Week 4
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Like this? Share it with your network

Share
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
900
On Slideshare
898
From Embeds
2
Number of Embeds
1

Actions

Shares
Downloads
7
Comments
0
Likes
1

Embeds 2

http://psime-uofp.wikispaces.com 2

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Tonight
    • Quiz
    • Go over EnvironNews Topics
    • Discuss resources – pros and cons
    • Discuss Biodiversity
    • Power Point
    • BREAK
    • “ An Inconvenient Truth” segments and discussion
    • Practice presentations
  • 2. Preserving Earth’s Biological Diversity Chapter 17
  • 3. Activity
    • In groups, use the flipchart paper and markers to write down why you think biodiversity is important
    • Also brainstorm ways in which biodiversity is at risk and write that on the paper
  • 4.
    • Loss / destruction of habitat. . . . . . . . . . .73%
    • Introduction of exotic (non-native)
    • species or their diseases . …………. … .68%
    • Pollutants. . . . . . . . …………………… ...38%
    • Hybridization with sub-species
    • or other species . . . . . . . . ……….. . . . . 38%
    • Exploitation
    • (over-harvesting and over-hunting). . . . . .15%
    • (Note: total exceeds 100% because multiple factors sometimes apply to one species in decline)
    Causes of Species Decline
  • 5. Importance of Diversity
    • We are dependent on organisms for food and raw materials
    • Most of the world’s species have not yet been studied for their potential benefits
    • Loss of species begins a chain reaction whose effects could be felt worldwide
    • ex. Missing bees
  • 6.
    • Genetic assortment – species do better when their lineage is not closely linked
    • ex. Cross pollination of crops
    • Spiritual, ethical and aesthetic value
  • 7.
    • Species are becoming extinct at an alarming rate leading to a decrease in biological diversity!!!
  • 8. Extinct Species
    • Background Extinction vs. Mass Extinction
    Continuous, slow rate of extinction over millions of years Numerous species disappear over geologically short time frame. -Major climate change
  • 9. Extinct Species • Today, extinction rate is 100x - 1000x the background rate • In U.S., 250 species gone extinct since 1980
  • 10.
    • Endangered species
    • • Could become extinct soon without human intervention
    • • At risk are species with:
    • Small range
    • Island locale
    • Low reproductive success
    • Specialized breeding areas
    • Specialized feeding habits
    Threatened species • Population declining rapidly • Likely to become endangered
  • 11.
    • Human Causes of Species Endangerment
    #1 threat to biodiversity is loss of habitat - destruction - fragmentation - degradation
  • 12.
    • Biotic Pollution:
    • introduction of a foreign species into an ecosystem it did not evolve in
    Invasive Species
  • 13. Human Causes of Species Endangerment
    • Pollution:
      • Acid rain
        • - Acidification of soil and water
      • Ozone depletion
        • - Increased UV radiation
      • Climate change
        • - Warming due to CO 2 increases
  • 14. Endangered and Extinct Species
    • Human Causes of Species Endangerment
    • Overexploitation
    Illegal hunting: snow leopards Unregulated parrot trade
  • 15. What Can We Do About Declining Biological Diversity?
    • Increase Awareness of Public
    • Support Research in Conservation Biology
    • Provide Economic Incentives to Landowners and Other Local People
    • Establish International System of Parks
    • Control Pollution
  • 16. Discussion
    • Think about the area in which you live:
      • Is it biologically diverse?
      • What factors contribute to the diversity of the area in which you live?
      • What factors inhibit biological diversity where you live?
  • 17. Air Pollution Chapter 20
  • 18. The Atmosphere as a Resource
    • Atmospheric composition:
    • Nitrogen = 78%
    • Oxygen = 21%
    • Argon = 0.93%
    • Carbon dioxide = 0.04%
  • 19. Types and Sources of Air Pollution
    • Major Classes of Air Pollutants
    • Particulate matter
    • Nitrogen oxides
    • Sulfur oxides
    • Carbon oxides
    • Hydrocarbons
    • Ozone
    Ozone damage
  • 20.
    • Primary Air Pollutants
  • 21.
    • Sources of Outdoor Air Pollution
  • 22.
    • Primary and Secondary Air Pollutants
    Chemical reactions generate secondary pollutants
  • 23. Effects of Air Pollution
    • Air Pollution and Human Health
    Respiratory track, eyes, blood
  • 24. Air Pollution Around the World
    • Long-Distance Transport of Air Pollution
  • 25. Regional and Global Atmospheric Changes Chapter 21
  • 26. Global Climate Change Mean annual global Temperature, 1960-2003 Causes of Global Climate Change CO 2 in the atmosphere
  • 27.
    • The Causes of Global Climate Change
    • Greenhouse Effect
  • 28.
    • The Causes of Global Climate Change
  • 29.
    • Effects of Global Climate Change
    • Melting Ice and Rising Sea Levels
    Melting permafrost 1957 1998
  • 30. Effects of Climate Change
    • Rising sea level
    • Salinity differences – loss of marine diversity
    • Melting ice – loss of habitat for polar bears etc.
    • Melting permafrost – leads to increased insect population
    • Changing weather patterns
  • 31. Discussion
    • After viewing portions of “An Inconvenient Truth”, discuss in your groups which part of the information given was the most compelling
  • 32. Ozone Depletion in the Stratosphere
    • Stratospheric ozone layer
    Normal levels of ozone Reduced levels of ozone
  • 33. Ozone Depletion in the Stratosphere
    • Ozone thinning
    Antarctica
    • Causes
    • Main problem: CFCs
  • 34. The Effects of Ozone Depletion
    • Potentially, increased incidence of skin cancers
    Melanoma Some features • Irregular borders • Uneven color • Raised areas
  • 35. Acid Deposition
    • A.K.A. Acid rain
    • In US, damage from acid deposition is estimated at $10 B
  • 36. Acid Deposition
    • The Effects of Acid Deposition
    • Acid Deposition and Forest Decline
    • Damage to leaves - reduced photosynthesis - more susceptible to stress - death of tree • Damage to soil : acidification - Ca, K readily wash out - damage to fungi that aid in root uptake - death of tree
  • 37. Acid Deposition
    • Acid deposition not limited to locations where it originates.
      • • IL, IN, MO, OH, PA, TN, WV
      • - produce 50-75% of acid deposition
      • • New England and Southeastern Canada
      • - contaminated
  • 38. Water Pollution Chapter 22
  • 39. Types of Water Pollution
    • Sewage
    ↑ Enrichment Explosion in algal, bacteria, & decomposer populations ↑ Biological oxygen demand ↓ Oxygen levels in water Fish kills
  • 40. Water Quality Today
    • Water Pollution from Agriculture
    • 72% of water pollution in rivers attributed to agriculture (largest polluter of rivers)
      • Pesticides may leach into soil; then water
      • Sediment pollution in rivers from soil erosion
      • Animal waste from runoff
  • 41. Water Quality Today
    • Other sources of Water Pollution
    • • Urban runoff
    • • Leakage
    • - gasoline storage
    • - sewage
    • - landfill
    • - industrial surface
  • 42. Solid and Hazardous Waste Chapter 23
  • 43. Solid Waste
    • US produces most per capita solid waste = 4.4 lbs per person per day
    • 229 million tons per year (and increasing!)
    Solid waste produced by av. family of four in one year in US
  • 44. Solid Waste
    • Types of Solid Waste Where it goes
    Note: most of the solid waste can be recycled but is not
  • 45. Hazardous Waste
    • Types of Hazardous Waste
    • Dioxins
      • Byproduct of combustion of chlorine compounds
      • Emissions from incinerators; industry
      • Bio-accululation in fatty tissues ( affecting ALL humans )
      • Bio-amplification in food webs
      • Carcinogen
    • Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)
      • Cooling and hydraulic fluids
      • Acute toxicity; birth defects; endocrine disruption; possible carcinogen
      • Bio-accululation in fatty tissues
      • Bio-amplification in food webs
    • Radioactive material
  • 46. Tomorrow’s World Chapter 25
  • 47. A Strategy for Sustainable Living
    • Living Sustainably
    • Improve living conditions while maintaining a healthy environment
    • Balance
      • economic growth
      • environmental conservation
  • 48. A Review of the Central Themes of Environmental Science
    • Principle 1: Building a Sustainable Society
    • • Preserve Earth’s biological diversity
    • • Live within Earth’s carrying capacity
    • (1) Use renewable resources at a rate
    • which they can be renewed
    • (2) Conserve non-renewable resources
  • 49. A Review of the Central Themes of Environmental Science
    • Principle 2 : Respecting and Caring for the Community of Life
    • We evolved within and depend upon the web of life • Need to protect ecosystems; species Endangered sea turtle
  • 50. A Review of the Central Themes of Environmental Science
    • Principle 3 : Improving the Quality of Human Life
    Challenges of under developed countries - Distribution of resources - Economic growth - Scientists and Engineers
  • 51. Addressing the Goals of Sustainability
    • Principle 4 : Conserving Earth’s Vitality and Biological Diversity
    • Restore ecosystems
    • Control agriculture
    • - Control pollution
  • 52. Addressing the Goals of Sustainability
    • Principle 5: Keeping within Earth’s Carrying Capacity
    Family planning discussion Carrying Capacity of an ecosystem determined by its ability to - absorb wastes - renew itself
  • 53. Implementing Environmental Sustainability at Various Levels
    • Principle 6: Changing Personal Attitudes and Practices
    • Everyone learns; everyone contributes
      • Role of Education
      • Sustainable consumption
  • 54. Implementing Environmental Sustainability at Various Levels
    • Principle 7: Enabling Communities to Care for Their Own Environments
    • Provide communities with
      • Access to knowledge
      • Opportunities for their input
      • Right to help make decisions
  • 55. Implementing Environmental Sustainability at Various Levels
    • Principle 8: Building a National Framework
    • • Integrate Development and Conservation
    • Most governments have single department overseeing environmental concerns
    • Need integrated approach across all government levels to promote sustainability
      • Law, Science, Taxation
  • 56. Implementing Environmental Sustainability at Various Levels
    • Principle 9: Creating a Global Alliance
    Global alliances for global problems - U.N. Fish Stocks Agreement - Kyoto Protocol (Global Warming) - Montreal Protocol (Ozone Depletion)
  • 57. What Kind of World Do We Want?
    • Which Principle you give top priority?
    • What do you think the probability is that these Principles would be implemented in the US today?
    • What prevents their consideration?
    • Do you think that if the US fails to adopt these principles that there were be any real serious consequences?