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Week 4 Week 4 Presentation Transcript

  • Tonight
    • Quiz
    • Go over EnvironNews Topics
    • Discuss resources – pros and cons
    • Discuss Biodiversity
    • Power Point
    • BREAK
    • “ An Inconvenient Truth” segments and discussion
    • Practice presentations
  • Preserving Earth’s Biological Diversity Chapter 17
  • Activity
    • In groups, use the flipchart paper and markers to write down why you think biodiversity is important
    • Also brainstorm ways in which biodiversity is at risk and write that on the paper
    • Loss / destruction of habitat. . . . . . . . . . .73%
    • Introduction of exotic (non-native)
    • species or their diseases . …………. … .68%
    • Pollutants. . . . . . . . …………………… ...38%
    • Hybridization with sub-species
    • or other species . . . . . . . . ……….. . . . . 38%
    • Exploitation
    • (over-harvesting and over-hunting). . . . . .15%
    • (Note: total exceeds 100% because multiple factors sometimes apply to one species in decline)
    Causes of Species Decline
  • Importance of Diversity
    • We are dependent on organisms for food and raw materials
    • Most of the world’s species have not yet been studied for their potential benefits
    • Loss of species begins a chain reaction whose effects could be felt worldwide
    • ex. Missing bees
    • Genetic assortment – species do better when their lineage is not closely linked
    • ex. Cross pollination of crops
    • Spiritual, ethical and aesthetic value
    • Species are becoming extinct at an alarming rate leading to a decrease in biological diversity!!!
  • Extinct Species
    • Background Extinction vs. Mass Extinction
    Continuous, slow rate of extinction over millions of years Numerous species disappear over geologically short time frame. -Major climate change
  • Extinct Species • Today, extinction rate is 100x - 1000x the background rate • In U.S., 250 species gone extinct since 1980
    • Endangered species
    • • Could become extinct soon without human intervention
    • • At risk are species with:
    • Small range
    • Island locale
    • Low reproductive success
    • Specialized breeding areas
    • Specialized feeding habits
    Threatened species • Population declining rapidly • Likely to become endangered
    • Human Causes of Species Endangerment
    #1 threat to biodiversity is loss of habitat - destruction - fragmentation - degradation
    • Biotic Pollution:
    • introduction of a foreign species into an ecosystem it did not evolve in
    Invasive Species
  • Human Causes of Species Endangerment
    • Pollution:
      • Acid rain
        • - Acidification of soil and water
      • Ozone depletion
        • - Increased UV radiation
      • Climate change
        • - Warming due to CO 2 increases
  • Endangered and Extinct Species
    • Human Causes of Species Endangerment
    • Overexploitation
    Illegal hunting: snow leopards Unregulated parrot trade
  • What Can We Do About Declining Biological Diversity?
    • Increase Awareness of Public
    • Support Research in Conservation Biology
    • Provide Economic Incentives to Landowners and Other Local People
    • Establish International System of Parks
    • Control Pollution
  • Discussion
    • Think about the area in which you live:
      • Is it biologically diverse?
      • What factors contribute to the diversity of the area in which you live?
      • What factors inhibit biological diversity where you live?
  • Air Pollution Chapter 20
  • The Atmosphere as a Resource
    • Atmospheric composition:
    • Nitrogen = 78%
    • Oxygen = 21%
    • Argon = 0.93%
    • Carbon dioxide = 0.04%
  • Types and Sources of Air Pollution
    • Major Classes of Air Pollutants
    • Particulate matter
    • Nitrogen oxides
    • Sulfur oxides
    • Carbon oxides
    • Hydrocarbons
    • Ozone
    Ozone damage
    • Primary Air Pollutants
    • Sources of Outdoor Air Pollution
    • Primary and Secondary Air Pollutants
    Chemical reactions generate secondary pollutants
  • Effects of Air Pollution
    • Air Pollution and Human Health
    Respiratory track, eyes, blood
  • Air Pollution Around the World
    • Long-Distance Transport of Air Pollution
  • Regional and Global Atmospheric Changes Chapter 21
  • Global Climate Change Mean annual global Temperature, 1960-2003 Causes of Global Climate Change CO 2 in the atmosphere
    • The Causes of Global Climate Change
    • Greenhouse Effect
    • The Causes of Global Climate Change
    • Effects of Global Climate Change
    • Melting Ice and Rising Sea Levels
    Melting permafrost 1957 1998
  • Effects of Climate Change
    • Rising sea level
    • Salinity differences – loss of marine diversity
    • Melting ice – loss of habitat for polar bears etc.
    • Melting permafrost – leads to increased insect population
    • Changing weather patterns
  • Discussion
    • After viewing portions of “An Inconvenient Truth”, discuss in your groups which part of the information given was the most compelling
  • Ozone Depletion in the Stratosphere
    • Stratospheric ozone layer
    Normal levels of ozone Reduced levels of ozone
  • Ozone Depletion in the Stratosphere
    • Ozone thinning
    Antarctica
    • Causes
    • Main problem: CFCs
  • The Effects of Ozone Depletion
    • Potentially, increased incidence of skin cancers
    Melanoma Some features • Irregular borders • Uneven color • Raised areas
  • Acid Deposition
    • A.K.A. Acid rain
    • In US, damage from acid deposition is estimated at $10 B
  • Acid Deposition
    • The Effects of Acid Deposition
    • Acid Deposition and Forest Decline
    • Damage to leaves - reduced photosynthesis - more susceptible to stress - death of tree • Damage to soil : acidification - Ca, K readily wash out - damage to fungi that aid in root uptake - death of tree
  • Acid Deposition
    • Acid deposition not limited to locations where it originates.
      • • IL, IN, MO, OH, PA, TN, WV
      • - produce 50-75% of acid deposition
      • • New England and Southeastern Canada
      • - contaminated
  • Water Pollution Chapter 22
  • Types of Water Pollution
    • Sewage
    ↑ Enrichment Explosion in algal, bacteria, & decomposer populations ↑ Biological oxygen demand ↓ Oxygen levels in water Fish kills
  • Water Quality Today
    • Water Pollution from Agriculture
    • 72% of water pollution in rivers attributed to agriculture (largest polluter of rivers)
      • Pesticides may leach into soil; then water
      • Sediment pollution in rivers from soil erosion
      • Animal waste from runoff
  • Water Quality Today
    • Other sources of Water Pollution
    • • Urban runoff
    • • Leakage
    • - gasoline storage
    • - sewage
    • - landfill
    • - industrial surface
  • Solid and Hazardous Waste Chapter 23
  • Solid Waste
    • US produces most per capita solid waste = 4.4 lbs per person per day
    • 229 million tons per year (and increasing!)
    Solid waste produced by av. family of four in one year in US
  • Solid Waste
    • Types of Solid Waste Where it goes
    Note: most of the solid waste can be recycled but is not
  • Hazardous Waste
    • Types of Hazardous Waste
    • Dioxins
      • Byproduct of combustion of chlorine compounds
      • Emissions from incinerators; industry
      • Bio-accululation in fatty tissues ( affecting ALL humans )
      • Bio-amplification in food webs
      • Carcinogen
    • Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)
      • Cooling and hydraulic fluids
      • Acute toxicity; birth defects; endocrine disruption; possible carcinogen
      • Bio-accululation in fatty tissues
      • Bio-amplification in food webs
    • Radioactive material
  • Tomorrow’s World Chapter 25
  • A Strategy for Sustainable Living
    • Living Sustainably
    • Improve living conditions while maintaining a healthy environment
    • Balance
      • economic growth
      • environmental conservation
  • A Review of the Central Themes of Environmental Science
    • Principle 1: Building a Sustainable Society
    • • Preserve Earth’s biological diversity
    • • Live within Earth’s carrying capacity
    • (1) Use renewable resources at a rate
    • which they can be renewed
    • (2) Conserve non-renewable resources
  • A Review of the Central Themes of Environmental Science
    • Principle 2 : Respecting and Caring for the Community of Life
    • We evolved within and depend upon the web of life • Need to protect ecosystems; species Endangered sea turtle
  • A Review of the Central Themes of Environmental Science
    • Principle 3 : Improving the Quality of Human Life
    Challenges of under developed countries - Distribution of resources - Economic growth - Scientists and Engineers
  • Addressing the Goals of Sustainability
    • Principle 4 : Conserving Earth’s Vitality and Biological Diversity
    • Restore ecosystems
    • Control agriculture
    • - Control pollution
  • Addressing the Goals of Sustainability
    • Principle 5: Keeping within Earth’s Carrying Capacity
    Family planning discussion Carrying Capacity of an ecosystem determined by its ability to - absorb wastes - renew itself
  • Implementing Environmental Sustainability at Various Levels
    • Principle 6: Changing Personal Attitudes and Practices
    • Everyone learns; everyone contributes
      • Role of Education
      • Sustainable consumption
  • Implementing Environmental Sustainability at Various Levels
    • Principle 7: Enabling Communities to Care for Their Own Environments
    • Provide communities with
      • Access to knowledge
      • Opportunities for their input
      • Right to help make decisions
  • Implementing Environmental Sustainability at Various Levels
    • Principle 8: Building a National Framework
    • • Integrate Development and Conservation
    • Most governments have single department overseeing environmental concerns
    • Need integrated approach across all government levels to promote sustainability
      • Law, Science, Taxation
  • Implementing Environmental Sustainability at Various Levels
    • Principle 9: Creating a Global Alliance
    Global alliances for global problems - U.N. Fish Stocks Agreement - Kyoto Protocol (Global Warming) - Montreal Protocol (Ozone Depletion)
  • What Kind of World Do We Want?
    • Which Principle you give top priority?
    • What do you think the probability is that these Principles would be implemented in the US today?
    • What prevents their consideration?
    • Do you think that if the US fails to adopt these principles that there were be any real serious consequences?