Co-Scholastic areas) 9
  • 23. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation Continuous evaluation serves to diagnose weaknesses and permits the teacher to ascertain an individual learner’s strengths and weaknesses and her needs. It provides immediate feedback to the teacher, who can then decide whether a particular unit or concept needs a discussion again in the whole class or whether a few individuals are in need of remedial instruction By continuous evaluation, children can know their strengths and weaknesses. It provides the child a realistic self assessment of how he/she studies. It can motivate children to develop good study habits, to correct errors, and to direct their activities towards the achievement of desired goals. It helps a learner to determine the areas of instruction in where more emphasis is required Continuous and comprehensive evaluation identifies areas of aptitude and interest. It helps in identifying changes in attitudes and value systems It helps in making decisions for the future, regarding choice of subjects, courses and careers It provides information/reports on the progress of students in Scholastic and Co-Scholastic areas and thus helps in predicting the future success of the learnerContinuous and Comprehensive Evaluation Continuous evaluation helps in bringing awareness of the achievement to the child, teachers and parents from time to time. They can look into the probable cause of the fall in performance if any, and may take remedial measures of instruction in which more emphasis is required. Many times, because of some personal reasons, family problems or adjustment problems, the children start neglecting their studies, resulting in sudden drop in their performance. If the teacher, child and parents do not notice the sudden drop in the performance of the child in academics, it could result in a permanent deficiency in the childs’ learning. The major emphasis of CCE is on the continuous growth of students ensuring their intellectual, emotional, physical, cultural and social development and therefore, it will not be merely limited to assessment of learner’s scholastic attainments. CCE uses assessment as a means of motivating learners to provide feedback and follow up work to improve upon the learning in the classroom and to present a comprehensive picture of a learner’s profile. 10
  • 24. Manual for TeachersIt is this that has led to the emergence of the concept of School BasedContinuous and Comprehensive EvaluationEvaluation. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation Source: NCERT, 2008 11
  • 25. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation Scholastic and Co-Scholastic Assessment In order to have Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation, both Scholastic and Co-Scholastic aspects need to be given due recognition. Such a holistic assessment requires maintaining an ongoing and comprehensive profile for each learner that is honest, encouraging and discreet. While teachers frequently reflect, plan and implement remedial strategies, the child’s ability to retain and articulate what has been learned over a period of time also requires periodic assessment. These assessments can take many forms but all of them should be as comprehensive and discreet as possible. Weekly, fortnightly, or quarterly reviews (depending on the learning area), that do not openly compare one learner with another are generally recommended. The objective is to promote and enhance not just learning and retention among children, but their soft skills as well. Scholastic Assessment The objectives of the Scholastic domain are:- Desirable behaviour related to the learner’s knowledge, understanding,Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation application, evaluation, analysis and the ability to apply it in an unfamiliar situation. To improve the teaching learning process. Assessment should be both Formative and Summative. Formative and Summative Assessment Formative Assessment is a tool used by the teacher to continuously monitor student progress in a non threatening, supportive environment. It involves regular descriptive feedback, a chance for the student to reflect on the performance, take advice and improve upon it. It involves the students’ being an essential part of assessment from designing criteria to assessing self or peers. If used effectively, it can improve student performance tremendously while raising the self esteem of the child and reducing the work load of the teacher. Formative Assessment is carried out during a course of instruction for providing continuous feedback to both the teachers and the learners. It is 12
  • 26. Manual for Teachersalso carried out for taking decisions regarding appropriate modificationsin the transactional procedures and learning activities. ‘… often means no more than that the assessment is carried out frequently and is planned at the same time as teaching.’ (Black and Wiliam, 1999) ‘… provides feedback which leads to students recognizing the (learning) gap and closing it … it is forward looking …’ (Harlen, 1998) ‘ … includes both feedback and self-monitoring.’ (Sadler, 1989) ‘… is used essentially to get a feed back into the teaching and learning process.’ (Tunstall and Gipps, 1996)Features of Formative Assessment Formative Is diagnostic and remedial Makes provision for effective feedback Provides a platform for the active involvement of students in their own learning Enables teachers to adjust teaching to take account of the results Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation of assessment Recognizes the profound influence assessment has on the motivation and self-esteem of students, both of which are crucial influences on learning Recognizes the need for students to be able to assess themselves and understand how to improve Builds on students’ prior knowledge and experience in designing what is taught Incorporates varied learning styles to decide how and what to teach Encourages students to understand the criteria that will be used to judge their work Offers an opportunity to students to improve their work after they get the feedback Helps students to support their peer group and vice-versa 13
  • 27. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation Summative Assessment is carried out at the end of a course of learning. It measures or ‘sums-up’ how much a student has learned from the course. It is usually a graded test, i.e., it is marked according to a scale or set of grades. Assessment that is predominantly of summative nature will not by itself be able to yield a valid measure of the growth and development of the student. It, at best, certifies the level of achievement only at a given point of time. The paper pencil tests are basically a one- time mode of assessment and to exclusively rely on it to decide about the development of a student is not only unfair but also unscientific. Overemphasis on examination marks that focus on only scholastic aspects in turn makes student assume that assessment is different from learning, resulting in the ‘learn and forget’ syndrome. Besides encouraging unhealthy competition, the overemphasis on Summative Assessment system also produces enormous stress and anxiety among the learners. “Good summative assessments—tests and other graded evaluations— must be demonstrably reliable, valid, and free of bias” (Angelo and Cross, 1993). ‘…assessment (that) has increasingly been used to sum up learning’Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation (Black and Wiliam, 1999) ‘… looks at past achievements … adds procedures or tests to existing work ... involves only marking and feedback grades to student … is separated from teaching … is carried out at intervals when achievement has to be summarized and reported.’ (Harlen, 1998) Features of Summative Assessment Assessment of learning Generally taken by students at the end of a unit or semester to demonstrate the “sum” of what they have or have not learned Summative assessment methods are the most traditional way of evaluating student work 14
  • 28. Manual for Teachers (Part Scholastic Assessment (Part I) F ormative Sum mative Summative Assessment As sessment Assessment (Flexible Timing) (Written, End of Term) Tools Techniques Questions Examination Objective type Observation Assignments Short answer schedule Quizzes and Long answer Interview schedule competitions Checklist Projects Rating scale Debates Anecdotal records Elocution Document analysis Group discussions Tests and Club activities inventories Experiments Portfolio analysis Research Continuous and Comprehensive EvaluationCo-Scholastic AssessmentThe desirable behaviour related to learner’s life skills, attitudes, interests,values, co-curricular activities and physical health are described as skillsto be acquired in co-scholastic domain.The process of assessing the students’ progress in achieving objectivesrelated to scholastic and co-scholastic domain is called comprehensiveevaluation. It has been observed that usually under the scholastic domainsuch as knowledge and understanding of the facts, concepts, principlesetc. of a subject are assessed. The Co-Scholastic elements are eitheraltogether excluded from the evaluation process or they are not givenadequate attention. For making the evaluation comprehensive, bothScholastic and Co-Scholastic aspects should be given importance. Simpleand manageable means of assessment of Co-Scholastic aspects of growthmust be included in the comprehensive evaluation scheme. 15
  • 29. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation Co - Scholastic Areas (Part II) Co- (Part Co-Scholastic Areas (2A, B, C & D and 3A, B) 2(A): 2 (B): 2(C) 2(D) Life Skills Work Education Visual and Attitudes and Performing Arts Values 1 Self Awareness 1.1. Teachers 2 Problem Solving 1.2 School mates 3 Decision Making 1.3 School 4 Critical Thinking Programmes and 5 Creative Thinking Environment 6 Interpersonal Relationships 2. Value Systems 7 Effective Communication 8 Empathy 3. Co-Curricular 9 Managing Emotions ActivitiesContinuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 10 Dealing with stress 3 (A) Activities (any two): 3 (B) Health and Physical • Literary and Creative Skills Education (any two): • Scientific Skills • Sports/Indigenous Sports • Information and • NCC/NSS Communication Technology • Scouting and Guiding (ICT) • Swimming • Organizational and • Gymnastics Leadership Skills (Clubs) • Yoga • First Aid • Gardening/Shramdaan Comprehensive evaluation would necessitate the use of a variety of tools and techniques. This will be so because both different and specific areas of learner’s growth can be evaluated through certain special techniques. 16
  • 30. Manual for TeachersChapter 2 School Based Continuous & Comprehensive Evaluation Need School Based Continuous and Comprehensive Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation Evaluation system should be established to: Reduce stress on children Make evaluation comprehensive and regular Provide space for the teacher for creative teaching Provide a tool of diagnosis and remedial action Produce learners with greater skills Position Paper on Aims of Education - NCF 2005, NCERT Aim of School Based CCE Elimination of chance element and subjectivity (as far as possible), de-emphasis on memorization, encouraging comprehensive evaluation 17
  • 31. School Based Continuous & Comprehensive Evaluation incorporating both Scholastic and Co-Scholastic aspects of learners development Continuous evaluation spread over the total span of the instructional time as an integral built-in aspect of the total teaching-learning process Functional and meaningful declaration of results for effective use by teachers, students, parents and the society Wider uses of test results for purposes not merely of the assessment of levels of pupils’ achievements and proficiencies, but mainly for their improvement, thorough diagnosis and remedial/enrichment programmes Improvement in the mechanics of conducting examinations for realizing a number of other allied purposes Introduction of concomitant changes in instructional materials and methodology Introduction of the semester system The use of grades in place of marks in determining and declaring the level of pupil performance and proficiencyContinuous and Comprehensive Evaluation The above goals are relevant for both external examination and evaluation in schools. Its Characteristics School Based Evaluation has the following characteristics: Is broader, more comprehensive and continuous than traditional system Aims primarily to help learners for systematic learning and development Takes care of the needs of the learner as responsible citizens of the future Is more transparent, futuristic and provides more scope for association among learners, teachers and parents 18
  • 32. Manual for TeachersSchool based evaluation provides opportunities to teachers to know learners:the following about their learners What they learn? How they learn? What type of difficulties / limitations they face in working in tandem? What do the children think? What do the children feel? What are their interests and dispositions?The focus has shifted to developing a deep learning environment. Thereis a paradigm shift in the pedagogy and competencies from ‘controlling’to ‘enriching’ to ‘empowering’ schools. Traditional Enriching Empowering Schooling Schooling Schooling Teacher centred Student centred Experience centred Subjects and Self directed Virtual authenticity classes - teacher Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation directed Sorting and Continuous Multi literacies ranking assessment individuals Competency: Competency: Competency: Memory Critical thinking Risk taking Competitive Collaborative Ethical Creative Interactive ParadigmsThere are four Assessment Paradigms(1) Assessment of LearningThe ‘assessment of learning’ is defined as a process whereby someoneattempts to describe and quantify the knowledge, attitudes or skillspossessed by another. Teacher direction is paramount and the student 19
  • 33. School Based Continuous & Comprehensive Evaluation has little involvement in the design or implementation of the assessment process in these circumstances. Teacher designs learning Teacher collects evidence Teacher judges what has been learnt (and what has not been learnt) Learning (2) Assessment for Learnin g The ‘assessment for learning’ involves increased level of student autonomy, but not without teacher guidance and collaboration. The assessment for learning is sometimes seen as being akin to ‘formative assessment’. There is more emphasis towards giving useful advice to the student and less emphasis on the giving of marks and the grading function. Teacher designs learning Teacher designs assessment with feedback to student Teacher judges what has been learnt (student develops insight into what has not)Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation (3) Assessment as Learning The ‘assessment as learning’ is perhaps more connected with diagnostic assessment and can be constructed with more of an emphasis on peer learning. Assessment as learning generates opportunities for self assessment and peer assessment. Students take on increased responsibility to generate quality information about their learning and that of others. Teacher and student co-construct learning Teacher and student co-construct assessment Teacher and student co-construct learning progress map Assessment for learning and assessment as learning activities should be deeply embedded in teaching and learning and be the source of interactive feedback, allowing students to adjust, re-think and re-learn. 20
  • 34. Manual for Teachers(4) Assessment in LearningThe ‘assessment in learning’ places the question at the centre of teachingand learning. It deflects the teaching from its focus on a ‘correct answer’to a focus on ‘a fertile question’. Through enquiry students engage inprocesses that generates feedback about their learning, which comefrom multiple sources and activities. It contributes to the construction ofother learning activities, line of enquiry and the generation of otherquestions. Student as the centre of learning Student monitors, assesses and reflects on learning Student initiates demonstration of learning (to self and others) Teacher as coach and mentorTeachers and students need to understand the purpose of each assessmentstrategy. The overall assessment ‘package’ being used by learners andteachers should accurately capture, generate and use meaningful learninginformation to generate deep learning and understanding. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 21
  • 35. Chapter 3 CCE in Middle School Level Emergence of the Concept in CBSE The Central Board of Secondary Education has introduced the scheme of Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation in its schools in a phased manner. In 2004, CCE was implemented in primary classes at I-V (Vide Circulars No. 5/18/25/04). Besides doing away with the concept of pass/ fail system upto class V, the assessment focused on the positive aspects of the child’s developmentContinuous and Comprehensive Evaluation during this stage. Accordingly Achievement Records for the primary classes (for Classes I & II and Classes III to V) were also developed and recommended to schools with the objective of facilitating holistic learning. As a follow up, the Board decided to extend CCE to classes VI to VIII in 2006 (Circular No. 2/06). In the year 2000, the Board implemented the concept of an independent Certificate of School Based Evaluation to be awarded by the school to all students who passed CBSE Class X Examination. This certificate was awarded in addition to the Board’s regular certificate and marks statement related to external examination. It carried a footnote that a certificate of CCE is being issued by the school and should be studied for judging the total personality of the student. Besides Scholastic Areas, Co- Scholastic Areas were included in CCE for assessment over a continuous period of two years i.e. Classes IX and X. 22
  • 36. Manual for TeachersI. Details of CCE Report Book for Classes VI, VII and VIIIPart 1 consists of the evaluation of Scholastic Areas.Part 1: Scholastic Areas There will be two terms. The First Term will be from April -September and the Second Term from October-March of the subsequent year. Each term will have two Formative and one Summative Assessment. Assessment will be indicated in Grades. The Grading Scale for the Scholastic Areas is a Nine Point Grading Scale. Overall grade of Formative Assessments over the two terms (FA1+FA2+FA3+FA4) and the overall grade of Summative Assessment (SA1+SA2) must be given. The total of the two grades which comprises (Formative and Summative) needs to be given in the relevant column. Continuous and Comprehensive EvaluationPart -2: Co - Scholastic Areas art-2: Co-Part 2 consists of Co-Scholastic Areas where students’ are assessed infour parts on a Five Point Grading Scale once in a sessionPart 2(A):Life Skills consists of - - Self Awareness - Problem Solving - Decision Making - Critical Thinking - Creative Thinking - Interpersonal Relationships 23
  • 37. CCE in Middle School Level - Effective Communication - Empathy - Managing Emotions - Dealing with Stress Part 2(B): Work Education Part 2(C): Visual and Performing Arts Part 2(D): Attitudes & Values Values Attitudes towards Teachers, Schoolmates, School Programmes and Environment . Value systems refers to the framework which must be developed right through Primary to Secondary level. These are to be filled in after a period of observation over the year byContinuous and Comprehensive Evaluation the Class Teacher in consultation with the subject teachers. The guidelines for filling this are given in detail (Chapter 4) Part 3: Co - Curricular Activities Co- Part 3 consists of Co-curricular Activities wherein choice in participation and assessment thereof is available. It has two sub parts to be assessed on a five-point grading scale. Part 3(A) 1. Literary and Creative Skills 2. Scientific Skills 3. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) 4. Organizational and Leadership Skills (Clubs) A student will be expected to choose two activities from these four groups and will be assessed on their level of participation and achievement. 24
  • 38. Manual for TeachersPart 3(B) Health and Physical ActivitiesEight different kinds of Health and Physical Activities have been provided. 1. Sports/ Indigenous sports (Kho-Kho etc.) 2. NCC / NSS 3. Scouting and Guiding 4. Swimming 5. Gymnastics 6. Yoga 7. First Aid 8. Gardening/ShramdaanStudents will be assessed on any two activities that are chosen fromwithin the eight different activities. The objective is to benefit from Physicalactivities to maximize health benefits. They will be assessed by teachersinvolved in various activities in school. Continuous and Comprehensive EvaluationThe areas given in the Report Book provide adequate opportunities tothe learners for all round development. It has been widely understoodthat class room transaction in academic subjects alone cannot fosterdevelopment in all areas or help to develop Life Skills. The developmentof qualities such as Self Esteem, Positive Attitude and Life Skills requiredevelopment of positive and adaptive behaviors over a period of time.These Life Skills can be integrated into the entire personality of a learnerover the ten years of schooling and are essential for fostering personalqualities, nurturing good relationships and developing effectiveCommunication Skills. The development of good physical health,formation of positive attitude towards others including environment andcultivation of universal values is possible only through learner’s involvementin Life Skills and Co-Curricular Activities. 25
  • 39. CCE in Middle School Level II. Evaluation of Scholastic aspect: Part 1: Scholastic Areas Evaluation of Academic Subjects in Classes VI to VIII. Six assessments are proposed: T ype of assessment Percentage of Month Term wise weighting in weighting academic session First Term First Term Formative 10% April-May FA1+FA2=20% 20% Assessment-1 Formative 10% July-August Assessment-2 Summative 30% September SA1=30% 30% Assessment-1 Term Second Term Formative 10% October - FA3+FA4=20% 20% Assessment-3 NovemberContinuous and Comprehensive Evaluation Formative 10% January - Assessment-4 February Summative 30% March SA2=30% 30% Assessment-2 Total: Formative Assessments (FA) = FA1+FA2+ FA3+FA4 = 40% Summative Assessments (SA) = SA1+SA2 = 60% All across the schools, the most commonly used tools/techniques are those developed by teachers themselves. Among these are paper-pencil tests/tasks, written and oral tests, questions on pictures, simulated activities and discussion with students. Short class tests are used by most teachers as a quick and easy way of assessing the learning progress of children. As these are generally conducted at the end of a unit/month covering the specified content taught during that period, these are no doubt useful but they need to be used effectively. * (i) Teachers will arrive at the Formative Assessment using an acceptable method for combining scores. (ii) They will be given opportunity to develop this practice during implementation. 26
  • 40. Manual for TeachersSimilarly, tests can be formal, informal, written or oral, based on specifiedcontent desired to be tested. They are diagnostic in nature as they enablethe teacher to identify or reveal the strength and weaknesses of students.A test should not create any fear among students and it should beadministered in an informal way.Tools and Techniques for conducting Formative Tests are dealt in detail inChapter -5III. Grading ScaleAssessment of Scholastic attainments Part 1 will be reported twice in ayear.The nine point grading scale for measuring Scholastic achievements isgiven below: Grade Marks Range Grade point A1 91 -100 10.0 A2 81 - 90 9.0 B1 71 - 80 8.0 B2 61 - 70 7.0 C1 51 - 60 6.0 Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation C2 41 - 50 5.0 D 33 - 40 4.0 E1 21- 32 3.0 E2 00 -20 2.0Minimum qualifying grade in all the subjects under Scholastic Domain is D.Note : All assessment with regard to the academic status of the studentsshall be done in marks and the assessment will be given in grades.Co-Scholastic attainments 2(A,B,C& D) and 3(A,B) will be done on 5 pointScale (shown in the table below). It will be done once in a session. Grade Points Grade Points A 4.1- 5.0 B 3.1- 4.0 C 2.1- 3.0 D 1.1- 2.0 E 0 -1.0Minimum qualifying grade in Co-Scholastic Domain is D.Note: As per the Directives of RTE, no child will be detained till class VIII 27
  • 41. CCE in Middle School Level IV. Format of Report Book for Classes VI to VIII IV. Report The suggested format of a Report Book is given below. School Logo Affiliation No. _______________________________________ Name of School _______________________________________ Complete Address ______________________________________ _______________________________________ E-mail id _______________________________________ elephone Telephone No. _______________________________________ Report Book CLASSES VI to VIII Session: __________ Profile: Student Profile:Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation Name of Student Class/House Admission No. Date of Birth Mother’s name Father’s name Residential Address and Telephone No. Attendance: Term I Term II Total attendance of the student ____________ ____________ Total working days ____________ ____________ Signature: Student Teacher Class Teacher Principal Parent Parent 28
  • 42. Manual for Teachers Part–I: Academic Performance: Scholastic Areas Performance: (9 point scale)S .No. Subjects Term-I Term-II (Term I+II) (Term FA1 FA2 SA1 FA1+ FA3 FA4 SA2 FA3+ FA1+FA2+ SA1+ Overall FA2+ FA4+ FA3+FA4 SA2 Grade SA1 SA201 Language I02 Language II03 Language III04 Mathematics Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation05 Science06 Social Science07 Addl. Subject Overall Grade: ___________ 29
  • 43. CCE in Middle School Level Part 2: Co-Scholastic Areas (to be assessed on a 5 point scale once Co- in a session) 2 (A): Life Skills S.No. Descriptive Indicators* Grade 01 Awareness: Self Awareness 02 P roblem Solving: 03 Decision Making: 04 Critical Thinking: 05 Creative Thinking:Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 06 Interpersonal Relationships: 07 Effective Communication: 08 Empathy: 09 Managing Emotions: 10 Dealing with Stress: * Descriptive Indicators are statements used to describe each learner. 30
  • 44. Manual for Teachers Work2(B): Work Education Descriptive Indicators Grade Performing2(C): Visual and Performing Arts Descriptive Indicators Grade Suggestive Activities: Work Education: Education:Cookery Skills, Preparation of stationery items, Tieing and dyeing and screen printing, preparing paper out of waste paper, Hand embroidery, Running a book bank, Repair and maintenance of domestic electrical gadgets, Computer operation and maintenance, Photography etc. Visual & Performing Arts: Music (Vocal, Instrumental), Dance, Drama, Drawing, Performing Painting, Craft, Sculpture, Puppetry, Folk Art forms etc. Values2(D): Attitudes & Values S.No. Descriptive Indicators Grade Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 1.0 Attitude Towards Towards 1.1 Teachers: 1.2 School-mates: 1.3 Programme School Programme and Environment: 02 Value Systems: 31
  • 45. CCE in Middle School Level 3(A) Co-Scholastic Activities (Any two to be assessed) 1. Literary and Creative Skills 2. Scientific Skills 3. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) 4.Organizational and Leadership Skills (Clubs) S.No. Descriptive Indicators Grade 01 02 Suggestive Activities: Literary & Creative Skills: Debate, Declamation, Creative Writing, Recitation, Poster- Making, Slogan Writing, Theatre etc. Scientific Skills: Science Club, Projects, Maths Club, Science Quiz, Science Exhibition, Olympiads etc. Information and Communication Technology (ICT): PowerPoint Presentation, TechnologyContinuous and Comprehensive Evaluation Website and Cover Page Designing, Animation, Programming, E-books etc. Organisational & Leadership Skills : Eco Club, Health & Wellness Club, Heritage Leadership Club, Disaster Management Club, Literary Club, Scientific Club and other Clubs etc. 3(B) Health and Physical Education (Any two to be assessed) 1. Sports/Indigenous Sports 2. NCC/NSS 3. Scouting and Guiding 4. Swimming 5. Gymnastics 6. Yoga 7. First Aid 8. Gardening/Shramdaan S.No. Descriptive Indicators Grade 01 02 32
  • 46. Manual for Teachers Self AwarenessMy Goals:Strengths:My Interests and Hobbies: Continuous and Comprehensive EvaluationResponsibilities Discharged /Exceptional Achievements: 33
  • 47. Health Status Height __________ Weight _________________________ Blood Group __________ ision Vision (L)_________ (R)________ Dental Hygiene ____________________________________________ Scholastic Areas (Grading on 9 point scale) Grade Marks Range Point Grade Point A1 91 -100 10.0 A2 81 -90 9.0 B1 71 - 80 8.0 B2 61 - 70 7.0 C1 51 - 60 6.0 C2 41 - 50 5.0 D 33 - 40 4.0 E1 21 - 32 3.0 E2 00 - 20 2.0 Co-Scholastic AreasContinuous and Comprehensive Evaluation (Grading on 5 point scale) Grade Points Grade Points A 4.1- 5.0 B 3.1- 4.0 C 2.1- 3.0 D 1.1 - 2.0 E 0 - 1.0 Student must obtain the qualifying grade (minimum grade D) in all the subjects under Scholastic and Co-Scholastic Domain. * First Term FA1 (10%) + FA2 (10%)+SA1(30%) First Term erm: = 50% * Second Term FA3 (10%) + FA4 (10%) + SA2 (30%) = 50% Term erm: Formative Assessment : FA1(10%)+FA2(10%)+FA3(10%)+FA4(10%)= 40% Summative Assessment : SA1 (30%)+SA2 (30%) = 60% 34
  • 48. CCE in Middle School Level Manual for TeachersV.P roposed Evaluation Scheme for Scholastic .ProposedSubjects:Formative Assessment Scheme Focus on Formative Assessment Share the learning outcomes and assessment expectations with students Use clearly defined criteria Use examples and exemplars Give specific feedback (which will help to) Incorporate students Self Assessment Students keep a record of their progress Teachers keep records of students progress Continuous and Comprehensive EvaluationThe reason why we use different methods: Learning in different subject areas and aspects of development is to be assessed Learners may respond better to one method as compared to another Each method contributes in its own way to teacher’s understanding of learner’s learningIn order to help students improve their performance levels, the schoolsshall diagnose their learning difficulties through formative tests rightfrom the beginning of the academic year and bring it to the notice ofparents at appropriate intervals of time. They will recommend suitableremedial steps to enhance their learning capability. Similarly especiallygifted children should be provided with further reinforcements by givingthem additional assignments, enrichment material and mentoring. Dueprovision should be made in the class timetable for mentoring and toaddress different kinds of learners. The teacher also needs to incorporatestrategies for dealing with differently abled students in her class. 35
  • 49. CCE in Middle School Level The Formative Assessment should normally be made on recorded evidences based on anecdotal records to be maintained by the class teacher or the subject teacher. It will be advisable to communicate levels of attainment to the students and parents during the course of the academic year, so that with their cooperation the remedial measures are taken in time for enhancing the performance of the students. The overall assessment should be followed by the descriptive remarks by the class teacher about the positive and significant achievements, avoiding negative assessment even by implication. It implies: Sharing learning goals with students Involving students in self assessment Providing feedback which leads to students recognising and taking next steps Being confident that, every student can improve Recommendations Formative Specific Recommendations for Formative AssessmentContinuous and Comprehensive Evaluation Listed below are a few recommendations for Formative Assessment which can be followed by schools. This list gives suggestions month-wise for various subjects. It is advised that within each term, schools use paper-pencil the paper-pencil test only once for assessing student performance under Formative Assessment. The purpose is to ensure use of multiple Formative modules of assessment so that the focus on written tests is reduced. In order to fulfill the objectives of Formative Assessment and to enable students to improve performance, teachers need to use a variety of assessment tools during the course of their teaching. It is mandatory that teachers use at least 3-4 different assessment tools during the term for each Formative Assessment (FA). This list given below Formative (FA). is not exhaustive, it is only to give an idea of the variety possible. Note: Formative Assessment can be carried through using multiple modes of assessment such as assignments, quizzes, debates, group discussions, projects. It may be clearly communicated to all teachers teaching various subjects that all projects and assignments must be done as group activities, 36
  • 50. Manual for Teachers within the class and school time only. Each subject must have only one paper pencil test under Formative Assessment. The other modes of Assessment must be a part of classroom interactive activities.Languages Oral and listening - these could be listening comprehension, prepared speech, conversation or dialogue Written assignments - short/ long question answers, creative writing, reports, newspaper articles, diary entries, poetry etc. Speeches - debates, oratory, recitation, extempore etc. Research projects - information gathering, deductive reasoning, analysis and synthesis and a presentation using a variety of forms including the use of Information Technology (IT) Pair work/group work Peer assessmentIt is suggested in Languages at least some assessment should be forassessing Conversation S kills Skills kills.Mathematics Problem solving, Multiple choice questions (MCQ) Data handling and analysis Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation Investigative projects Math Lab activities Models including origami etc. Research projects and presentations Group projects Peer assessment Presentations including the use of Information Technology (IT)It is suggested for Mathematics at least some formative assessment tasksshould be based on Maths Lab Activities Activities.Sciences Written assignments, MCQ Experimental work which may involve one or more of setting experiments, making observations, handling data, making deductions, working safely Planning or designing experiments to collect data or to investigate properties, laws, phenomena etc. 37
  • 51. CCE in Middle School Level Research work which could be investigative or information gathering and deducing Group work - research or experimental Contextual research projects Peer assessment Presentations including the use of Information Technology (IT) Science Quiz Seminar Symposium Field Tour Class Response Model Making It is suggested that for Science at least some formative assessments in the year are Experiments and hands-on activities activities. Social Sciences Written assignments - short and long answers Commentaries Source-based analysis Projects - investigative, informative, deductive and analytical Research Group work - projects and presentationsContinuous and Comprehensive Evaluation Models and charts Presentations, including the use of Information Technology (IT) Using authentic sources and primary texts Open book tests Secondary sources Comparison and contrast It is suggested in Social Science that at least some assessment should be based on projects which are done in groups as in-class activities under the direct supervision of the teacher. A system of education and examination that teaches members of disadvantaged groups the requisite problem-solving and analytical skills needed by the job market is vital. Memorizing and regurgitating textbooks is not a skill needed by the job market. An exam system that encourages this type of ‘learning’ snuffs out creativity. To teach skills and create excellence, is the way - perhaps the only sustainable way - toward real equity’. Examination Reform, NCF 2005 – NCERT 38
  • 52. Manual for TeachersChapter 4 Co- Assessing Co-Scholastic Areas Collecting Evidence and Interpreting Learning in Scholastic and Co-Scholastic Areas is demonstrated by change of behaviour in the learner. Behaviour is of two kinds – covert and overt. Overt behaviour is the outer expression of covert behaviour. As a teacher, you can judge a student only by his/ her overt behaviour. For example, understanding is covert; you really do not know whether a student Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation has understood even if he/she says “Yes, Ma’am”. However, when the student explains to you the concept, you know for sure his/her level of understanding. In this example, ‘explain’ is the overt behaviour and ‘understand’ is the covert behaviour. Overt behaviour of a student provides us evidence to assess his/her level of learning. Evaluation is all about collecting evidence and interpreting the human behaviour based on the evidence. Unlike robots or programmed instruments, human beings have a mind and are flexible. Hence, we prefer repeated evidence and then see the trend. For example, a student may be sometimes joyful, some times sad and yet on some other occasions angry. You may not be able to draw a conclusion – whether the student is joyful or not. But, if a student is 39
  • 53. Assessing Co-Scholastic Areas courteous to you most of the time, and courteous to all your colleague teachers most of the time, you can safely conclude, ‘the student is very courteous’. Isn’t it? Thus, assessment of human behaviour is collecting repeated evidences (information), identifying the trend of behaviour, deriving conclusions or making judgments and providing feedback. Since, we the assessors are also human beings, and are subject to our own beliefs, values, moods and emotions, we can ‘ be’ and often ‘are’ subjective in interpretation. For example, a student expresses his/her difference of opinion to a stated view/position with respect to a concept or a practice in the class. A ‘classical’ teacher will construe it as indiscipline and ask her to behave, whereas a ‘neo-modern’ teacher will construe it as divergence and enter into a discourse with an open mind. The latter will rate the same behaviour as very positive and creative. Research on human behaviour ‘triangulation’ recommends use of ‘triangulation’ technique – collecting and interpreting evidence by multiple assessors (at least three in number). To sum up, it may include the following steps:Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 1. Identifying qualities 2. Specifying behaviours/indicators of the concerned area/skill 3. Collection of evidence in respect of behaviour/indicators through observation and other techniques 4. Recording of the evidences 5. Analysis of the recorded evidences 6. Reporting or awarding grades The analysis of records raised as a result of periodic observation is done to validate the attainment of the quality resulting in growth in the Co-Scholastic Areas. The grades and descriptive indicators are assigned on the basis of the degree of attainment of a particular skill/behavior outcome. We have so far used a few terminologies that are landmarks in human behaviour assessment. These are: 1. Overt behaviour 2. Evidence of behaviour 40
  • 54. Manual for Teachers 3. Trend of behaviour 4. TriangulationThus, our fundamental challenge in assessing students in Co-ScholasticAreas are four-fold: a. Identifying (overt) behavioural indicators for each of the chosen areas b. Creating a scheme of assessment for certification c. Tools and techniques of gathering data and evidence d. Data archiving, interpreting and certifyingIn this chapter, we will deal with the first two issues. The other two, wewill take up in the next chapter.Overt Behaviour IndicatorsJust to remind you, we have chosen the following Co-Scholastic Areas.These are: 1. Life Skills 2. Work Education 3. Visual and Performing Arts Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 4. Attitudes and Values 5. Literary and Creative Skills 6. Scientific Skills 7. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) 8. Organization and Leadership Skills (Clubs) 9. Health and Physical Education: 9.1 Sports/Indigenous Sports 9.2 NCC/NSS 9.3 Scouting and Guiding 9.4 Swimming 9.5 Gymnastics 9.6 Yoga 9.7 First Aid 9.8 Gardening/Shramdaan 41
  • 55. Assessing Co-Scholastic Areas (Part I. Life Skills (Part 2 A) Life Skills are abilities for adaptive and positive behaviour that enable individuals to deal effectively with the demands and challenges of everyday life. They are abilities that facilitate the physical, mental and emotional well-being of individuals. ‘Adaptive’ means that a person is flexible in approach and able to adjust to different circumstances. ‘Positive behaviour’ implies that a person is forward looking and finds a ray of hope, solution and opportunities even in difficult situations. Life Skills are abilities that will help students to be successful in living a productive life. Learning and practising Life Skills help students to improve their personal and social qualities. There are large number of Life Skills emanating from various sources. For practical purposes and for feasibility, we have chosen ten Life Skills as given in the table below:Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation Life Skills Matrix Sl.No. Life Skills 1. Self-awareness 2. Problem Solving 3. Decision Making 4. Critical Thinking 5. Creative Thinking 6. Interpersonal Relationships 7. Effective Communication 42
  • 56. Manual for Teachers 8. Empathy 9. Managing Feelings/Emotions 10. Dealing with StressAlthough all or most of the Life Skills can be measured by standardizedtests and inventories, such skills can also be reasonably assessed on thebasis of displayed behaviour by the student. We have provided a fewsampled observable behaviours.As mentioned earlier, students will be assessed in these domains on thebasis of their overt behaviour. We will take three different courses ofaction to build in objectivity and reliability: Day-to-day observation Rating per term Testing annuallyDay to day observation Please keep ‘a watchful eye’ on your student, observation:whenever you notice a significant behaviour that may shed light on any Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluationone of the fifty (50) descriptors under the 10 domains. Record it in yourdiary. It should not be time bound; it should be as and when such a thinghappens. Here are a few examples: Rohan shared his tiffin with his friends today. Jiten gulped his tiffin quickly and then looked at others. Though Sara did not figure in the list of awardees, she was all smiles and helped me in organizing the event. George visited his sick classmate at home and briefed him about the home work. Sarbari differed with my viewpoint; she argued but never got irritated; but Shanti got angry because Sarbari was arguing with me. Mohammad connected the computer to the LCD projector, set the screen so proficiently that I could use it in the classroom. 43
  • 57. Assessing Co-Scholastic Areas While you rate such behaviour, please remember ‘5’ stands for desirable behaviour and less than ‘1’ for the undesirable ones. For example in the above case Sarbari gets ‘5’, but Shanti gets ‘2’ or ‘1’. Although you would observe on a day to day basis and record, you would only accumulate it at the end of the term and then convert into a grade. All these statements reveal certain styles of behaviour of a student, e.g. effective communication of Sarbari, excellent interpersonal skills exhibited by Mohammad and Sara’s ability to manage her emotions, etc. Also refer to the Life Skills Manual for teachers brought out by CBSE for Classes VI to VIII. It has a few exemplar activities for all Life Skills which teachers can do with their students. Others can also be created by the teachers themselves. Rating at the end of the term In the following pages, we present you term: behaviour descriptors for each of the Co-Scholastic dimensions. Human behaviour, as you know, is not a binary function; does not appear in ‘yes’ or ‘no’. It differs in degrees. Hence, rate each behaviour on five- point scale once in a session – Grade Points Grade Points A 4.1-5.0 B 3.1-4.0Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation C 2.1-3.0 D 1.1-2.0 E 0 -1.0 How to calculate Grades in Co-Scholastic Areas 1. Each student will be graded on each of the 10 Life Skills, Work Education, Visual and Performing Arts, 03 Attitudes, Values, 02 Co-curricular Activities and 02 Health and Physical Education (HPE) Activities. 2. Maximum score for each Life Skill is 25, for Work Education, Visual and Performing Arts and Attitudes is 50, for Values is 200 and for Co-curricular Activities and HPE is 50. 3. Before assigning the Grades on each component using the conversion table, please calculate the average or grade points by dividing the total score obtained by a student by number of items in that component. For example, for a student who has a score of 15 in Self-awareness; you need to divide it by the number of descriptors, i.e. 5; the average or grade point is 3.0; hence grade is C. 4. A Sample Sheet to calculate grades in Co-Scholastic Areas is given after the discussion of the indicators. 44
  • 58. Manual for Teachers(i) Self Awareness Sl.No. Descriptors Score out of 5 1. Is aware of his/her physical/social and emotional self 2. Self respecting 3. Aware of his/her strengths and weaknesses 4. Adopts optimistic approach 5. Has the confidence to face challenges Total Average/Grade Problem(ii) Problem Solving Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation Sl.No. Descriptors Score out of 5 1. Finds a workable solution to the problem 2. Handles various problems effectively 3. Identifies and states the problem 4. Views problems as a stepping stone to success 5. Finds ways to solve different kinds of conflicts Total Average/Grade 45
  • 59. Assessing Co-Scholastic Areas (iii) Decision Making Sl.No. Descriptors Score out of 5 1. Is decisive and convincing 2. Is able to find different alternatives to solve problems 3. Is able to analyse the alternatives critically 4. Takes decisions logically 5. Shows readiness to face challenges Total Average/Grade (iv) Critical Thinking Sl.No. Descriptors Score out of 5 1. Assesses the statements and argumentsContinuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 2. Examines the problems closely 3. Listens carefully and gives feedback 4. Tries to find out alternatives and solutions 5. Questions relevantly Total Average/Grade (v) Creative Thinking Sl.No. Descriptors Score out of 5 1. Ability to find creative and constructive solutions to problems and issues 2 Is independent in thinking 3. Has fluency in expression 46
  • 60. Manual for Teachers 4. Has rich imagination and is able to think out of the box 5. Can make independent judgement in crucial matters Total Average/Grade(vi) Interpersonal Relationships Sl.No. Descriptors Score out of 5 1. Is able to interact effectively with peers and teachers 2. Is very cheerful and friendly 3. Exhibits fine etiquettes and other social skills 4. Finds it natural and easy to share and discuss the feelings with others Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 5. Responsive to others’ interests and concerns Total Average/Grade(vii) Effective Communication Sl.No. Descriptors Score out of 5 1. Contributes frequently to group conversations 2. Knows the difference between assertive, aggressive and submissive manners of communication 3. Is able to make use of speech, action and expression while communicating 47
  • 61. Assessing Co-Scholastic Areas 4. Exhibits good listening skills 5. Uses gestures, facial expressions and voice intonation to emphasize points Total Average/Grade (viii) Empathy Sl.No. Descriptors Score out of 5 1. Demonstrates ability to respect others 2. Is concerned about the problems in the society/community 3. Is able to reach out to the friends who are in need of extra help 4. Is tolerant with diversity 5. Is sensitive towards the environment TotalContinuous and Comprehensive Evaluation Average/Grade (ix) Managing Emotions Sl.No. Descriptors Score out of 5 1. Is able to identify his/her emotions 2. Manages his/her emotions 3. Shares his/her feelings with peer group, teachers and parents 4. Can express his/her feelings in a healthy manner 5. Remains cool and calm under adverse conditions Total Average/Grade 48
  • 62. Manual for Teachers(x) Dealing with StressSl. No.Sl.No. Descriptors Score out of 51. Is able to identify the different stress related situations2. Copes with stress in an effective manner3. Is optimistic in handling different stress inducing situations4. Able to react positively under critical situations5. Remains composed and collected in stressful situations Total Average /Grade Average/Grade2. Work Education (Part 2B) (PartSl. No.Sl.No. Descriptors Score out of 51. Has a collaborative approach towards the process of learning Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation2. Is Innovative in ideas3. Plans and adheres to timelines4. Is Involved and motivated5. Demonstrates a positive attitude6. Is helpful, guides and facilitates others7. Demonstrates an understanding of correlation with real life situations8. Has a step-by-step approach to solving a problem9. Has clear understanding of output to be generated10. Is able to apply the theoretical knowledge into practical usageTotalAverage/Grade 49
  • 63. Assessing Co-Scholastic Areas Performing (Part 3. Visual and Performing Arts (Part 2C) (i) Visual Arts Sl. No. Sl.No. Descriptors Score out of 5 1. Takes an innovative and creative approach 2. Shows aesthetic sensibilities 3. Displays observation skills 4. Demonstrates interpretation and originality 5. Corelates with real life 6. Shows willingness to experiment with different art modes and mediums 7. Sketches or paints 8. Generates computer animation 9. Demonstrates proportion in size and clarity 10. Understands the importance of colour, balance and brightness TotalContinuous and Comprehensive Evaluation Average/Grade Performing (iv) Performing Arts Sl.No. Sl.No. Descriptors Score out of 5 1. Sings and plays instrumental music 2. Dances and acts in drama 3. Awareness and appreciation of works of artists 4. Demonstrates appreciation skills 5. Participates actively in aesthetic activities at various levels 6. Takes initiative to plan, create and direct various creative events 7. Reads and shows a degree of awareness of particular domain of art 50
  • 64. Manual for Teachers8. Experiments with art forms9. Shows a high degree of imagination and innovation10. Displays artistic temperament in all of his/ her actions in school and outsideTotalAverage/Grade (Part4a. Attitudes (Part 2D)Attitude is an important dimension in students’ lives. In this section, youwill assess students’ attitude with respect to the teachers, school-mates,and school programmes. Please follow the same practice as in theassessment of Life Skills. Attitudes Teachers(i) At titudes towards Teachers Sl.No. Sl.No. Descriptors Scores out of 5 1. Shows decency and courtesy to teachers inside and outside the class Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 2. Demonstrates positive attitudes towards learning 3. Takes suggestions and criticism in the right spirit 4. Respects teachers’ instructions 5. Accepts norms and rules of the school 6. Communicates his/her thoughts with teachers 7. Confides his/her problems with teachers 8. Shows honesty and sincerity towards teachers 9. Feels free to ask questions 10. Helpful to teachers Total Average/Grade 51
  • 65. Assessing Co-Scholastic Areas (ii) Attitude towards School-mates Sl. No. Sl.No. Descriptors Score out of 5 1. Is friendly with most of the classmates 2. Expresses ideas and opinions freely in a group 3. Is receptive to ideas and opinion of others 4. Treats classmates as equals (without any sense of superiority or inferiority) 5. Sensitive and supportive towards peers and differently abled schoolmates 6. Treats peers from different social, religious and economic background without any discrimination 7. Respects opposite gender and is comfortable in their company 8. Does not bully others 9. Deals with aggressive behaviour (bullying)Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation by peers tactfully 10. Shares credit and praise with team members and peers Total Average/Grade Programmes (iii) Attitude towards School Programmes and Environment Sl. No. Sl.No. Descriptors Score out of 5 1. Attaches a lot of importance to school activities and programmes 2. Participates in school activities relating to improvement of environment 3. Enthusiastically participates in school programmes 52
  • 66. Manual for Teachers 4. Shoulders responsibility happily 5. Confronts any one who criticizes school and school programmes 6. Insists on parents to participate/witness school programmes 7. Participates in community activities relating to environment 8. Takes care of school property 9. Sensitive and concerned about environmental degradation 10. Takes initiative in planning activities for the betterment of the environment Total Average/Grade Value4b. Value Systems Continuous and Comprehensive EvaluationValues are determining qualities of life. There is a very large body ofknowledge and lists of values. Article 51A of the Indian Constitution—Fundamental Duties – provides the most comprehensive list of valuesthat should be inculcated in every Indian citizen. There are 10 principles;we have identified four behavioural descriptors for each – in all 40descriptors. Like the previous ones, please assign a score out of 5 andcalculate the average across the 40 behavioural descriptors and assignthe grades as per the scheme mentioned earlier.(i) To abide by the constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the National Flag and the National Anthem Descriptors Score out of 5 a. Is aware of the Directive Principle and Fundamental Rights enshrined in the Constitution b. Sings National Anthem and patriotic songs with decorum 53
  • 67. Assessing Co-Scholastic Areas c. Attends hoisting of National Flag with respect and decorum d. Understands the meaning of tri colour and the Ashok Chakra (ii) To cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired freedom struggle Descriptors Score out of 5 a. Takes interest in the National Freedom Struggle b. Displays pride in being an Indian citizen c. Participates in celebration of Republic Day and Independence Day with enthusiasm d. Reads biographies of freedom fighters (iii) To uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity sovereignty,Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation of India Descriptors Score out of 5 a. Stays alert and raises voice against divisive forces b. Respects armed forces and paramilitary forces c. Respects Indian diversity d. Maintains peace and love (iv) To defend the country and render national service when iv) To called upon to do so Descriptors Score out of 5 a. Shows a proactive and responsible behaviour during crises b. Helpful towards disadvantaged section of the society 54
  • 68. Manual for Teachers c. Renders social work enthusiastically d. Actively participates in community development programmes of the school To(v) To promote harmony and spirit of unity and brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities; to remove the practices derogatory to the dignity of women Descriptors Score out of 5 a. Respects opposite gender b. Respects teachers from different religious and linguistic communities c. Takes up issues in case of indignity to women d. Kind and helpful towards classmates and people of community To(vi) To value and preserve the rich heritage of our culture. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation Descriptors Score out of 5 a. Reads and discusses about the Indian culture and heritage b. Appreciates diversity of cultures, social practices and more c. Treasures the belongings of the school, community and the country with a sense of pride d. Protects and prevents defacing of national monuments 55
  • 69. Assessing Co-Scholastic Areas To (vii) To protect and improve natural environment Descriptors Score out of 5 a. Shows compassion for living creatures b. Takes active interest in maintaining flora, fauna, plants and gardens c. Participates in movements for protecting endangered animals and green cover d. Takes care to clean classroom, school and neighbourhood To (viii) To develop scientific temper and the spirit of enquiry Descriptors Score out of 5 a. Experiments to find new solutions b. Analyzes and critically evaluates events on the basis of data and informationContinuous and Comprehensive Evaluation c. Questions and verifies knowledge d. Explains processes and products logically To (ix) To safeguard public property and to abjure violence Descriptors Score out of 5 a. Takes care of school furniture and property b. Resists defacing and decimation of public property c. Does not fight and harm others d. Does not affiliate to groups and communities who believe and promote violence 56
  • 70. Manual for Teachers(x) To strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity which leads to higher level of performance Descriptors Score out of 5 a. Makes an effort to improve academic performance in school b. Makes special efforts to improve on Co-Scholastic areas c. Strives to identify potential and actualize with effort d. Aspires and strives for excellence in education and lifeTotal Score Score…………………………………………………………Average Score/Grade …………………………………………. Co- (Part5a. Co - Curricular Activities (Part 3A)(i) Literary and Creative Skills Sl.No. Descriptors Score out of 5 Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 1. Composes poems or lyrics 2. Writes short stories 3. Writes literary criticism 4. Participates actively in literary and creative activities at school, inter school, state, national and international levels 5. Plans and organizes literary events like debates, recitation, book clubs etc. 6. Reads books and shows a high degree of awareness in the field of literature 7. Appreciates well written or spoken pieces representing various genres (prose, poetry, plays) 8. Expresses ideas and opinions creatively in different forms 57
  • 71. Assessing Co-Scholastic Areas 9. Displays originality of ideas and opinions 10. Is able to inspire others and involve a large part of the school and community in different events Total Average/Grade (ii) Scientific Skills Sl.No. Descriptors Score out of 5 1. Verifies existing knowledge before accepting 2. Does not get carried away by rumours and media reports 3. Tries to find new and more effective solutions to problems 4. Conducts experiments with efficiency and effectiveness 5. Takes keen interest in scientific activities in laboratory and field-based experiment at school, inter-school, state, national andContinuous and Comprehensive Evaluation international level 6. Takes the initiative to plan, organize and evaluate various science-related events like quizzes, seminars, model making etc. 7. Shows a high degree of curiosity and reads science-related literature 8. Is a keen observer and is able to take decisions 9. Displays good experimental skills and a practical knowledge of every day phenomena 10. Making use of technology in making projects and models) Total Average/Grade 58
  • 72. Manual for Teachers Technology(iii) Information and Communication Technology (ICT)Sl.No. Descriptors Score out of 5 1. Is efficient in handling IT equipments and gadgets 2. Has a step by step approach to solving a problem 3. Is able to apply theoretical knowledge into practical usage 4. Plants and adheres to activity and project time lines 5. Takes initiative in organizing and participating in technology related events e.g IT fairs, competitions etc. 6. Takes keen interest in computer related activities 7. Is helpful, guides and facilitates others. 8. Is a keen observer and is able to make decisions 9. Is innovative in ideas 10. Adheres to ethical norms of using technology Continuous and Comprehensive EvaluationTotalAverage/Grade(iv) Organizational and Leadership SkillsPlease record the Club in which the student is participating. Sl.No. Descriptors Score out of 51. Helps and organizes events in that capacity2. Demonstrates ability to work in teams3. Can organize work groups in short time4. Actively participates in School Clubs, e.g. Science, Eco-Clubs, Health and Wellness Clubs, Heritage Clubs and other clubs.5. Represents class, school, inter-school and at various other levels 59
  • 73. Assessing Co-Scholastic Areas 6. Takes initiative to plan and manage different kinds of events like festivals, environment week, fund raisers, seminars, quizzes, arranging morning assembly etc. 7. Exhibits collaboration and co-ordination skills while executing the tasks 8. Displays originality of ideas and the ability to see them through 9. Delivers assigned jobs with responsibility 10. Is a keen observer and is able to take decisions Total Average/Grade (Part 5b. Health and Physical Education (Part 3B) Proper development of the body is essential for the healthy growth of the mind. It is therefore, necessary that the students should be examined by qualified doctors once in the session along with a follow-up session. If this facility is not available general information about health i.e. heightContinuous and Comprehensive Evaluation & weight, etc. could be obtained by the teacher. There are already age/ sex related charts of height and weight, and teachers should use these charts and note observations on the basis of entries s/he makes in the Report Book. In addition to this general information, physical disabilities and diseases e.g. defective vision, maintenance of teeth, deafness, long absence due to illness, which the teacher can detect at one’s own level, should also be noted. He/she should also bring any noticeable handicap to the notice of the parents. In the assessment of Health Status, the recordings of height shall be in centimeters and the weight shall be mentioned in kilograms. The Helath Manuals (in four volumes) brought out by CBSE must be referred to and the graded activities taken up as part of the curriculum in school. Moreover features of Health Promoting Schools, format of Health Cards and the themes and Annexures must be adhered to. The suggested format of Health Cards has also been given in the Comprehensive School Health Manual (Volume I). The Health Card records the history in terms of health for all learners from the time of admission to the school till they leave. 60
  • 74. Manual for TeachersWhile the area of Physical Education of the curriculum will be judgingthe skills and proficiencies acquired by the students in games, sports,physical education etc, the area of Health Education will concentrate onthose aspects which constitute the criteria for determining the physicalhealth of an individual. The following aspects will be taken care of inthis area.Health Education needs to be assessed on the basis of : Basic understanding about health Physical fitness Attitude development Participation in Health and Wellness Club activitiesThe teacher’s responsibility in this area will be limited to generalobservations for being communicated to the parents and guardians onthe above aspects of health of all students.We divided this domain into two segments. One is rating certain Healthand Physical Education (HPE) related behaviours, and second isinformation on actual participation in Physical Education, Sports andGames. General discriptors for HPE are given for appraising a studenton any specific activities, these general guidelines may be modifiedaccordingly. Continuous and Comprehensive EvaluationSl.No. Descriptors Score out of 51. Demonstrates physical fitness and agility2. Displays courage and determination3. Demonstrates flexibility of the body4. Demonstrates sportsmanship5. Follows all safety norms of games and sports6. Follows rules of the games7. Has undergone training and coaching in the chosen sports and games items8. Makes strategic decisions within the games9. Organizes and provides leadership in this area10. Takes initiative and interest in Physical Education and WellnessTotalAverage/Grade 61
  • 75. Assessing Co-Scholastic Areas Participation and Performance: Instead of rating, the following Performance: information should be entered into student portfolio as descriptive statements. Choose any two of the following activities. Participation / Achievement Record Record Sl.No. Activities Activity Inter-class Inter- Inter- Inter-state done school district and beyond 1. Sports/Indigenous sports (mention item/s) 2. NCC 3. NSS 4. Scouting and Guiding 5. Swimming 6. Gymnastics 7. Yoga 8. First AidContinuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 9. Gardening 10. Shramdaan Annual Assessment: To reinforce day-to-day observation and quarterly behaviour rating, standardized tests and inventories will be administered either half-yearly or annually depending upon the attribute under assessment. We will deal with these in details in the next chapter. 62
  • 76. Sample She e t to calculate grade s in Co-Scholas tic Are as S .N o. Are as No. of Be haviour M ax s core pe r M ax. Score Example Re marks , if any (a) De s criptors de s criptor (d) (h) (b) (c) Obtaine d Ave rage / Grade Total Score Grade Point (g) (e ) (f =e /b) Life Skills (Grade Point= Total Score divide d by 5) 1 Self awareness 5 5 25 15 3.0 C 2 Problem solving 5 5 25 06 1.2 D 3 Decision making 5 5 25 08 1.6 D 4 Critical thinking 5 5 25 16 3.2 B 5 Creative thinking 5 5 25 11 2.2 C 6 Interpersonal relationships 5 5 25 20 4.0 B 7 Effective communication 5 5 25 17 3.4 B 8 Empathy 5 5 25 13 2.6 C 9 Managing emotions 5 5 25 16 3.2 B 10 Dealing with stress 5 5 25 11 2.2 C63 Work Education/Vis ual and Pe rforming Arts /Attitude s (Grade Point = Total Score divide d by 10) 11 Work Education 10 5 50 45 4.5 A 12 Visual and Performing Arts 10 5 50 38 3.8 B 13 Attitudes towards teachers 10 5 50 36 3.6 B 14 Attitudes towards school- 10 5 50 12 1.2 D mates 15 Attitudes towards school 10 5 50 10 1.0 E programmes and environment Value s (Grade Point = Total s core divide d by 10x4) 16 Values 10 X 4 descriptors 5 200 168 4.2 A Activitie s (any two) (Grade Point = Total s core divide d by 10) 17 Activity 1 (please specify) 10 5 50 24 2.4 C 18 Activity 2 (please specify) 10 5 50 30 3.0 C He alth and Phys ical Education (any two) (HPE 2: Grade Point = Total Score divide d by 10) Manual for Teachers 19 HPE 1 (please specify) 10 5 50 30 3.0 C 20 HPE 2 (please specify) 10 5 50 24 2.4 C Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation
  • 77. Assessing Co-Scholastic Areas Grade Points Grade Points A 4.1- 5.0 B 3.1- 4.0 C 2.1- 3.0 D 1.1- 2.0 E 0 -1.0 Note: 1. Each student will be graded on each of the 10 Life Skills, Work Education, Visual and Performing Arts, 03 Attitudes, Values, 02 Co-Curricular Activities and 02 Health and Physical Education (HPE) activities. 2. Maximum score for each Life Skill is 25, for Work Education, Visual and Performing Arts and Attitudes is 50, for Values is 200 and for Co-curricular Activities and HPE is 50. 3. Before assigning the Grades on each component using the conversion table, please calculate the average or grade points by dividing the total score obtained by a student by number of items in that component.Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 64
  • 78. Manual for TeachersChapter 5 Tools and Techniques Techniques of Evaluation Methods of Assessment There are two main purposes of evaluation. One is to provide development feedback to the learner, and the other is to qualitatively classify (grade) a learner on the basis of his/her learning outcome against a set of norms. Evaluation, hence, is an important decision making situation where a teacher is involved Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation in a judgement. The quality of the decision depends on the quality of the data and information collected about the learner’s learning accomplishments. In turn, quality of data and information depends upon the quality of tools and techniques of data gathering. (Refer to Annexure 1) Hence, tools and techniques of evaluation are important components of the process of Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation (CCE). Interpretation of gathered information needs to be given in numerical scores, grades as well as in qualitative terms. In CCE, judgements should be made not just on scholastic aspects but also on co-scholastic aspects which depend to a large extent on the learning 65
  • 79. Tools and Techniques of Evaluation ambience and learning culture of an institution. As far as interpretation is concerned, attainment can be measured at different levels. With reference to the learner himself/herself – his/her current state of progress, strengths, learning gaps, etc. With reference to the criteria - the expected level of learning keeping in view the required skills Tools are primarily instruments of collecting data and information. For example, questions, observations, tests, inventories, record or document analysis, etc. are tools. Tools, in the context of CCE, require situations for application. For example, observation as a tool needs situations like debating competition, engagement in a project activity, etc. A teacher can observe a student while he is debating or working on a project, assignment or questions in a written examination. Although it is difficult to precisely define and separate out tools from techniques, for the operational purposes of CCE we may, classify situations which are occurring either naturally or contrived for assessment – as techniques.Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation A sample list of tools and techniques that can be used in CCE are stated below:Tools Tools Techniques 1. Questions 1. Examination 2. Observation 2. Assignments 3. Tests and inventories 3. Quizzes and competitions 4. Checklist 4. Projects 5. Rating scale 5. Debates 6. Anecdotal records 6. Elocution 7. Document analysis 7. Group discussions 8. Portfolio 8. Club activities 9. Experiments 10. Research 66
  • 80. Manual for TeachersMultiple tools can be used for assessment. Similarly, more than oneassessment tool can be used in several assessment techniques. In thefollowing pages, we will deal primarily with the tools of assessment set inthe context of techniques.Tools can be - Standardized Non-standardizedStandardized tools have the attributes of objectivity, reliability, validityand quality of discriminating between a high and low performer. Differenttypes of validities, e.g. construct, content and concurrent validity takecare of balance, and relevance. Speed is a factor in some tests, but not acommon element in all tests. Psychological tests and inventories likeIntelligence and aptitude tests, Interest and study habit inventories, Attitudescales, etc. have those properties. Non standardized tools are teachermade tests, rating scale, observation schedules, interview schedules,questionnaire, opinionnaires, checklists, etc.Some of the tools and techniques are: Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation1. QuestionsQuestions are the most commonly applied assessment tool for findingout what children know, think, imagine, and feel. A teacher, in the courseof teaching, comes to know of learning difficulties in children by askingquestions. Questions as a tool are primarily used in examinations.(a) Characteristics of a good question:(i) Objective based: A question should be based on a pre-determined objective and should be framed in such a way that it tests the objective effectively. 67
  • 81. Tools and Techniques of Evaluation (ii) Instructions: It should specify a particular task through the instructions. For this, appropriate directional words should be used and structured situations should be given. (iii) Scope: It should indicate the limit and the scope of the answer (length of the answer) in accordance with the estimated time and marks allotted to it. (iv) Content: The question should assess the same area of content which it intends to assess. (v) Language: A good question is framed in a clear, precise and unambiguous language, well within the comprehension of the students. (vi) Difficulty level:Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation A question should be written keeping in view the level of the students for whom it is meant. The difficulty of the question depends upon the ability to be tested, the content area to be tested and the time available to answer it. (vii) Assessing power: A good question must assess between the bright students and the other students. (viii) Delimited scope of the answer: The language of the question should be specific and precise so that the scope of the expected answer is clearly delimited or defined. Value (ix) Value points: Value points or marks carried by a question as a whole and also its sub parts should be clearly mentioned. 68
  • 82. Manual for Teachers Form(b) Form of QuestionsThe form of question depends on the objective and the content area tobe tested. Some forms are better than the others for testing certainabilities. A good question paper should have the questions based on :-( i ) Remembering - e.g. How many…? , Can you name…?, Who spoke to…?, What happened after?(ii) Understanding - e.g. How would you explain…?, Who do you think…?, Can you clarify….?(iii) Applying - e.g. Which factors would you change if…?, From the information given, can you develop a set of instructions about…?, Do you know of another instance where…? Etc.(iv) Analysing - e.g. Which events could not have happened...?, How is … similar to…?, Why did….changes occur?, What was the turning point?, What was the problem with…?(v) Evaluating - e.g. Is there a better solution to…?, What are the alternatives...?, What are the pros and cons of…?, How effective are…?, Do you think …is a good or bad thing? Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation(vi) Creating - e.g. Can you design a….to…?, What would happen if…?, Can you see a possible solution to…?, Can you develop a proposal which would..?(c) Types of Questions TypesThe answer may vary from one word to several paragraphs. Such type ofquestions are also called as ‘free-response’ questions. Supply-typequestions may be divided into four categories as follows: Types of QuestionsEssay Short answer Very short answer Objective type 69
  • 83. Tools and Techniques of Evaluation Type (i) Essay Type Questions: The term essay implies a written response which is a sustained form of writing. The student is allowed to have freedom with respect to wording, length and organization of the answer. A distinction should be made between the essay type question used to measure knowledge and the essay type question employed to test writing skills in languages which is called a writing task. There are many abilities which may not be tested through any other form of question but only by the essay type question. These abilities are: Select relevant facts from the body of acquired knowledge Identify and also establish relationships between various aspects of knowledge Weigh the proof with respect to implications of the gathered information To organize, analyse, interpret facts and other types of information to draw inferencesContinuous and Comprehensive Evaluation Adopt an indigenous or original approach to solve a given problem Defend one’s point of view through facts, data and suitable arguments Critically examine the degree of adequacy, accuracy and relevance of the available information in a given situation Appreciate a problem at both the macro and micro levels Conceive, design and suggest new and innovative approaches for tackling a given problem 70
  • 84. Manual for Teachers TypeConstructing Essay Type Questions:Essay type questions usually begin with such terms as ‘discuss’, ‘explain’,‘evaluate’, ‘define’, ‘compare’, ‘contrast’, ‘describe’, etc. Essay typequestions are good when the group to be tested is small and limitedtime is available for test preparation. It is also quite suitable to testwritten expression.Some sample essay type questions are: (a) Why do sandy soils not hold enough water? (Question Form) (b) Explain any of the four sense organs and draw their diagrams (Statement Type) Compare both the questions: Give reasons why Roosevelt won the 1932 presidential election in the USA The most important reason why Roosevelt won the 1932 presidential election was Hoover’s unpopularity. Do you agree? Explain your answer Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation You will notice that: The first encourages rote-learning and does not call upon the skills of independent thoughts, analysis and evaluation required. The second assumes vital importance for all and not simply the gifted few(ii) Short Answer Questions:Essay type questions suffer from lack of objectivity and reliability whileobjective type questions cannot be used for testing certain aspects ofgrowth like the ability to express, summarise and organize the ideas in aprecise manner. Short answer questions are a good via-media betweenthe two extremes. If understood and framed properly, they have theadvantages of both the objective type and essay type questions. 71
  • 85. Tools and Techniques of Evaluation Some characteristics of short answer questions are: Short answer questions can be used profitably in all tests It can be used to test almost all the objectives of teaching It helps students to develop the ability of organising and selecting relevant facts It can be scored more objectively than the essay type questions and thereby ensure reliability These questions help in covering more syllabus because more number of questions can be put in lieu of one-essay type question. This improves the validity of the question paper Very (iii) Very short answer questions: Characteristics of short answer questions are: Very short answer questions are those which have one specific testing point and can be marked quite objectively More content can be tested through these questions and moreContinuous and Comprehensive Evaluation reliability and validity can be ensured It helps in testing knowledge of the examinee by asking him to supply a word, phrase, figure or a sentence which is required for answering the questions It can be answered in one word to one sentence It mostly takes one to two minutes to answer and the mark allotted may be one mark Very short answer questions can be used profitably in all the school subjects Type (iv) Objective Type Questions In these type of questions students have to answer them by selecting the correct answer among the provided choices. These may be divided into 72
  • 86. Manual for Teachersalternative response type, matching type and multiple choice typequestions, etc. Type Objective Type Questions Alternative Matching Multiple Response Type Choice Type Type True/False rue/False Right/Wrong Right/Wrong Question Incomplete F orm Statement Yes/No Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation Single Double Matrix Fill in the blank ChecklistSome examples of each type of question is mentioned under each head:-(a) Alternative Response Type: Response Type:In these type of questions students have to select one out of two alternativesas a correct answer. The different type of alternative response questionsare as under: 73
  • 87. Tools and Techniques of Evaluation True -False rue-F Yes es-No (i) True -False or Yes -No Question: In this type of question a statement is given and the candidate is asked whether it is true or false (T/F). True/False questions are easy to construct and score. They provide a fairly reliable measure of students understanding particularly in the classroom testing. Example Both animals and plants are living things All animals eat small animals (ii) Right/Wrong type or Yes/no Type : Right/Wrong Yes/no Type Put tick ( ) mark if statement is Right and (X) if Wrong. Liquids do not have a definite shape Ice is lighter than waterContinuous and Comprehensive Evaluation (b) Matching: In matching type questions there are two columns. The words or statements given in column one are to be matched with the answers given in column two. The matching type question may be of the following. (i) Single Matching: In this type of question two columns are used. In the left column stimuli are presented whereas in the right column responses are given. Students are asked to match the response with a given stimulus. 74
  • 88. Manual for TeachersExample:Match the words given in Column A with Column B to make a correctpair. (Simple type) Sl. No. Column A Column B 1 Morning Stars 2 Night 24 hours 3 Day Sun lightExample:Match the words given in column A with the meanings given in columnB. (Difficult type) A B Barber One who makes bread/biscuits, etc. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation Waiter One who is incharge of a place Baker One who cuts people’s hair Architect One who serves food in a hotel Caretaker One who designs buildings, bridges etc.(ii) Double Matching:In this type of item, one list of stimuli is provided to test two areas ofknowledge. So three columns are used instead of two columns. In themiddle column, stimuli and in both left and right columns, two sets ofresponses are provided. There are three columns i.e. I, II and III. In the column II there is a list of four animals while the Column I provides animal behaviour and Column III gives the type of foods they usually eat. 75
  • 89. Tools and Techniques of Evaluation Put appropriate letter and number in Column I and III. Column I Column II Column III (Behaviour) (Animal) (Food) (Food) 1. Likes daylight but a) Rat A. Live insects active at night 2. Likes daylight and b) Moth B. Flower nectar active during the day 3. Does not like daylight c) House Fly C. Flesh of animals 4. Does not like day light d) Lizard D. Plant leaves but active in day and night E. Bread F Load of organic matter . G. Wood H. SnakesContinuous and Comprehensive Evaluation (iii)) Checklist: In this type of item, students are provided two or three alternatives as the checklist to make decisions about a number of statements on the basis of the checklist provided. Advantages of Checklist: Quick and easy to implement Provides specific information about specific objectives Can point towards a trend of how and when skills have been acquired by the student as well as a group of students 76
  • 90. Manual for TeachersConcerns Regarding Checklist: Limited information only indicating presence of a skill Does not indicate student’s response to different situations or provide specific examples of responses Does not provide information about context Can at times become unwieldy because of the number of specific itemsSuggestion for implementation of Checklist: Add a ‘comments’ column to add value to the information in the checklist marking Use this tool in conjunction with other methods of assessments If developed by others, a checklist may not be suitable for the objectives that you as teachers have in mind or for the groups, you wish to use it with An excellent way of finding, recording specific behaviour, action, Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation processes, outcomes, approaches, problems and helps to focus attention on particular aspects of evaluationFor each of the following matters use letters to indicate whetherthe matter is a Solid (S)/ Liquid (L)/ Gas (G). Matter State 1. Water 2. Mercury 3. Vapour 4. Iron 77
  • 91. Tools and Techniques of Evaluation (iv) Matrix: These are extensions of double matching type items wherein more than two responses are linked to a stimuli. In such type of items, stimuli are presented vertically (in row) wherein responses are presented horizontally (in columns). Students are asked to check each cell in which the response on the top is true for each of the stimuli along the side. Deficiency can cause Vitamins Excessive Beriberi Rickets Anemia Scurvy Night blindness Bleeding (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) A B11 B12 C DContinuous and Comprehensive Evaluation K Fill Type: (v) Fill in the Blanks Type: In this type of question, a statement is provided in which one word or two words at different places are removed and students are asked to fill in the blanks with appropriate words. An example of this type is given below: (a) Leaves give out water vapour through the process of ______________. (transpiration / photosynthesis) (b) Motion in a straight line is called ______________ motion (rectilinear / periodic ). 78
  • 92. Manual for Teachers(c) Multiple Choice:Multiple choice questions are the most useful of all the objective typeitems. In these questions, there is a stem which poses the problem. Thestem may be in question form or in the form of an incomplete statement.Then there are four or five choices given for an answer. The student hasto select the correct answer from the given alternatives. On the basis ofthe stem, multiple choice questions may be of two types. Form: (Testing objective-interpretation)(i) Question Form: (Testing instructional objective -interpretation) Which one of the following diseases is a non-infectious disease? i. Small pox ii. Heart attack iii. Malaria iv. Cholera Form: (Testing(ii) Incomplete Statement Form: (Testing instructional objectives- Identify relationships) Continuous and Comprehensive EvaluationThe character shared by the whale and a bat is the possession of i. Hair ii. Wings iii. Limbs iv. NeckThe forms of questions discussed above may be used for different purposesof testing and also making judgement regarding the achievement of thestudents. If in a test, more varieties of the question forms are used then itwill definitely help in testing various objectives and content areas in abetter way on one hand and also making it a more reliable and validinstrument on the other hand. It is true that though different forms havesome Limitations, they do have advantages over each other. Therefore,at the time of the selection of forms all aspects should remain in themind of teachers so that these forms may be exploited for their best use. 79
  • 93. Tools and Techniques of Evaluation Type: (iii) Completion Type: It is useful for testing expression in language testing. Q. I was so worried___________ (iv) Analogy type: What lime stone is to marble, coal is to __________________ Location Type: (v) Location Type: In Geography such questions can be used for testing map skills. Q. Show on the map- Sydney, Colorado Desert. In language also such questions can be used for picking up the key ideas, key words or sentences, synonyms and antonyms etc. from the given passage. Transformation Type: This type is used only in language testing. Type: Reported speech, voices, synthesis, transformation of sentences, etc. can be tested through this type of question.Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation Pictorial Type (vi) P ictorial Type Q. What are the occupations of the following? Occupation Person Person a. Carpenter b. Potter c. Nurse 80
  • 94. Manual for Teachers Type(vii) Interpretive TypeRead the bus time table given below and answer the questions thatfollow: Pradesh Roadways Time Table Himachal Pradesh R oadways Bus Service Time Table Route Dep. Time Dep. Time from Distance F are from Delhi Other direction (in Km.) (in Rs.) Delhi-Baijnath 1815 1730 539 77.00 Delhi-Chamba 2000 1400 626 84.00 Delhi-Dharamsala 2145 1930 513 71.50 What is the title of the bus time table? How many routes are listed in the time table?2. Observation Continuous and Comprehensive EvaluationInformation about a child (his/her behavior) can be collected in ‘natural’settings in and outside the class through observation. Other informationcan be collected through planned and purposeful observation of studentsduring activities and tasks.Advantages of Observation Recognize and identify the various aspects of students’ personality development Recognize and identify the individuals as well as groups Recognize and identify on a continuing basis at varying time periods Recognize and identify the students’ performance and knowledge based on an ‘on-the-spot record’ Over time, a pattern of interests, aptitudes etc. emerge creating a comprehensive picture of the student 81
  • 95. Tools and Techniques of Evaluation Concerns and risks in Observation as an assessment tool Jumping to conclusions based on one or few observations Skill of the observer determining ‘what’ is observed Lack of sensitivity and objectivity in the way the observation is done Observations in one situation and not across time and different activities and settings Observations can be used as a tool of assessment in a variety of situations. Techniques like debates, elocution, group work, practical and laboratory activities, projects, in play fields and school prayers, in clubs and festivals can be used. Whereas observation can be biased and subjective, such errors and risks can be substantially reduced by using an observation schedule. Here are sample observation schedules in debates, group discussion, practical works in laboratory and projects. (i) Debate: Sample observation criteria Each observation can be assigned a score out of five.Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation Sl.No. Descriptors Score out of 5 1 Depth of knowledge of the content 2 Strength of the argument to convince 3 Fluency, diction and pronunciation 4 Ability to contradict a given point of view 5 Ability to take criticism positively 6 Respectful to the opponent 7 Body language while arguing 82
  • 96. Manual for Teachers(ii) Group Discussion: Sample observation criteriaEach observation can be assigned a score out of five Sl.No. Descriptors Score out of 5 1 Contributes to the discussion 2 Knowledgeable about the subject of discussion 3 Involves others in the discussion 4 Demonstrates leadership skills 5 Accepts criticism positively 6 Contributes creative ideas 7 Carefully listens to others(iii) Practical/Lab Activity: A few sample observation criteria that can Practical/L ractical/Labbe assigned a score out of five Sl.No. Descriptors Score out of 5 Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 1 Sets up experiments (right apparatus) carefully and properly 2 Uses the appropriate technique to perform the experiment 3 Collects data and observations correctly 4 Works with precision, neatness and accuracy 5 Interprets data, observation and draws inferences correctly 6 Relates the findings with theoretical knowledge 7 Demonstrates in-depth knowledge during viva 83
  • 97. Tools and Techniques of Evaluation Projects: (iv) Projects: As projects are carried for completion over a period of time, it provides significant opportunity to assess both Scholastic and Co-Scholastic skills of students. A few sample observation criteria that can be assigned a score out of five Sl.No. Descriptors Score out of 5 1 Has done enough research and collected relevant information 2 Reflects creativity and aesthetic skills 3 Demonstrates understanding of the concept in the project documentation 4 Consults internet and other material in completing the project 5 Has he/she conducted any interviews regarding the project 6 Demonstrates originality in the approach to the projectContinuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 7 Has interpreted results appropriately Tests 3. Tests and Inventories Tests (oral) should not be used for content or skills that can be tested through written examination. Oral tests being individual tests require more time than group written tests. Oral tests are best suited to assess the depth of learning where a student has difficulty in written expression. Oral tests and examinations Allow the learner to participate in the learning assessment process. Help to test listening and speaking skills Test certain verbal abilities like fluency, expression and accuracy. Test depth of learning of the students through probing questions 84
  • 98. Manual for TeachersOral tests also require previous planning. Questions should be predefinedand documented by the teacher. The questions should be arranged inorder of difficulty. Wherever probing is necessary, probable probingquestions should also be written down in advance. For each question,the expected answers, the value points and the maner of presentationshould also be written down.For objectivity, students’ answers should either be recorded on a digital(or otherwise) recorder or recorded on paper. One simple way out is tocheck out on the model answer sheet. As a student responds, teacherchecks the correct answers and crosses the incorrect answers. This kindof coded recording should be supplemented by brief descriptive notes.4. ChecklistThe concept of checklist has been provided earlier under questions.However, checklists can be used in several other areas of assessment.For example, as a part of Life Skills, whether a student can dress upneatly suitable to the occasion or a student can confidently address thestudents during the school prayer. Checklist is used where answer is in Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluationeither ‘yes’ or ‘no’. There may be a possibility of confusion. Checklistscan be filled only by collecting the information by observing or questioningor by document analysis. Hence, checklist is primarily an instrument ofdata recording and documentation.5. Rating scaleIn the previous chapter, under Life Skills, we have provided ampleillustrations for rating scales. There may not be the need to elaboratefurther. The only point to remember is that rating scale is used wherevera response or a learner behaviour is likely to be in a continuum – fromexcellent to bad or from satisfactory to unsatisfactory.6. Anecdotal RecordsAnecdotal records derives its origin and meaning from the word‘anecdotes’ – brief events and episodes. An Anecdotal Record is the 85
  • 99. Tools and Techniques of Evaluation observed behaviour of a student. It is a record of some significant episode in the life of the student that sheds light on the conduct, thinking, skills and capabilities revealing significant features and characteristics about his/her personality. In order to arrive at a trend or pattern, emphasis is on recording multiple episodes or anecdotes. Every time, a teacher documents an episode or an anecdote, she records her comments too. Objective Description When I walked into the class, the students greeted me. All of them were in a joyful mood and did not want to study. I agreed. I divided them into groups and asked them to play games in groups. Suddenly, I noticed that Shivang was studying a Science book and was totally engrossed in his studies. I became very curious and asked,” Why don’t you play games with your friends?” Shivang replied, “I do not enjoy playing these games. I enjoy reading my Science books.” Comment:Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation Shivang is an intelligent boy who has got a scientific temper but lacks social skills. He does not like to interact with others. He prefers to study Science in depth and thinks a lot. Preparation Records Guidelines for the Preparation of Anecdotal R ecords We cannot set any limit on the number of anecdotes to be recorded. It depends upon the time which is at the disposal of the teachers or counsellors. The following points should be considered in connection with these records: These supplement other records and should not be considered as substitutes The objective description of the behaviour should not be mixed up with the subjective comments 86
  • 100. Manual for Teachers Any significant behaviour, be it in the classroom, in the school or outside the school, should be recorded Student’s behaviour, whether it is favourable, unfavourable or neither of the two should be recorded The facts presented in all the anecdotes must be shifted and arranged so that they may be studied in relation to one another The record should be regarded as confidential. It should not fall into irresponsible handsSpecimen of an Anecdotal Record Name of the school: Name of the student observed: Class: Observer: Date and Place: Objective Description: Comments of the Observer: Continuous and Comprehensive EvaluationUses of Anecdotal Records They provide specific description of personality and minimize generalizations They are very helpful in understanding the child’s behaviour in diverse situations They provide a continuous record They provide data for learners to use in self-appraisal A summary of these records is valuable when forwarding a student record (when he is transferred from one school to another) The new members of the staff may use these records and acquaint themselves with the student body These records aid in clinical service They motivate teachers to use the records 87
  • 101. Tools and Techniques of Evaluation 7. Document Analysis Record or document analysis is extensively used in research. The significance of this technique is with regard to assessment of students on the basis of documents, e.g. assignments, projects, journals in science, geography, etc. In a way, this technique is also used to evaluate answers to essay type questions. The assessor, here, searches and identifies the main points, arguments, illustrations and examples, derivations and numerals to justify the concept and its explanation, etc. 8. Portfolio Portfolio It is the collection of evidences of students’ work over a period of time. It could be day-to-day work or selection of the learner’s best piece of work. Painters and commercial artists often use Portfolios to demonstrate their skills and quality work before the selection committees. Portfolio Advantages of Portfolio Provides a cumulative record of growth and development of a skillContinuous and Comprehensive Evaluation or competence in an area over a period of time. Enables a student to demonstrate to others, his/her learning and progress. Student becomes an active participant in the learning and assessment process. Portfolio Concern regarding Portfolio Selected work to be put into the Portfolio, should have a specific reason. Not all papers/items of work are to be included. This will become unmanageable. Portfolio Suggestions for implementation of Portfolio Student should be encouraged to participate in selection of Portfolio contents as well as in developing the criteria for selection of the contents. 88
  • 102. Manual for Teachers Continuous updating of the Portfolio as the child grows. Careful structuring of Portfolio material accompanied by a reflective account. Clear labelling and numbering of content for easy reference.Portfolio can include Photographs: Provides an insight into the child’s emotional, social and psychological aspects of development Paintings and other examples of artistic endeavour: Provides evidence of a learner’s abilities, thoughts and attitudes Audio-Video Recordings: Specific situation or over a time span to cover important processes and aspects that can be recorded and analyzed later Self Assessment Sheets: Portfolio to provide evidence of the learner’s self evaluation Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation Peer Assessment Sheets: Excellent for assessing in team and group based activities, social projects and peer related behaviour. Can be incorporated into the learner’s Portfolio to provide evidence of the learner’s social Life skills Parent Assessment Sheets: Can be incorporated into the learner’s Portfolio to provide evidence of evaluation done by the parent9. Quizzes, CompetitionsQuizzes and competitions are quite commonplace activities today inelectronic media, TV in particular. This kind of assessment usually turnsout to be joyful. Besides testing the knowledge of the participants, ithelps in building collaboration and team work in group events. 89
  • 103. Tools and Techniques of Evaluation 10. Assignments Theme based tasks to be completed as class work or homework and can be open ended or structured. Some could be based on contexts outside textbooks. Advantages Provides students an opportunity to search for information, construct their own ideas, and articulate the same ideas through spoken, written and visual expressions Helps assess a wide range of objectives and content of learning. Provides students an opportunity to relate and synthesize within and outside school learning Caution for teachers Not too much homework, assignments or class work should be given which is currently the practice Assignments should be such that they can be managed by studentsContinuous and Comprehensive Evaluation on their own Should not become the only method of assessment Suggestions for implementation Going beyond collection of assignments by following it up with analysis, discussion and reflection Creativity of students is promoted Encouraging students to go beyond the textbooks Group work is to be encouraged. 90
  • 104. Manual for TeachersChapter 6 Implications for Schools Role Teachers I. Role of Teachers The examination system is complex. It has to meet the requirements and expectations of stakeholders Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation at different levels and perform multiplicity of functions. The purpose of an examination may variously be one of certification, of selection, of institutional accountability, or an instrument of social change. More often it is indeed an amalgam of many functions. Those who engage in educational reform must take account of the full range of stakeholder requirements and ensure that a degree of coherence in those expectations has been achieved. Reforms which encourage School Based Assessment, create new pressures of accountability and place greater reliance on the professional judgement of teachers. Pedagogies which work in one educational context, perhaps with more generous resourcing levels and optimum class sizes are not necessarily 91
  • 105. Implications for Schools transposable into other contexts. A rich dialogue between policy makers and teachers is required to ensure its effective implementation. Opportunities for professional development, in-service training and guidance via the production of exemplar materials and handbooks become vital. Educational reforms which call for new pedagogies, the incorporation of ICT into the curriculum for the encouragement of e- learning are possible only by an unwavering commitment to the training programmes for teachers. Modes of assessment emphasize investigative approaches to learning and the application of skills, knowledge and understanding. The approach recognizes that ‘recall’ becomes a relatively less useful skill for individuals in today’s world of rapid change. Instead understanding, applying, analyzing, evaluating and creating, the higher order thinking skills (HOTS) of a reworked Bloom’s taxonomy become more relevant. Of all those involved in student’s education, it is the teachers who feel the most responsible. This is expressed in their desire to help all children acquire knowledge, skills, positive attitudes and values and face life with confidence. In order to find out how students are doing in school, teachers spend a lot of time in assessing students. Most teachers view assessmentContinuous and Comprehensive Evaluation as an important part in their daily school routine. Why is this so? Teachers give a number of reasons for this. One important reason is that it is necessary to know if the student has learnt what she/he was expected to have learnt. The second is to find out what the student’s progress has been over a certain period of time. However, there is a third reason that has been given more attention by not only the teachers but all of us as well i.e. finding out what the student has achieved in different subject areas. This could be because we are all concerned about providing ‘good quality’ education and feel that one way of making sure this is happening is by evaluating the student’s achievement in the subjects being taught through tests and exams. Testing has its own purpose but if we really want to help students learn better, we need to consider what marks or grades obtained by children through tests or exams actually tell us about a child’s learning or progress. While assessing students, it is important to appreciate differences amongst them and respect the fact that they will understand and respond in different 92
  • 106. Manual for Teachersways while learning. Students are not ‘empty vessels’ or ‘blank slates’, tobe filled up with information and knowledge that only the school cangive, as is generally believed. It is important to build experiences whicha student brings to the school. New learning needs to be based on whatthe student already knows and understands.Some important aspects are- Every student can learn if allowed to do so at her/his own pace and follow her/his own way of learning Students learn more through play and activities and learn better from each other and if they actually ‘do’ things Learning is a continuous process. Thus, student’s learning does not take place in the school. Therefore, classroom learning should be linked to what happens outside the classroom and at home Students ‘construct’ their own knowledge and do not only learn when and what the teacher teaches. This means that every student makes sense of what information he/she is exposed to based on his/her previous experiences and learning. Only then does the student arrive at his/her own understanding and conclusions. Each child has a unique approach to acquiring knowledge. And this is Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation a continuous process Students at the primary stage learn better and more easily through experiences, play, exploration, trying out various things and actually ‘doing’ different activities Students learn in a spiral and not a linear way. Thus, revisiting concepts again and again helps them to understand better. The act of learning involves a process of establishing connections among facts observed and experienced by students. The new learning, therefore, is to be based not only on the preceding facts and information but could be related even to things acquired long back in school, home or elsewhere. Hence, learning does not proceed in a linear manner Students learn through the mistakes and errors they make themselves Learning takes place in a holistic manner, thus, an integrated approach to learning is better Source: NCERT 93
  • 107. Implications for Schools II. Assessment Assessment of the outcomes of learning goes along with the teaching- learning process in a continuous manner. In order to undertake a holistic assessment, all aspects of learning need to be given due recognition. The manner and modalities however may vary. While teachers are regularly observing the progress of students some periodicity would be necessary. It implies maintaining a profile for each student. This is required in order to reflect upon, derive feedback, plan and implement measures to enrich and enhance student’s learning. This will call for a judicious cycle to be followed. One cannot undermine the fact that while informal observations continue, fortnightly looking back and quarterly reviews are generally recommended to promote and enhance learning among children. Thus assessment may be on: Daily basis: Interacting with students and continuously assessing them both in situations inside and outside the classroom Periodic: Once in every 3 to 4 weeks, teachers may check and reflect on the information collected. This however should not beContinuous and Comprehensive Evaluation in the form of a test or exam b. Methods of Assessment Before choosing any method, it is necessary to decide the kind of arrangement that is best suited for the type of information needed. There are four basic methods of organizing assessments, namely: Individual Assessment: which focuses on one student while she/he is doing an activity or task and thus recognises individual work and accomplishments Group Assessment: which focuses on the learning and progress of a group of students working on a task together with the objective of completing it. This method of organization is found to be more useful in order to assess social skills, co-operative learning processes and other value related dimensions of a student’s behaviour 94
  • 108. Manual for Teachers Self-Assessment: refers to the student’s own assessment of her/his learning and progress in knowledge, skills, processes, interests, attitudes etc. Peer-Assessment: refers to one student assessing other children. This can be conducted in pairs or in groups Toc . Assessment can become a useful and interesting process. To realize this you need to be careful about: Being clear about why you are assessing the student Not labelling students as slow, poor, intelligent, dull or making comparisons between students Using a variety of ways to collect information about the student’s learning and progress in subjects and across curricular boundaries Collecting information continuously and recording the same Giving importance to each student’s way of responding and learning and the time it takes to do so Reporting on ongoing, continuous basis and being sensitive to Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation every student’s responses Not making negative statements, or using technical language during assessment, or while providing feedback to the student, parents or others Providing feedback in clear and simple language which will lead to positive action and help the student to do betterIII. Inclusive Classroom “To make inclusive education possible, to accommodate students with different learning abilities, the present education system and educational practices need to become more flexible, more inclusive and more collaborative.” Education of Children with Special Needs, NCERT 95
  • 109. Implications for Schools A school can deal with the differently abled students by forming teams consisting of the school counsellor, class teacher, peer mentor or buddy. Given below are two case studies which have helped differently-abled children. Case Study-I Ratish is a bright child with a range of interests and strengths. He joined a school in Class VII in 2008. At that time Ratish felt vulnerable, frustrated and would give up any attempt to learn. Concentration Status Entry His attention/concentration fluctuated. Interventions He was made to focus on tasks by using various strategiess, aids, repetitions and reminders.Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation Current Status He showed lack of interest when the task was too long. Social/Emotional Status When he joined, he was hardly audible, unable to understand social subtleties. Interventions Here the team (teachers, educators, buddy) helped him in making and keeping friends. 96
  • 110. Manual for Teachers Current status Now, he interacts and communicates with others in verbal and non verbal ways. Verbal Small talk/conversation Sharing jokes Sharing and discussing (Sports/Music/Movies/Cartoons) Non Verbal Active Listening Body Language Ratish is an active member of the School Dramatics Club.Self Esteem Continuous and Comprehensive EvaluationAs self esteem is a basic human need and it makes an essentialcontribution to life process, Ratish lacked self worth as he did not getenough support of his family. He is quite self confident now. Academic Ratish is a good visual learner. He is encouraged to do the writing work in the school. He is helped by frequent reminders by the school team (teachers /educator/buddy). He is made to proof read the test before submitting. He is given consistent support and intervention (Structured remedial plans in the form of flow charts, notes / webs charts) He still needs direct instructions and extensive guidance. 97
  • 111. Implications for Schools Year 2008 :(VII) To motivate Ratish, he was assessed on 60% oral and 40% written for one complete academic year. Year 2009 : (VIII) This year, he was made to do the class syllabus completely. He will be reassessed if he is not able to clear the modified paper of the same level. Case Study-II This concerns Shantanu, a case of Cerebral Palsy. Shantanu - (CP) - Cerebral Palsy Spastic. Shantanu is a hard working and responsible child. He has the potential as he has good cognitive skills and abilities. ConcentrationContinuous and Comprehensive Evaluation He is able to focus on the task. He needs instructions and support in learning. He has poor management skills. Behaviour An attention seeker. Sometimes lazy and does not want to work hard When ever found idle, he is seen sucking his thumb. Social/Emotional He is very verbal and interacts with his peers. He interacts and communicates in both verbal and non verbal ways. Self Esteem Earlier he was not very confident but can now exchange ideas and can talk about himself with teachers/others. 98
  • 112. Manual for Teachers Academic Current Status He was able to do the mainstream syllabus. Interventions He was helped with a few modified papers to make it easier. The modified papers can be of the same level if required. He is given consistent support and intervention in the form of Remedial teachingIV. Assessing Co - Scholastic AreasIV. Co-All teachers need to be involved in Assessing Co-Scholastic Skills ofchildren for the following reasons: Reduces Subjectivity Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation Removes Bias Provides a point of reference to all teachers Makes all teachers involved and accountable Distributes work load amongst teachers Simplifies work with regularly maintained record, on computerV. Empowerment of Teachers TeachersNo educational scheme can succeed unless the teachers are adequatelyprepared for executing it and have faith in its worth. This preparationwill resume the visualization of a realistic scheme and the developmentof comprehensive procedures for its operational implementation. Teachersneed to be provided orientation about the scheme (Refer Annexure 2).For providing orientation trained resource persons need to be created. 99
  • 113. Implications for Schools The content of such training and orientation programmes, has to incorporate both the Scholastic and Co-Scholastic Areas of learners’ growth. The development of improved evaluation tools and their appropriate use, is an important aspect of these courses. With respect to the Scholastic Areas, it would require the preparation of objective based questions, balanced question papers, scoring of scripts, analysis and declaration of results. Regarding the Co-Scholastic Areas, it would mean the preparation and use of rating scales, inventories, checklists, schedules and the procedures of assessing different areas of skills. Training in the methods of collecting, recording, compiling and interpreting evidences of learners growth will be other crucial aspects of these training programmes.Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 100
  • 114. Manual for Teachers Annexure 1Tools and Techniques for Assessing Children’s Learning: The Choice Available Types of Advantages Caution for teachers Suggestions for Assessment implementation tools/techniques 1. Observation • Various aspects of • Avoid arriving at • Recording details Information can be personality inferences/ that not only gathered about development can interpretations or describe the children in ‘natural’ be assessed jumping to actions but reveal settings. Some are through conclusions. how a child feels about learners in observations. Important to take about what she/he the course of down more than is doing, details on teaching. Others • Can be used to what is actually how she/he does based on planned assess individuals seen. something as well and purposeful as well as groups. as when she/he observation of • Dependent on the does it, the quality students on as well as the • Assessments can skill of the observer activities /tasks. which determines quantity of her/his be made during varying time ‘what’ is observed. interrelationship periods. with people and • Requires sensitivity materials, and • Evidence of child’s and what he/she says performance/know unobtrusiveness in etc. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation ledge is based on the way the an ‘on-the-spot’ observation is • Noting comments record. done. Observations about the child’s to be made over a behaviour in • Over time, detailed period of time, parentheses based observations of across different on which behaviour as well activities and processes can be as interests, settings. inferred at a later challenges, point of time. patterns/trends emerge which allow teachers to create a comprehensive picture/view of the child. 101
  • 115. Annexure 1 Types of Advantages Caution for teachers Suggestions for Assessment implementation tools/techniques 2. Checklists • Quick and easy to • Collects limited • Add a A systematic way implement. information, only ‘comments’ of recording indicating presence column to add specific behaviour/ • Provides specific of a skill. value to the action helps focus information about • Does not indicate information in the attention on specific objectives. checklist marking. particular aspects. child’s response to different situations • Can point towards or provide specific • Use this tool in a trend of how and examples of conjunction with when skills have responses. other methods of been acquired by assessments. • Does not provide the child as well as information about a group of context. children. • Can at times become unwieldy because of the number of specific items. • If developed byContinuous and Comprehensive Evaluation others, may not be suitable for the objectives that you as teachers have in mind, or for the groups, you wish to use it with. 3.Assignments • Going beyond • Provides students • Not too much Theme based tasks collection of an opportunity to homework or class to be completed as assignments by search for work should be class work or following it up information, given which is homework. Can be with analysis, construct their own currently the open ended or discussion and ideas and articulate normal practice. structured. Some reflection. the same ideas could be based on • Assignments through spoken, contexts outside should be such that written and/or textbooks. they can be visual expressions. managed by students on their own. 102
  • 116. Manual for Teachers Annexure 1Types of Advantages Caution for teachers Suggestions forAssessment implementationtools/techniques • Helps assess a • Should not become • Creativity of wide range of the only method of students is objectives and assessment. promoted. content of learning. • Encouraging • Provides students students to go an opportunity to beyond textbooks. relate and synthesize within and outside school • Group work is to learning. be encouraged. • Can become part of the portfolio.4. Portfolio • Provide a • Selecting work to • StudentCollection of cumulative record. be put into the participation instudent’s work over In the process, a portfolio should selection portfolioa period of time. It picture of how a Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation have a specific contents is to becould be day-to- skill or knowledge reason. encouraged, asday work or area develops/selection of the emerges. well as criterialearner’s best piece • Not all papers/ for selection ofof work. items of work are the contents. • Enables the to be included. This student to will become • Continuous demonstrate to unmanageable. updating of the others, his/her learning and portfolio as the progress. child grows. 103
  • 117. Annexure 1 Types of Advantages Caution for teachers Suggestions for Assessment implementation tools/techniques • The child becomes • Careful structuring an active of portfolio participant in the material learning and accompanied by a assessment reflective account. process. • Clear labelling and numbering of content for easy reference. 5. Projects • Project topics • Provide • The nature and These are should be decided/ opportunities to difficulty level of undertaken over a chosen, planned explore, work with the projects should period of time and and conducted by one’s hands, be such that generally involve observe, collect students largely students can do it collection and data, analyze, with the teacher by themselves. analysis of data. organize and acting as a guide. Projects are useful interpret data and • Materials to be in theme-based draw used for the project • EncouragementContinuous and Comprehensive Evaluation learning. generalizations. should be given to should be available in the school, group projects. • Provides an neighbourhood or These will enable opportunity to home setting. students to work work in groups and These should not together, share in real life put a financial experiences and situations. burden on the learn from each parents. other. • Helps develop a • Projects keep positive attitude • Each school could giving students an towards group go in for a opportunity to work, sharing and Resource Centre, explore, investigate learning from each which would have and work in other. locally available groups. materials. • Children can be encouraged for judicious use of materials and keep them back after use. 104
  • 118. Manual for Teachers Annexure 1Types of Advantages Caution for teachers Suggestions forAssessment implementationtools/techniques6. Rating Scales • Various aspects of • Avoid inferences/ • Record details thatThese can be used development can interpretations of not only describeto record the quality be assessed. giving judgements. the actions butof a student’s work Concentrate on reveal how a childand then judge the • Can be used to taking down what ‘feels’ about whatquality against assess individuals is seen. she/he is doing.specified criteria. as well as groups.Holistic rating • The skill of the • Also suggestscales require a • Assessments can observer may correctivesingle, overall be made during determine what is measures.assessment of a varying time observed.piece of work. periods and in • Comments can be different • Be sensitive and noted in environment unobtrusive in the ‘parentheses’ settings. way the based on which observation is processes can be • Evidence of the done. This does not inferred at a later child’s necessarily mean point of time. performance/ being at a distance. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation knowledge is based on ‘on-the- • Make the spot’ record. observations over a period of time, and • Over time, detailed across different observations of activities and behaviour as well settings. as interests, challenges, patterns/trends emerge which allow teachers to have a comprehensive picture/view of the child. 105
  • 119. Annexure 1 Types of Advantages Caution for teachers Suggestions for Assessment implementation tools/techniques 7. Anecdotes and • Provides a wealth • A single anecdote • Preparing and Cumulative of information does not give collecting Records across different conclusive anecdotes over a Provides developmental information. period of time observational areas. about sustained narrative records • Only ‘problematic’ interests and of significant • Facilitates taking situations may be critical things that incidents in a of notes on the noticed. It would are happening in child’s life. child’s social, be better to their life. Helps to emotional describe incidents understand the development, rather than making child’s behaviour/ choices, interests statements of responses to and relationships judgement. different etc. classroom • Selecting amongst situations. • Identifies strengths the many and weaknesses interesting • Collecting a cross and assesses classroom events section of children’s progress and not including anecdotes (fromContinuous and Comprehensive Evaluation over time. all. different children) indicates groups’ • Avoiding general thinking and comments. feeling. • Recording as soon as possible after the event so that rich, accurate and significant details can be included for later interpretations. 106
  • 120. Manual for Teachers Annexure 1Types of Advantages Caution for teachers Suggestions forAssessment implementationtools/techniques 8. Photographs • Provided accurate • The aesthetic • The picture Provides recall of events. quality may not be composition should documentation critical. include important of a child’s • Provides an insight details of the experiences, into children’s ways • Avoid making the experience, process while they are of thinking and child self-conscious of product being doing tasks/ work, interacting. in front of the photographed. they could also be • Facilitates sharing camera by your of information with comments or • Choosing where of finished products, project families. suggestions. photographs need models etc. to supplement • Provides an insight other tools. into the child’s • Using photographs emotional, social to discuss with and psychological children about aspects of themselves at a development. later time.9. Audio-Video • Both allow language • Analysis is time • Careful selections and the way it used consuming, of what to record Continuous and Comprehensive EvaluationRecordingsSpecific situation or to be ‘captured’ • Children may for subsequentover a time span to with accuracy. occasionally be analysis iscover important ‘performing’ for necessary. • Movement andprocesses/aspects sound add to the the camera. • Giving childrencan be recorded, understanding of the time to get familiar • Expensive as itand analyzed later. events taking place. and feel at ease requires technical expertise for with the equipment • Helps to understand assistance. is a good idea. student’s explanations that indicate different ways of thinking. Source: NCERT, October 2008 107
  • 121. Annexure 2 Glossary GLOSSARY OF TERMS USED IN THE SCHEME OF CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION AND GRADING IN CBSE SCHOOLS Anecdotal Record: Anecdotal record is a report of descriptive accounts of episodes or occurrences in specific duration of life of an individual. Aptitude test: It is a test to discover and measure the potential of an individual for specific abilities and skills such as music, science, medicine, teaching, graphic- arts, etc. Assignment: It is a task to be done as class work or home work that can be open- ended or structure based on a theme/context outside text books. Checklist: Checklist can be used for the purpose of assessment. It is usable where answers is in either - ‘Yes’ or ‘No’. Comprehensive:Comprehensive means to cover both the Scholastic and the Co-Scholastic aspects of students ‘growth and development’.Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation Continuous: Continuous means that the evaluation of identified aspects of students ‘growth and development’ of students is a continuous process. Co-Scholastic: Co-Scholastic aspects include Life Skills, Co-curricular areas and Attitudes & Values. Criterion Reference Test (CRT): A test designed to provide a measure of performance that is compared with pre-specified level of accomplishment is called criterion-reference test. Evaluation: It is a systematic process of collection and interpretation of evidence leading to judgment of value with a view to action. Formative Evaluation: It is used to monitor learning progress during instruction and to provide continuous feedback to both pupil and teacher concerning learning successes and failures. It includes assessment of paper - pencil test, assignments, projects, class work, homework, practical work etc. Holistic Assessment: Assessment includes both Scholastic and Co-Scholastic aspects. 108
  • 122. Manual for TeachersIntelligence Test: It is the test which assesses the student’s ability to perceiverelationships, solve problems and apply knowledge in a variety of ways.Norm- reference Test: A test designed to provide a measure of performance thatis interpretable in terms of an individual’s relative standing in the some known groupsis called Norm referenced test.Objectivity of an item: It implies that the question should be as simple as possible.A student should be able to interpret the question correctly.Objectivity of scoring: It implies that personal judgment of the examiner shouldnot affect scoring.Observation Technique: It is a most frequently employed measurement techniquewithout using any instruments. Large number of individual observations orobservations made by large number of observers are employed to minimizesubjectivity.Personality: It is the sum total of the biological innate dispositions, impulses,tendencies, aptitudes and instincts of the individual and the disposition and tendenciesacquired by experience.Portfolio: Portfolio is the collection of evidences of students work over a period oftime. Continuous and Comprehensive EvaluationPrognostic Test: It is a test meant for fore- telling, prediction and forecast designedto predict the student’s ability or readiness to undertake the study.Project: A task given over a period of time and generally involves collection andanalysis of data. It is useful in theme-based learning.Rating Scale: It is a evaluation tool by which one systematizes the expression ofopinion concerning a trait. Opinions are usually expressed on a scale or values. Itmay be descriptive, numerical, graphic or percentage scale.Reliability: It refers to the consistency of scores obtained by the same individualswhen re-examined with the same test on different occasion or with different sets ofequivalent items or under other variable examining conditions. (Consistency)Scholastic: Scholastics aspect includes subject specific areas.Self- Reporting Technique: This is a technique which is used to find out theresponse of the respondent to questions concerning their characteristics or behavior.Students are required to express their likes, dislikes, fears, hopes, ideas, about specificaspects. 109
  • 123. Standardised Test: It is a test which has been given to so many people that the test designer is able to determine fairly accurately how well a typical person of a particular age grade will succeed in it. Summative Evaluation: The evaluation conducted at the end of an instructional segment is called summative evaluation. It is designed to determine the extent to which the instructional objectives have been achieved. It is usually used for assigning course grades or certification. Validity: It is the extent to which a test measures what it purports to measure. (Truthfulness)Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 110
  • 124. Manual for TeachersPrevious Circulars issued by CBSE Reference (For Reference Only) Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 111
  • 125. Annexure 3a CENTRAL BOARD OF SECONDARY EDUCATION ACADEMIC BRANCH, SHIKSHA SADAN 17, ROUSE AVENUE, NEW DELHI-110002 Circular No.05/04 13th February, 2004 No. CBSE/D(A)/PA/04 Dear Principal, Sub: Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation Reg Greetings from CBSE! As you might have noticed from the address printed above, there is a change in the address of the Academic Branch. It has now shifted from the erstwhile building of 17-B, I.P. Estate, New Delhi to its own building at Shiksha Sadan in the address given above. You are requested to kindly note the above change in address. The Board fervently hopes that the housing of the Academic Branch in its own building will facilitate to bring about more focused academic activities to catalyze the affiliated schools to actively and progressively participate in a meaningful journey towards the knowledge society.Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation As you are well aware, the Board has been addressing to several academic issues to empower the schools in enabling the students to realize their holistic potential in the process of learning. The Board has always believed that learning is a joyful experience and enables the learner to find the meaning and significance of life. It helps to discover the unfathomed oceans of knowledge and nurture the latent and creative potential in the learner. In a joyful learning environment the curiosity, the sense of enterprise and adventurism, the desire for creativity, the desire to cooperate and coexist is aroused. The learner feels less threatened and hence works in an atmosphere free from fear and stress. In turn, these objectives of the curriculum and its mode of transaction, therefore, have to focus in the achievement of the above goals. Of late, the unwarranted overemphasis on the concept of examinations has created an artificial atmosphere of threat and unhealthy competition. This appears to have the negated the basic objectives of the educational process and the assimilation of information for scoring in examination has nullified the several vital components 112
  • 126. Manual for Teachers Annexure 3aand competencies to be acquired in the process of learning. The concept of Passand Failure at primary level has not played the desired diagnostic role, rather hasacted as a deterrent to the joyful learning by creating a psychological roadblock.In many cases, in spite of many success stories in physical, emotional, social andspiritual platforms, the learner is negated as a failure for want of scores in a singlesubject where he has no motivation due to one or the other reasons. The objectiveappears to be to identify what the learner is not capable of rather than what he is,which basically is an antithesis to the educational process.The Board certainly believes that evaluation of the learner has to be done in contextduring the process of continuous learning as it plays a facilitative and supportiverole. The fear and threat of the examination has to be minimized so that learningtakes place in a stress free atmosphere. It is in this context, the Board had throughits earlier circular No.7 dated 9th February, 2003 invited the attention of the schoolsto do away with the terminal examinations upto class V and also to initiate theprocess of continuous and comprehensive evaluation upto class VIII. The Board ispleased to note that the affiliated schools have responded quite positively to theabove views and many schools have already implemented the same. It is reiteratedthat there is an urgent need to take this important academic initiative so that the Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluationstudents in all the affiliated schools have the necessary uniform stress freeenvironment. The schools should desist from assessing the students on the basis ofterminal examinations and move towards the continuous and comprehensiveevaluation of the students without, as far as possible, any pass-fail. If any studentfails to obtain the minimum level of learning the same can be repeated in the subsequentclass in a progressive manner.As informed, in the earlier circular, it is again reiterated that the schools shoulddesist from giving home work to the students upto class II so that the time is gainfullyused by the students for effective interation with the members of the family and inenriching their interpersonal relationships and emotional edifice. The Board is alsoworking on certain guidelines to schools in this regard and would be made availableto schools in due course.The Board feels that the schools should provide more and better opportunities inlearning of liberal arts including music, painting, dances and folk arts in schools at 113
  • 127. Annexure 3a the primary level so that there is a broad-based learning empowering the emotional intelligence of the learners. This would be of immense help in fighting the consumerist needs at the individual and societal level. The objectives of Indian Education have always been to enhance the holistic profile of the individual built on a strong value base. The CBSE has been contributing significantly in this direction with the assistance of all its affiliated schools. In order to acquire leadership in the knowledge society, we need to take positive and meaningful steps wherein our human resources will have the necessary competencies required for a long lasting performance. All the affiliated schools are partners with the CBSE in this responsible task. We do hope that the affiliated schools will join hands to develop human resources that would make our future generation successful in a global competitive situation. Yours faithfully, (G. BALASUBRAMANIAN)Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation DIRECTOR (ACADEMIC) 114
  • 128. Manual for Teachers Annexure 3b CENTRAL BOARD OF SECONDARY EDUCATIONAcademic Branch, Shiksha Sadan 17, Rouse Avenue, New Delhi-110002D(A)/CCE/04 Circular No: 18/04 29th March, 2004ToAll Heads of InstitutionsAffiliated to CBSEDear Principal, Sub : Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation in Primary classesAs you are well aware, the Board had already intimated through earlier notificationson the need and urgency of introducing continuous and comprehensive evaluationin the Primary classes. The objective of this exercise is to shift the focus of academicactivities towards enrichment of the total personality of the learners and to facilitatethe learners to address to various facets of learning encompassing the cognitive,affective and psychomotor domains. This also should help in destressing learningso that undue focus is not given to the terminal examinations.Though various initiatives have been taken by many schools at their own level toinclude several of these elements in their school reporting systems, it is importantthat certain amount of uniformity is established across the schools affiliated to the Continuous and Comprehensive EvaluationBoard. It is in this context that the Board has brought out a model of the SCHOOLACHIEVEMENT RECORD for the primary classes. The Board has prescribedtwo different formats - one for classes I and II; and the other for classes III to Vkeeping in view the different competency requirements of the learners of theseclasses. It has also been informed earlier that the affiliated schools should stop thePass- Fail system for the classes I and II and should have a continuous andcomprehensive evaluation for classes III and V. The schools should progressivelystop the pass-fail system upto class V. It is important to note that the schools shouldfind adequate time and opportunities to identify the aptitudes and attitudes of thelearners - to help them on what they are capable of performing rather than whatthey are not capable of performing.The Board has also given certain broad guidelines at the last page of the formats.The schools are advised to get them printed at their own schools in the same sizeas has been brought out. The cooperation of the schools in the successfulimplementation of this scheme will help in bringing about the much desired changesin the educational scenario of our country. Yours faithfully, (G. Balasubramanian) Director (Academic) 115
  • 129. Annexure 3C CENTRAL BOARD OF SECONDARY EDUCATION 17, Rouse Avenue, New Delhi-110002 D(A)/CCE/04 12th June, 2004 Circular No: 25/04 To All Heads of Institutions Affiliated to CBSE Dear Principal, Sub: Achievement Record for Classes I to V - Reg. As you are aware, the Board had suggested to the schools introduction of Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation for classes I to V. The objective of the same was to evaluate the learner in a holistic manner so that the latent competencies are reflected appropriarely in their report. It would also help in identifying their positive attributes and encouraging them rather than identifying them for what they are not capable of.Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation I am pleased to forward to you two formats of the same - one for the classes I and II and another for classes III to V. You are advised to get them primed appropriately for your school preferably in A4 format in 130 gsm art card paper in order to maintain basic uniformity among the schools. You may choose the colour suitable for your school-preferably-one colour for classes I and II and another for classes III to V. The Board fervently hopes that the introduction of this system will have its consequent impact on the learning environment in the school and will facilitate the learner to grow in a more holistic manner. Yours faithfully, (G. Balasubramanian) Director (Academic) 116
  • 130. Manual for Teachers Annexure 3c NAME OF THE SCHOOL ACHIEVEMENT RECORD (Academic Year ............................. to ..................................) Class I & IIName : _______________________________________Class : _________________ Section _____________Date of Birth : _______________________________________Admin. No. : _______________________________________Residential Address : _______________________________________ _______________________________________ Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation _______________________________________ _______________________________________Telephone No. : _______________________________________Specimen Signature of : _______________________________________Parent/Guardian 117
  • 131. Annexure 3c A. Languages English Evaluation 1 Evaluation 2 Evaluation 3 01 Reading Skills * Pronunciation * Fluency * Comprehension 02 Writing Skills * Creative Writing * Handwriting * Grammar * Spellings * Vocabulary 03 Speaking Skills * Conversation * Recitation 04 Listening Skills * Comprehension Hindi/Mothertongue Evaluation 1 Evaluation 2 Evaluation 3 01 Reading Skills * Pronunciation * Fluency * ComprehensionContinuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 02 Writing Skills * Creative Writing * Handwriting * Grammar * Spellings * Vocabulary 03 Speaking Skills * Conversation * Recitation 04 Listening Skills * Comprehension B. Mathematics Aspects Evaluation 1 Evaluation 2 Evaluation 3 Concept Activity Tables Mental Ability 118
  • 132. Manual for Teachers Annexure 3cC. Environmental Science Aspects Evaluation 1 Evaluation 2 Evaluation 3 Environmental Sensitivity Activity / Project Group DiscussionD. Co-Curricular Activities Games Evaluation 1 Evaluation 2 Evaluation 3 Enthusiasm Discipline Team Spirit Talent Art/Craft Evaluation 1 Evaluation 2 Evaluation 3 Interest Creativity Skill Music / Dance Evaluation 1 Evaluation 2 Evaluation 3 Interest Rhythm Melody Continuous and Comprehensive EvaluationE. Personality Development Personal and Social Traits Evaluation 1 Evaluation 2 Evaluation 301 Courteousness02 Confidence03 Care of Belongings04 Neatness05 Regularity and Punctuality06 Initiative07 Self-Control08 Respect for other’s property09 Sharing and CaringF. Health Aspects Evaluation 1 Evaluation 2 Evaluation 3 Height (Cms.) Weight (Kg.) 119
  • 133. Annexure 3c Evaluation 1 Specific Participation General Remarks Attendance Class Teacher Principal Parent Evaluation 2 Specific Participation General Remarks Attendance Class Teacher Principal ParentContinuous and Comprehensive Evaluation Evaluation 3 Specific Participation General Remarks Attendance Congratualations! Promoted to Class ................................................................ New Session Begins on ................................................................................... Class Teacher Principal Parent 120
  • 134. Manual for Teachers Annexure 3c GUIDELINES TO SCHOOLSThe objective of the Achievement Record is to facilitate holistic learning in theschool in a stress-free environment.The Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation would be spread over the yearand at least three assessments should be made during the year.The focus should be on identifying the talents of the learner and to empower him/her with positive inputs.No negative observations shall be made in the assessment format.The Board recommends a five point scale for indicating the achievements in thefollowing order: A* OUTSTANDING A EXCELLENT B VERY GOOD Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation C GOOD D AVERAGE 121
  • 135. Annexure 3c NAME OF THE SCHOOL ACHIEVEMENT RECORD (Academic Year ............................. to ..................................) Classes III to V Name : _______________________________________ Class : _________________ Section _____________ Date of Birth : _______________________________________ Admin. No. : _______________________________________ Residential Address : _______________________________________ _______________________________________Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation _______________________________________ _______________________________________ Telephone No. : _______________________________________ Specimen Signature of : _______________________________________ Parent/Guardian 122
  • 136. Manual for Teachers Annexure 3cA. Languages English Evaluation 1 Evaluation 2 Evaluation 301 Reading Skills * Pronunciation * Accuracy * Comprehension02 Writing Skills * Creative Writing * Handwriting * Grammar * Spellings * Vocabulary03 Speaking Skills * Conversation * Recitation04 Listening Skills * Comprehension05. Extra Reading06. Activity Project Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation Hindi/Mothertongue Evaluation 1 Evaluation 2 Evaluation 301 Reading Skills * Pronunciation * Fluency * Comprehension02 Writing Skills * Creative Writing * Handwriting * Grammar * Spellings * Vocabulary03 Speaking Skills * Conversation * Recitation04 Listening Skills * Comprehension05 Extra Reading 123
  • 137. Annexure 3c B Mathematics Aspects Evaluation 1 Evaluation 2 Evaluation 3 Concept Activity Tables Mental Ability C Environmental Science / Science Environmental Science Evaluation 1 Evaluation 2 Evaluation 3 Environmental Sensitivity Activity / Project Group Discussion Written Work Science Evaluation 1 Evaluation 2 Evaluation 3 Concept Activity / Project Scientific Skills Group discussion D Computer Aspects Evaluation 1 Evaluation 2 Evaluation 3 SkillContinuous and Comprehensive Evaluation Aptitude E Co-curricular Activities Games Evaluation 1 Evaluation 2 Evaluation 3 Enthusiasm Discipline Team Spirit Talent 124
  • 138. Manual for Teachers Annexure 3d CENTRAL BOARD OF SECONDARY EDUCATION 2, Community Centre, Preet Vihar, Delhi-110092No.D(A)/PA/CCE/2004 15th September, 2004 Circular No: 31/2004ToAll the Heads of Institutions affiliated to CBSESubject:Continuous and comprehensive evaluation in Primary Classes -RegDear Principal, As you are well aware, the Board has been time and again drawing the attention of the school community through the circulars mentioned in the margin to the urgency of providing a stress free education to the students in the primary sections of school. While the causes that contribute to the stress are many, some of them are quite tangible and it is possible to take such measures that would minimize the stress, if not totally eliminate the same. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluationi) Circular No.6dt. 8.2.2003ii) Circular No.5/05 One of the major contributors to the stress is the size of thedt. 5.2.04 school bag. This has been brought to the attention of the entire country by the Yashpal Committee Report. Taking cognizance of the increasing number of text books prescribed by certain institutions for the students of the I and II classes in particular, the Board has always felt that the number of books and note books prescribed to the classes I and II should be as minimal as possible. Even these books and notebooks have to be left in the school classrooms so that the students do not have to carry these books home. The schools are advised to make such arrangements in the school campus that there is adequate provision for the school bags of these students being housed safely for their daily use. In order that the psychological load of the text books is not carried home and that the students have enough time to develop other basic life skills and are enabled to develop adequate emotional rapport with the parents, the Board has also recommended that no homework is given to them. 125
  • 139. Annexure 3d It is felt that at this age, the learning is as informal and joyous as possible so that there is time and scope for nourishing the mental health of the students. The fear that the students will not learn effectively unless they are given formal learning inputs is unfounded. The parents should be helped by the schools to understand the changing paradigm in the larger interest of their children. Arguments are being advanced about the elimination of the Pass - Fail system at the primary classes. The Board is fully convinced that this would go a long way in eliminating the fear from the minds of the younger ones. Sometimes failing a child for the inadequate performance in one subject or the other appears to be against the very basics of the idea that every learner has certain latent talents and it is the responsibility of the education system to identify and nurture such talents. So in brief the following action needs to be taken at the school level: 1. The students need not carry the school bags from their home and the school bag be kept in the Desk at the school. 2. No home work up to class - II. 3. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation with no Pass-Fail criteria up to class - V. The students achievement record need to be formulated accordingly and the Board has already forwarded two formats for the same vide circular no. 25/04 dated 12.06.2004- one for the classes I and II and another for classes IIIContinuous and Comprehensive Evaluation to V. So up to class-II, two year profile of the students be maintained and for students in class III to V three year profile of the students be maintained. In order to facilitate the schools to focus on the holistic development of the students, from class I to V the Board has brought out the guidelines to schools in the form of “Alternatives to Homework.” This priced edition of the book (Rs.75/-) is being sent as a complimentary copy to all the affiliated schools. Additional copies, if any, required can be purchased by the schools from the book stores of the CBSE at its Headquarters or the Regional offices. As could be seen from this book, the Board has provided a series of activities which would help the students to develop confidence and competence. The Life skills and ‘core values have to be developed among the students and in this arduous task, the role and the responsibility of the parents and the family cannot be marginalized. The schools have to ensure the cooperation of parents in discharging this task of human resource development. The Board has also advised the schools to reflect the profile of the students in the prescribed format of the Achievement record. The profile of the students may be reflected in a five point scale as shown in the format. The absolute marks be translated into grade in academic assessment. A guideline in this regard for changing 126
  • 140. Manual for Teachers Annexure 3dabsolute marks to grading is being circulated shortly. The above instructions haveto be followed by all the schools as these are in total conformity with the broadlydefined educational policies of the Government of India.These decisions of the Board are to be viewed not in isolation, but as a part of aseries of initiatives taken by the Board in the continuum of the educational reforms.The Board would appreciate, if the schools would carry ahead these initiatives upto the middle school level (for classes VI to VIII). The Board would also shortlycome with formats of Achievement Records for the classes VI to VIII based onthe ‘concept of continuous and comprehensive evaluation and on a seven pointscale.The cooperation of the schools in early and effective implementation of theseinstructions would help in achieving the cherished goals for making our youngergeneration thoughtful, imaginative, creative and productive. Yours faithfully, (G.BALASUBRAMANIAN) DIRECTOR (ACADEMIC) Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation 127
  • 141. Annexure 3e CENTRAL BOARD OF SECONDARY EDUCATION Shiksha Kendra, 2, Community Centre, Preet Vihar, Delhi-110092 12th April, 2005 Circular No: 21/2005 Acad./Dir (Acad.)/2004 The Heads of all CBSE affiliated institutions Dear Principal, As you are aware the Board, vide its circular No.25/04 dated 12th June, 2004 had forwarded two formats of the achievement records for classes I and II and III to V signifying the introduction of continuous and comprehensive evaluation at primary level. The earlier exposure to the scheme at secondary level facilitated the schools in implementing this scheme at primary level. Though the main features of the scheme remain the same the Board is sending additional guidelines to help you in evaluating the primary students. The Rating Scales given therein will help in proper placementContinuous and Comprehensive Evaluation of students performance in different scholastic and coscholastic areas for awarding grades. I would like to reiterate that the main purpose of introducing this scheme is to nourish and nurture the many facets of the child’s growth. We should jointly endeavour to restore the happiness and joy of learning in the formative years of childhood. With best wishes, Yours faithfully, (G. BALASUBRAMANIAN) DIRECTOR (ACADEMIC) 128
  • 142. Manual for Teachers Annexure 3e GUIDELINES ON CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION AT PRIMARY LEVEL THE BACKGROUNDOver the years, educationists and other concerned persons have felt the need. foroverhauling of the educational system in general and evaluation system in particular.This concern was also reflected in National Policy on education (NPE) 1986 andProgramme of Action (POA) 1992 when the nation focussed on quality of education.One of the recommendations of policy was the introduction of Continuous andComprehensive Evaluation (CCE) in schools. Further it was included in NationalCurriculum Framework for School Education (NCFSE) 2000 as School BasedEvaluation which has its roots in the concept of CCE. Continuous and ComprehensiveEvaluation (CCE) as the name implies is a developmental process of assessmentwhich emphasizes on two fold objectives - continuity and evaluation on the onehand and assessment of broad range of instructional outcomes on the other.THE BEGINNING....The Central Board of Secondary Education first launched the scheme of school-based evaluation at secondary level from the academic session for class IXbeginning in April 1998. Continuous and Comprehensive EvaluationSupplementing the Board’s secondary school certificate, the comprehensive schoolbased evaluation certificate records students’ achievement in the areas of physicaldevelopment, emotional development and aesthetic development apart from cognitivedevelopment. By recognizing, appreciating and evaluating their personal and socialqualities, attitudes and interests, the Board has moved closer to students in motivatingthem to overcome their inhibitions and realize their true potential.EXTENSION OF THE SCHEME AT PRIMARY STAGEEncouraged by the success of this endeavor, the Board decided to extend thisscheme at primary level and advised the schools to desist from the existing pass-fail system based on terminal examination. The Board has also circulated a copy ofAchievement Record to schools as a model to adopt. The schools have been giventhe necessary flexibility to incorporate changes suiting to local requirements.The document is aimed at providing a holistic picture of the learner and would notgive any negative input about the performance of the learner. The objective is tobring continuous improvement in the performance of a learner through constant 129
  • 143. Annexure 3e diagnosis of gaps and difficulties in learning and helping the learner in overcoming them through remediation of instructions. REPORTING STUDENTS’ ACHIEVEMENT While reporting students’ achievement in different areas, indirect grading in absolute scale having five points may be used. The grades will stand for the following distribution of marks: A* Outstanding 90% - 100% A Excellent 75% - 89% B Very Good 56% - 74% C Good 35% - 55% D Scope for improvement Below 35% The grade of the child can be computed in the achievement card based on the percentage of presence of behaviour indicator in the above category of percentiles. Besides certain remarks can be made in scholastic and co-scholastic areas as well as the achievement level of the child. These remarks will help the parents and the child to provide the learning skills in that area by devoting more learning efforts. Thus, continuous and comprehensive evaluation is a useful proposition forContinuous and Comprehensive Evaluation improvement of students’ achievement through continuous diagnosis, remediation, encouragement and appreciation. It requires coordinated and concerted efforts on the part of Principals, teachers and parents for the multifaceted personality development of the child. The enclosed rating scales are expected to help the teachers in proper placement of students in terms of the different grades. 130
  • 144. RATING SCALES A. LANGUAGES (CLASS I AND II) Te s ting Sub-Skills A* A B C D Are a/Skill/ Compe te ncy 01. Reading Pronunciation (Loud Can read and Can read and Can read and Cannot read and Cannot read and Skills reading) correctly pronounce new pronounce new pronounce new pronounce new pronounce new words on ones words with words most of the words at all words on ones own most of the guidance from the times. without the own. time. teacher. guidance from the teachers Fluency Can read simple Can read simple Can read simple Can read simple Fumbles a lot while sentences fluently sentences fluently sentences but takes sentences without reading simple with proper speed. with speed but time to read each guidance or sentences. Reads Expressiona and needs occasional word. Lacks prompting. one word at a131 pronunciation prompting fluency, speed and time. expression. Comprehension Can read and Can answer most Comprehends with Cannot Cannot understand a of the questions some help from the comprehend the comprehend at all. Annexure 3e story/sentences and correctly. teacher. passages on ones Requires help all answer all the own. Often needs the time. questions correctly. help. 02. Writing Creative Writing Can write three, Can write three or Can write three or Unable to write Needs help of the Skills four or five four sentences on a four sentences on a three or four teacher all the time. sentences on a given topic given topic but sentences on a given topic with correctly but with a lot of given topic. Has to accuracy and some cannot use new prompting and be prompted all the originality e.g. can words on his own. guidance from the time. use an adjective teacher. with a noun. Tries Manual for Teachers to use new words. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation
  • 145. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation Te s ting Sub-Skills A* A B C D Are a/Skill/ Compe te ncy Handwriting Is neat and legible. Is neat and legible. Is legible but often Is neither legible Writing is mainly (Cursive) All letters and Occasional inconsistent with his nor consistent. incomprehensible strokes are inconsistency seen strokes and letters. Transcription has a and inaccurate. properly formed in formation of Transcription has number of errors. and transcription is letters and strokes. occasional errors. error free. Transcription is error free. Grammar Can write Can write Cannot write Can write shorter Cannot write with sentences sentences sentences without pieces with some accuracy. Needs a accurately and uses accurately most of quite a few errors. accuracy. Needs lot of help. simple punctuation the time. Falters Sometimes falters in help very often. marks occasionally in the the use of appropriately. use of simple punctuation marks.132 punctuation marks. Spelling Can spell almost all Spells words from Makes a few Makes plenty of Makes a lot of words from the the text correctly mistakes while errors while spelling mistakes. text correctly, can with occasional spelling words. Able spelling words. Annexure 3e apply his phonetic errors. Can apply to apply his Cannot apply his knowledge to spell his phonetic phonetic knowledge phonetic similar words. knowledge to spell sometimes to spell knowledge to spell similar sounding similar words. new words. words. Vocabulary Has a good range Has a good range Sometimes makes Never uses new Vocabulary is poor. of vocabulary. of vocabulary. Tries use of new words. words. Knowledge Always uses new to use new words is restricted to words in writing. many times. words taught before.
  • 146. Te s ting Sub-Skills A* A B C D Are a/Skill/ Compe te ncy 03. Speaking Conversation Is fluent and Is fluent and Lacks spontaneity Can carry out a Needs help most Skill spontaneous. spontaneous most fluency and dialogue only at a of the time. Responds to of the time. accuracy. very basic level. situation Responds to the Response time appropriately and situation rather long. Needs accurately. appropriately but prompting most of fumbles for words the time. occasionally. Recitation Can recite a poem Can recite a poem Can recite a poem Can recite an entire Can recite only with proper with proper speed with occasional poem with very short and speeds, expression and expression but prompting. prompting most of simple poems and133 and pronunciation. makes occasional Expression is not the time. Lacks that too with a lot mistakes in very strong and proper of prompting. pronunciation or effective. pronunciation and forgets a word or expression. Annexure 3e so. 04. Listening Comprehension Can comprehend Comprehends oral Has some difficulty Has difficulty in Very slow to follow Skills oral questions, questions, in comprehending following class instructions. instructions and instructions, stories, instructions, stories instruction and Needs mother stories/poems. and poems most of or poems. Needs stoires, Needs tongue translation the time. guidance quite simplification or all the time. often. translation most of the time. Manual for Teachers Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation
  • 147. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation A. LANGUAGES (CLASSES III TO V) As pe cts Sub-Skills A* A B C D 01. Reading Pronunciation Can read short Can read short Can often read Can read short Needs help and Skills (Loud stories/articles/wor- stories/articles on short stories with stories with varying prompting by the reading) ds on ones own ones own most of varying speed and speed and teacher all the time. and uses his the time. Uses his guidance most of guidance from the phonetic skills to phonetic skills to the time. teachers most of pronounce new pronounce new the time. words. words most or the time. Fluency Can read Can read Can read simple Can read simple Fumbles a to while simple/complex simple/complex passages but takes passages with reading even simple passages fluently passages fluently time to read each guidance or sentences. Needs with proper speed, with speed but word lacks fluency, prompting most of help all the time. expression and needs occasional speed and the time. pronunciation. prompting. expression.134 Comprehension Can read and Can read and Can read and Can read and Cannot understand text and understand text and understand text and understand text comprehend the answer questions answer most of the answer some of the with the help of text at all. correctly. questions correctly. questions correctly. teacher. Annexure 3e 02. Writing Creative Writing Can write short Can write short Writes stories and Can write short Cannot write even Skills stories and stories and paragraphs but connected short sentences of paragraphs with paragraphs on a makes quite a few descriptive ones own makes a accuracy and given topic with a errors. sentences on lot of mistakes. originality in fair degree of onesown with sentence accuracy. Displays some grammatical construction and originality errors. use of vocabulary. sometimes. Ideas Ideas are arranged are generally logically. logically arranged.
  • 148. As pe cts Sub-Skills A* A B C D Hand writing Is neat and legible. Is neat and legible. Is legible but Handwriting is not Is neither legible All letters and Occasional sometimes very neat. nor consistent. strokes are inconsistency seen inconsistent with his Transcription has consistent and in formation of strokes and letters. many errors. joined correctly. letters and strokes. Transcription has Transcription is Transcription is occasional errors. error free. error free. Grammar Can write Can write Can write Can write Cannot write with sentences sentences sentences with sentences with a lot accuracy. Need accurately accurately most of quite a few errors. of mistakes. help very often. the time. Spellings Can spell all words Can correctly spell Can correctly spell Makes a lot of Cannot spell words correctly. Tries to all the words most words but spellings mistakes. properly. Has to be spell new words. of the time. Falters sometimes makes helped. occasionally. mistakes. Vocabulary Has a rich Has a good range Has a fair range of Vocabulary is Has a poor stock135 vocabulary. Often of vocabulary and vocabulary. Uses limited to only of vocabulary. uses new words phrases. Uses new new words those words, which and phrases in words only most of sometimes. have been taught in Annexure 3e written and spoken the time. class. forms. 03. Speaking Conversation Is fluent and Is fluent and Lacks spontaneity, Lacks spontaneiy, Needs help most Skill spontaneous. spontaneous most fluency and fluency and of the time. Responds to of the time. accuracy accuracy. situations Responds to the sometimes. appropriately and situations Response time accurately. Can appropriately but rather long. Needs narrate fumbles for words prompting most of incidents/anecdotes occasionally. Can the time. and can participate narrate in a discussion on a incidents/anecdotes Manual for Teachers given topic with and can participate ease. in discussions with efforts. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation
  • 149. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation As pe cts Sub-Skills A* A B C D Recitation Can recite a poem Can recite a poem Can recite a peom, Cannot recite an Reciation is poor. or a story with or a story with or story with entire poem or Lacks expression. proper speed. proper speed or occasional story without dicition, expression expression but prompting. prompting. and tone. makes occasional Expression is not Pronunciation mistakes in very strong and expression is not pronunciation or effective. appropriate. forgets at times. 04. Listening Comprehension Can comprehend Comprehends oral Has some difficulty Understands simple Cannot understand Skills oral questions, question, in comprehending conversation in instructions. instructions, stories, instructions, stories, instructions, stories familiar situations. Needs help all the poems. and poems most of or poems. Needs time. the time. Needs guidance simplification or quite often. translation most of the time.136 Extra Reading Can read short Reads Needs a lot of help Shows lack of Not interested to stories/poems for stories/poems for with understanding interest in reading read at all any Annexure 3e pleasure on ones pleasure. of stories and stories or poems. extra material of own with complete Sometimes needs poems. Can Needs a lot of ones own. comprehension. help in evaluate a prompting. Can form opinions understanding the character or a and evaluate story. Can form situation only characters, and opinions and sometimes. incidents. evaluate characters and incidents. Activities/Project Participates Enthusiastically Needs persuasion Seldom Does not enthusiastically in participates in by the teacher for participates in participate a all. activities/Projects. activities/Projects active participation. activities/projects most of the time. assigned.
  • 150. B. M ATHEM ATICS A* A B C D Concept Understands the Understands the Takes sometime to Understands the Cannot understand the concepts well before concepts but is not clear understands new concepts but needs concepts. proceeding to the in certain concepts. concepts. help most of the time. higher ones. Activity Takes keen interest in Takes interest most of Sometimes takes interest Takes interest in Very laid back and various activities, the time but needs to be in mathematical activities assigned activities only disinterested. which help him/her more regular/ when prompted. achieve goals easily. systematically / organized137 Tables Has understood the Knows the tables but Knows the tables but Has not understood the Has not learnt the concept concept of grouping falters a little in dodge makes mistakes in tables concept of tables. of tables. Cannot do the numbers and tables. of higher number. Falters Makes mistakes. dodge tables at all. Makes knows the tables by in dodge tables. a lot of mistakes. Annexure 3e heart. Can also do dodge table. Mental ability Takes immense Good at calculating sums Can do mental Has weak concepts Very slow in solving sums delight in working mentally but at times calculations but falters hence can solve sums mentally. with mathematicul makes careless mistakes. occasionally. mentally at a slow problems mentally pace. Manual for Teachers Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation
  • 151. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation B. M ATHEM ATICS (CLASS III TO V) A* A B C D Concept Understands the Understands the Understands the Takes more time in Needs help most of the concepts with logical concepts thoroughly. concepts and is able to understanding new time in understanding the thinking and good apply most of them concepts and requires concepts and logically reasoning skill. correctly. frequent help. applying them. Needs occasional help. Activity Very confident, Takes keen interest in Quite creative but needs Takes interest but Lacks initiative and is original and creative doing various activities to be more innovative needs to be more disinterested in- group in- group activities. and applying the and original. systematic and activity. Has tremendous team concepts to real life organized. spirit. situations. Tables Has understood the Knows the tables but Knows the tables but Has not understood the Has not learnt the tables. concept of grouping falters a little in dodge makes mistakes in tables concept of tables. Cannot do dodge tables at138 the numbers and tables. of higher number. Falters Makes a lot of all. knows the tables by in dodge tables. mistakes in dodge heart. Can also do tables. dodge tables. Annexure 3e Mental ability Takes immense Has a good number Solves mental sums with Can perform mental Slow in solving sums delight in working sense. Quick in solving ease but at times makes calculations but falters mentally. with mathematical problems mentally. careless mistakes. occasionaly. problems mentally. Written work Work is neat and Neat and systematic Neat and regular work Often the work is Untidy work. Late in methodical. work. but sometimes not up to untidy and the figures submitting the assignments. Presentation is a the mark. are shabbily drawn. source of inspiration for others.
  • 152. B. ENVIRONM ENTAL SCIENCE (CLASS I & II) A* A B C D Environmental Is keen, alert and Needs to be aware of Is quite aware but lacks Lacks awareness; Lacks awareness. Sensitivity observant; very much the surroundings enthusiasm needs to be more keen aware of the and alert surroundings Activity / Exhibitts creativity Makes an attempt with Can do cutting, pasting, Lacks originality and The teacher is a perpetual Project and originality through some help. drawing and collage the ratio of teacher guide. cutting., pasting, work and shows guidance increases in drawing, collage- creativity and originality proportion to the childs work, composing at times. approach and interest. simple poems.139 Group Has the spirit of Can ask simple Can ask simple questions Cannot put forward his Does not take part in discussion equiry and is assertive questions but needs but with some prompting ideas, needs constant group discussions and is a in placing ones occasional prompting at at times. coaxing. silent spectator. viewpoint. times. Annexure 3e ENVIRONM ENTAL SCIENCE (CLASS III to V) Environmental Has the ability to Can do some Can attempt to answer Has difficulty in Needs prompting to Sensitivity reason, does independent thinking and simple questions based reasoning and answer simple questions. independent thinking; is quite observant with on reasoning and observing. Can attempt has value appreciation reflexes of occasional observation. to answer simple for truth and aesthetic, appreciation. questions. sensitivity/observation Manual for Teachers Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation
  • 153. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation ENVIRONM ENTAL SCIENCE (CLASS III to V) A* A B C D Activity / Very innovative; Work is informative and Work is informative and Presentation needs Work is untidy and files Project collects information is neat most of the time. more or less neat; tends improvement; less not well kept and work is able to present the to take support and help. informative least informative. work neatly: does reference work. Group Listens to others Listens to others Listens passively and Has some difficulty in Has difficulty in paying discussion point of view and is viewpoint and hesitates offers no views; hesitates comprehending attention and following able to add to them, to answer. to answer; needs instructions; has to be instructions; needs makes interesting occasional help to give prodded to give simplification most of the observations; has a views. answers. time. good organization of thoughts. SCIENCE (CLASSES III TO V)140 Concept Excellent ability to Good ability to Can understand and Can understand, grasp, Needs continuous understand, grasp, understand, grasp, recall, recall the textual material. recal, define and guidance in understanding. recall, define and define and reasons. Is able to apply relevant reason. Finds difficulty in reading Annexure 3e reason. Understands Understands the textual knowledge and tabulate Understands the textual and comprehending text. and differentiates, material with ease. Is facts, can read and material and with help textual material with able to apply relevant comprehend diagrams from the teacher. Is great case. Is able to knowledge. and web charts. able to tabulate facts apply relevant Reads and comprehends well. Reads and knowledge and text, diagram and web comprehends text tabulate facts well. chart. diagram and web chart Reads and with difficulty. comprehends text, diagram and web chart quickly.
  • 154. SCIENCE (CLASSES III TO V) A* A B C D Activity / Voluntarily Participates in most of Participates in some of Participates in very few Needs a lot of Project participates in all the the activities and the activities and activities and rarely encouragement to activities and enjoys performs experiments performs some performs any participate in activities or experiments. Highly with interest. Excellent, experiments. Good experiments. perform experiments. appreciable, creative creative project project peesentation with Satisfactory project Project presentation is not and original in presentation. Is little creativity. Is presentation; not very creative and systematic. presentation. Is explorative and explorative in creative. Rarely read Not interested in extra explorative innovative innovative in experimenting; any reference books. reading. and infers a result experimenting : does sometimes does after experimenting; reference work. reference work. does extensive reference work. Scientific Skills Has a very keen Has a keen observation, Sometimes inquires Rarely inquisitive; Does Not interested in observation, is inquisitive: does about concepts; usually experimentation when experimentation, recording inquisitive approach, systematic work and does experimentation in told. not very or drawing inference. Not likes to experiment in draw neat diagrams, a systematic way and systematic work and very tidy and organized in141 a systematic way and records information draws diagrams untidy diagrams. Is not his work. Generally draws accurate correctly, carefully and correctly. Records able to draw inference disinterested. diagrams and records systematically. Is able to information. Is able, to and apply information. information correctly, analyze, draw inference draw inference and apply Annexure 3e carefully and and apply information. information with some systematically. Is able difficulty. to analyze draw inference and, apply information. Group Actively participates Actively participates. Participates sometimes. Hesitant to participate A passive participant . discussion and usually leads all Good relations with Satisfactory relations in- group discussions. Never makes group discussions. other members. Often, with other members. Poor relations with observations, unable to Very often makes makes interesting Sometimes makes other members. Rarely analyze points . interesting observations can analyze interesting observations. makes observations. observations and some points critically. Can analyze few points. Unable to analyze adds to the points points. Manual for Teachers given. Can analyze points critically and generate new ideas. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation
  • 155. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation D COM PUTER EDUCATION (CLASSES III TO V) A* A B C D Skills Very confident in Skilled in operating and Shows excellent eye Uses computer to Needs help from the using graphic skills, word processing skills. hand coordination in enhance his knowledge buddy to complete his word processing operating skills. on various topics taught assignments. skills, and operating in class. Uses computer skills. as a tool. Aptitude Excellent in selecting Shows speical aptitude Works with confidence Is able to combine text Takes time to locate keys and using different in using tools to create and handles mouse with and graphics with help on the keyboard. colours, creating shapes and lines. competence. from teacher. pictures and identifying different features of multi media in work presentations. GAM ES (CLASS I TO V) ASPECTS A* A B C D142 Enthusiasm Plays with full intrinsic Plays with full intrinsic Plays with zeal but of his Plays but only when Always gives excuses motivation motivation most of the choice games commanded time. Discipline Obeys all class Obeys all class discipline Obeys class discipline on Obeys due to fear of Lacks discipline. Annexure 3e discipline voluntarily voluntarily most of the command and follows punishment. and plays by following time and plays by rules only suited to his Follows rules on all rules of the game. following all rules of the advantage command with games displeasure Team spirit Has team spirit and Has team spirit and Puts his effort, Shows team harmony Not a team player. plays for winning plays for winning most of individually. on and off. the time Talent Outstanding Excellent development of Very good skill Average skill Slow skill development (Strength, development of skills skills and displays high development but development stamina and and displays high performance most of the performs occasionally. speed) performance time.
  • 156. ART/CRAFT (CLASS I TO V) ASPECTS A* A B C D Interest Shows great Shows great enjoyment Enjoys drawing and Prefers to be guided Prefers to reproduce what enjoyment and and aptitude for drawing painting. Shows than using his own is seen. Needs repeated aptitude for drawing and painting - recognizes imagination simetime imagination instruction. and painting - the value of art most of recognizes the value the time of art. Creativity Has original drawing Has original drawing and Good at reproducing. Can communicate the Lacks creativity and looks and innovativcness in innovativeness in the Shows feelings and ideas in terms of effect for ideas and instructions the work. Shows work, shows more emotions. and appeal. from the teachers. more feeling and feeling and expressions expressions in his/her in his/her work most of work. the time.143 Skill Excellent development Excellent development of Skills development is Very slow skill No skills. of skills and high skills and high good but performs development performance performance most of the occasionally time. Annexure 3e M USIC/DANCE (CLASSES I TO V) Interest Always very keen to Very keen to learn and Needs little drive to learn Sometime shows Does not show much learn and follow given follow instructions most and start interest interest. instructions of the time. Rhythm Child has a good Child has a good sense Sometimes loses pace Sometimes goes off the Does not have the sense of sense of rhythm and of rhythm and sometimes with the beat. beat and cannot make rhythm. keeps pace with the falters in keeping pace it up. beat. with the beat. Melody Child has a good Child has a good sense Child goes off key, Child has the sense of Child does not have much sense of tune of tune and goes off key sometimes can come time but goes off key in sense of music. Manual for Teachers occasionally back in tune. higher octave Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation
  • 157. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation PERSONALITY DEVELOPM ENT ASPECTS A* A B C D Courteousness Very careful about Wishes others most of Many times wish others, Sometimes avoids to Avoids wishing., (say wishing, saying sorry, the time says sorry, (says sorry, thank you wish, (says sorry, thank sorry, thank you and thank you and excuse thank you and excuse and excuse me). you and excuse me). excusie me) me. me stands up to give Some times interrupts: in Some times speaks Aggresive and impolite Always stands up to respect speaks politely between, speaks politely politely interrupts in give respect. never interrupts in may times. between. Always speks politely between. and uses good vocabulary never interrupts in between Confidence Always very contident Very confident in Confident in carrying out Quite confident but Needs to develop in carrying out various carrying out various most of the activitries. needs to come up with confidence. activities. activities most of the his/her ideas. time. Care of Always respects the Takes care of self as Most of the times takes Takes care but does Careless about self as well144 belongings belongings and takes well as others property care of belongings not bother about as others property. care. most of the time. others. Neatness Always wears proper Wears proper and neat Wears proper and neat Most of the times in Often untidily dressed Annexure 3e and neat uniform.. unform. uniform most of the time. improper uniform often Vere careful about Sometime nails/hair/teeth not careful about personal hygiene not clean hygiene Regularity and Very particular about Often parricular about Sometimes particular Sometimes irregular Irregular and sometimes punctuality being regular and being regular and about being regular and and not punctual to late to school/classroom. punctual to punctual to punctual. Sometimes late school/classroom. Rarely submits assignments school/classroom. school/classroom often in submitting Sometimes late in and projects in time. Always regular in regular in doing and assignments. submitting assignments doing and submitting submitting assignments and projects. assignments and and projects. projects.
  • 158. PERSONALITY DEVELOPM ENT ASPECTS A* A B C D Initiative Always tries to do Most of the times tries Often tries to do things Sometimes tries to do Never does things things independently. to do things independently. Often things independently . independently. a voids Always ready to independently. Often ready to partiicpate in Sometimes ready to participating in oral participate in oral ready to participate in oral discussions/extra participate in oral discussions/extra curricular discussions/extra oral discussions/extra curricular activities. discussions/extra activities. curricular activities curricular activities. curricular activities Spirit of service Always volunteers to Volunteers to participate Often volumeers to Sometimes volunteers Rarely participates in participate in all in activities for a social participate in activities to participate in activities for a social cause. activities for a social cause most of the time. for a social cause. activities for a social Never bothers to help cause. Always ready Often ready to help Often helps others cause. others. to help others others. Sometimes helps others.145 Respect others Always follows rules Most of the time follows Often follows rules and Sometimes follows Does not follow rules and property and regulations. Takes rules and regulations. regulations. rules and regulations. regulations. Is not sensitive good care of property Takes care of property Takes care of property Does bother about about others property. and consiciously and often makes efforts and often makes efforts others property. Often litters his/her Annexure 3e makes efforts to keep to keep the environment to keep the environment Sometimes litters surroundings. the environment clean. clean. clean. his/her surroundings Self control Well disciplined in the Disciplined in the Disciplined in the Disciplined in the Indiscipline in the classroom/ corridors/ classroom/corridors/stair classroom/corridors/ classroom but not in classroom/corridors/ staircase. case most of the time. staircase most of the corridors/staircase. staircase. Never misbehaves or Never misbehaves or time. Occasionally Often misbehaves or Mostly misbehaves fights/ fights in the fights in the misbehaves or fights in fights/bullies in the play bullies in the playground/break. playground/break. the playground/break ground/break. playground/break. Emotionally a balanced child. Manual for Teachers Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation
  • 159. Annexure 3f CENTRAL BOARD Of SECONDARY EDUCATION 2, Community Centre, Preet Vihar, Delhi - 110092 S/PA/06 Dated 31st January, 2006 Circular No: 02/06 To All Heads of Institutions Affiliated to CBSE Dear Principal Sub: Introduction of seven point grading system at the Middle School Level As you are aware, the Board has been taking several initatives to enhance the quality of learing in schools. The objectives of these intiatives include: • Facilitating joyful and stress free learning • Enabling holistic learning • Improving quality of Interactions between the teacher and learner • Supperting achievements through positive inputs • Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation As a Part of the above initiative, the Board has already taken the following steps: • Achievement Record (for classes I to V) • Assessment throgh Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation for primary classes • Clarification of the five point rating scales by detailing various competencies As a follow-up of the above initiatives, the Board has further decided that the scheme of continuous and comprehensive evaluation would be introduced at the middle-school level (for classes VI to VIII) also from the ensuing academic year (2006-07). The format of the CCE along with specifications would shortly be made available to theContinuous and Comprehensive Evaluation schools both through the website as well as in the print format. This scheme would bring with it a seven point grading system to be introduced in the schools for all the scademic subjects. The seven points and their equivalent performance scale in raw scores (in percentage) will be as under: A* - 90 and above A - 80 to 89 B* - 70 to 79 B - 60 to 69 C - 45 to 59 D - 34 to 44 E - Below 33 percent The schools are advised to introduce the above scales in the evaluation of their students. This will enable maintaining a meaningful continuity in the assessment pattern from the primary level to the secondary level and also in ensuring a basic uniformity in the affiliated schools. The schools are further advised that these changes should be brought to the notice of all the stake holders in the school community so that the purpose and the spirit of the scheme is well understood. Yours faithfully Vineet Joshi Secretary 146
  • 160. Manual for Teachers Manual for Teachers (Classes VI to VIII) Suggestion/Feedback FormToThe ChairmanCentral Board of Secondary EducationShiksha Kendra, 2, Community CentrePreet Vihar, New Delhi - 110 092Dear Sir,Suggestions : ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------------From:Name : -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Address : ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------------E-mail id : -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Phone/Fax : -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Note: You may detatch this sheet and and send the Feedback of the Manual forTeachers on the above mentioned address. 147

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