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  • 3. PRACTICLE IMPROVEMENTS IN THE QUALITY OF NIGERIAN FAMILY LIFE THRU THE ADOPTION OF CLEANING DIRTY POWER. TECHNIQUES AND DISCPLINES IN THE IMPLIMENTATION OF RENEWABLE ENERGY THAT NOT ONLY CLEANS UP THE ENVIRONMENT IN WHICH THEY ARE DEPLOYED, BUT PROVIDE INCREASED JOB SKILLS THAT LEAD TO LIFETIME EMPLOYMENT AND RETURN MORE THAN 100% OF INVESTMENT. GOALS 1. Testing for and achieving a 20% increase in useable--billable Kwh’s thru the cleaning of dirty electricity using DSP based active Power Factor Correction (PFC) and Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) controllers in non linear applications in and around the FEDERAL CAPITAL TERRITORY – ABUJA. 2. Examination and placement of multiple renewable energy disciplines in and around the FEDERAL CAPITAL TERRITORY – ABUJA which leads to lifetime employment skills acquired by hundreds of new jobs created and paid for by Ministry, privet sector energy savings and increased billing by the electric company. STANDARDS 1. Each discipline and or technology used must be independently verifiable 2. Each naira spent on capital goods or electric generation must return at least two (2) and aim for up to of five (5) times return of monies spent over the product life.
  • 4. ACTION PLAN 1. Training in theory and on site use of harmonic mitigation active power factor correction controllers power quality test and diagnostic suite of hardware and software tools. For thorough evaluation measurements throughout a broad spectrum of voltages and current capabilities to include complete harmonic analysis on every cycle, and the ability to capture swells and sags on every 1/2 cycle.  Transients are recorded with a resolution of 8 microseconds 2. Compile hard data base of highest loss due to dirty power in government, military and privately owned facilities to correct for quickest payback 3. Conduct photovoltaic, geo-thermal, wind ( MET Tower) and thermal solar evaluations around the city of Abuja.. 4. Train personnel to submit CDM United Nations Carbon Credits for additional revenue stream. 5. Investigate, Document then Educate the citizenry on ways to take advantage of “SMART GRID” power generation using renewable energy avenues to help reduce diesel fuel from being used. Putting money into the family home or small business. VISABLE AND INVISABLE BENEFITS AND COSTS OF DIRTY POWER WHAT THE INDIVIDUAL CAN DO TO HELP THE IMPORTANCE OF RENEWABLE ENERGY EDUCATION
  • 5. ACTIVE POWER SYSTEMS, INC. Active Harmonic Mitigation Power Factor Correction controlled filters provide a cost-effective and flexible solution For system harmonic control. While the growing concentration of electronic equipment in both our professional and personal environments may make life and work more convenient, these devices complicate and increase the demands on facility wiring and power utilities. Most facilities employ a variety of devices such as multiple switch mode power supplies, motors, fans and other nonlinear loads. Among the adverse effects of multiple nonlinear loads are voltage distortion, excessive neutral return currents, reduced utilization of available power and power factor penalties, to name a few. Harmonic currents in particular are receiving more attention as a critical power quality concern with an estimated 60 percent of electricity now passing through nonlinear loads. Ironically, the equipment used to boost productivity and efficiency is generating a tremendous increase in non-productive power consumption, power pollution, and low power factor. In addition, the same equipment producing the harmonic distortion is also susceptible to its damaging effects . Reducing Harmonic Distortion with traditional PFC Techniques Power factor correction (PFC) techniques include both passive and active solutions for eliminating harmonic distortion and improving power factor. The passive approach uses inductors, transformers, capacitors and other passive components to reduce harmonics and phase shift. The passive approach is heavier and less compact than the active approach, which is finding
  • 6. greater favor due to new technical developments in circuitry, superior performance and most importantly, reduced component costs. Traditional passive PFC solutions used at the system level – where multiple subsystems or non-linear loads are involved – have proven themselves unfeasible economically as well as architecturally. Specially corrected transformers are effective only for certain harmonic frequencies and most passive filters, once installed and tuned, are difficult to upgrade and may generate harmful system resonance. As for active PFC techniques, they must be applied to each individual power supply or load in the system, which complicates architecture and results in high system cost. Active Power Filtering Techniques Unlike traditional power factor correction techniques, the APF supplies only the harmonic and reactive power required to cancel the reactive currents generated by nonlinear loads. In this case, only a small portion of the energy is processed, resulting in greater overall energy efficiency and increased power processing capability Active power filtering utilizes harmonic or current injection to achieve PFC. Unlike designs that process all the power presented to the converter because they are in series or cascade with the AC line, active power filtering can be accomplished parallel to the line. By using a method to determine the harmonic distortion on the line, specific currents are injected to cancel the reactive loads. (see fig 1)
  • 7. Goal is to make Input current of Bridge proportional to Input Voltage and Output impedance low enough to source Harmonic currents Trace #1: Io to Load@ 20A/div. Trace #2: Iin from Source @ 10A/div.  AC Input Vin=120Vrms Iin=11.3Arms Pin=1362W PF=0.998 THD=3.67% Fig 1. This and similar techniques have been used for years in high-power three-phase systems, but high costs and complicated high speed circuitry made it impractical for low-level power systems. New techniques are now being developed that use simpler circuitry, making active power filtering more attractive and advantageous for low power, single-phase systems. These techniques provide a lower cost effective alternative to traditional PFC in complex systems using several power supplies and loads, which may include motors and other reactive components. The APF is connected in parallel to the front end or AC input of the system, and corrects all the loads from the AC line directly. Experimental results using a variety of nonlinear loads show that this type of APF provides excellent harmonic filtering that easily complies with international harmonic regulations. See Fig 2. Fig 2.
  • 8. Improves Efficiency and Cost on Systems with Multiple Loads In the application of multiple power supplies and reactive loads, the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of the parallel APF becomes very attractive (see Figure 3 ). In a typical rack system containing multiple and varied loads, the different currents combine and may cancel harmful harmonics automatically. This reduces the percentage of current that must be injected by the APF to cancel harmonic and reactive currents, and results in efficiencies that could exceed 95 percent. Using active PFC techniques, each load in the system would require its own PFC converter in series which would need to be capable of processing all the power to each load. The reduction in quantity and power handling of the components as well as the greater inherent reliability of the APF parallel technique becomes obvious. In a 1000W system, for example, in-series PFC devices would have to process approximately 1250 watts of power. Because APF correction is accomplished parallel to the AC line, it only has to correct for the combined reactive currents, which may be only 15 to 20 percent of the actual load in the same 1000W system. This means that a 200W corrector would be sufficient for the job. Clearly, when very small converters are able to correct very large loads, the economics of APF power factor correction become extremely attractive. An added benefit is that unlike a series correction device, if the APF fails, an interruption device such as a fuse could be in series with the current injector and when it opens the line is still available to run the system. FIG 3. BEFORE AFTER
  • 9. Summary Active power filters provide a cost-effective, reliable and flexible solution for power quality control. Since the APF only processes the reactive and harmonic current, power loss and component rating are typically lower when compared to other power factor correction methods. This technique is particularly well suited to applications with multiple power supplies and reactive loads. For existing nonlinear loads, near unity power factor can be achieved by simply connecting an APF device in parallel with the AC inlet.
  • 10.  
  • 11. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Low power factor is expensive and inefficient. Many utility companies charge you an additional fee if your power factor is less than 0.95. Low power factor also reduces your electrical system’s distribution capacity by increasing current flow and causing voltage drops. This fact sheet describes power factor and explains how you can improve your power factor to reduce electric bills and enhance your electrical system’s capacity. REDUCING POWER FACTOR COST To understand power factor, visualize a horse pulling a railroad car down a railroad track. Because the railroad ties are uneven, the horse must pull the car from the side of the track. The horse is pulling the railroad car at an angle to the direction of the car’s travel. The power required to move the car down the track is the working (real) power. The effort of the horse is the total (apparent) power. Because of the angle of the horse’s pull, not all of the horse’s effort is used to move the car down the track. The car will not move sideways; therefore, the sideways pull of the horse is wasted effort or nonworking (reactive) power. The angle of the horse’s pull is related to power factor, which is defined as the ratio of real (working) power to apparent (total) power. If the horse is led closer to the center of the track, the angle of side pull decreases and the real power approaches the value of the apparent power. Therefore, the ratio of real power to apparent power (the power factor) approaches 1. As the power factor approaches 1, the reactive (nonworking) power approaches 0.
  • 12. Integrated Project Solution Power Factor Study or Mini-Power Factor Study Load Flow Study Related Harmonic Audit/Study Power Quality Survey/Study Turnkey Field Installation, Start-Up and Commissioning of Equipment. All of the above result in an Engineered Solution and/or an Integrated Project Solution. Return on Investment The ROI is dependent on the load characteristics, utility rate structure and possible complicating factors, such as the presence of harmonics and the scope of the installation. A typical payback can be realized in less than two years, and in many cases, a one-year or less payback is possible. When increased system capacity is sufficient to accommodate load, immediate payback will occur by eliminating the need for a larger service transformer.
  • 14. Common Sites for Active harmonic filtering
    • Pumping stations (water & wastewater)
    • Office building, hospitals & hotels
    • Mills - paper, steel, rubber, textile
    • Semiconductor plants, Seaports
    • Automated factories
    • Oil drilling & refineries
    • Amusement parks & ski lifts
    • Large industrial facilities
    • Embassies
    The Active Harmonic Filter will monitor the distorted electrical signal, determine the frequency and magnitude of the harmonic content, and then cancel those harmonics with the dynamic injection of opposing current. Active harmonic control provides the benefit of traditional passive filters with simpler engineering requirements, easier and less expensive installation, comprehensive control, and assured compliance with the IEEE 519-1992 standard. Filter Benefits: Decreases excess heating of electrical cable switchgear and transformers. Can reduce downtime caused by nuisance thermal tripping of protective devices. Compensates each phase independently. Costly harmonic studies are minimized. Increases network reliability and reduces operating costs. Power factor correction capacitors can be left in place, as the active filter stabilizes the system by providing a perfect source for cleaning dirty power.
  • 15.
    • Commercial Building Energy Alliances
    • The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is facilitating the creation of the new Commercial Building Energy Alliances, which are designed to minimize the energy and environmental impact of commercial buildings and reduce energy costs for these buildings. The Retailer Energy Alliance, launched in February 2008, was the first of three alliances to be created. The Commercial Building Energy Alliances will focus on the following areas:
    • Retailer Energy Alliance
    • Commercial Real Estate Energy Alliance
    • Institutional Energy Alliance
    • The Commercial Building Energy Alliances will ultimately transform how the commercial building sector uses energy, and will substantially increase the energy efficiency of commercial buildings. This will provide:
    • Positive returns on investment through increased financial returns because of lower energy bills
    • Higher reliability of equipment
    • Smaller environmental footprint, including carbon emissions
    • Opportunity for sustainable growth
    • Peak demand reduction, which will create a more stable utility infrastructure
    • Improved disaster mitigation
    • Less dependence on outside sources of energy
  • 16. Spotlight on Commercial Lighting Solutions Lighting—the largest energy consumer in commercial buildings—offers outstanding opportunities for efficiency improvements. A full 26% of energy in commercial buildings is consumed by lighting. Imagine the benefits if the energy used by commercial lighting could be reduced by 30% or more, without compromising comfort, safety, sales levels, or productivity. Reductions of this magnitude are entirely possible, and the DOE's Commercial Lighting Solutions provide the detailed instructions that building owners and tenants need to achieve them. These solutions, being developed by the DOE in partnership with top lighting designers, architects, and commercial end-users, will be delivered through an interactive web tool that will estimate energy savings based on project specific inputs.
  • 17. Harmonic Compensation 2-49th Harmonic Capacity can be added as needed. Active Harmonic Filters are available in 50, 100 and 300-amp sizes, for up to 600V, 3-phase, 50/60Hz systems. In addition to harmonics cancellation, they also provide dynamic correction for other power quality events: Resonance Prevention. Power Factor Correction. Dynamic VAR Compensation. The Active Harmonic Filter is available as an independent structure, ideal for a retrofit, or as an integral component in improving electrical network reliability, decreased maintenance and longevity of non linear equipment.
  • 18. Benefits of Harmonic Control
    • Maximize uptime in automated factories
    • Lower capital expenditure, free-up electrical capacity
    • Improve true power factor
    • Reduce operating costs
    • Comply with harmonic standards
  • 19. Benefits of VAR Compensation
    • Maximize uptime in automated factories
    • Lower capital expenditures (higher utilization of electrical system)
    • Improve product quality
    • Increased labor performance
    • Reduce operating costs
  • 20. Ch Active Harmonic Filter Harmonic Performance AS off AS on Order % I fund % I fund Fund 100.000% 100.000% 3 0.038% 0.478% 5 31.660% 0.674% 7 11.480% 0.679% 9 0.435% 0.297% 11 7.068% 0.710% 13 4.267% 0.521% 15 0.367% 0.052% 17 3.438% 0.464% 19 2.904% 0.639% 21 0.284% 0.263% 23 2.042% 0.409% 25 2.177% 0.489% 27 0.293% 0.170% 29 1.238% 0.397% 31 1.740% 0.243% 33 0.261% 0.325% 35 0.800% 0.279% 37 1.420% 0.815% 39 0.282% 0.240% 41 0.588% 0.120% 43 1.281% 0.337% 45 0.259% 0.347% 47 0.427% 0.769% 49 1.348% 0.590% % THD(I) 35.28% 2.67%
  • 22. Power Factor / Harmonic Correction Substation
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  • 24. HOW TO USE ELECTRICITY EFFICIENTLY Since the government owns the electric company the first place it must look to reduce costs are in there own publicly run offices, facilities and commercial operations. This would include but not be limited to Airports, Railroads, Seaports, water treatment plants, hospitals, schools, waste sewage pumping stations, border-customs crossings and all commercial office space used in the function of carrying out the countries daily business. The first step in determining effective use of each dollar spent on its electric bill would be to develop a data base of POWER FACTOR CORRECTION (PFC) and TOTAL HARMONIC DISTORTION (THD) baseline equations for all non linear applications ( any electricity powering a motor or certain types of lighting is considered non linear)of electricity. Local service technicians would be hired and trained to do the individual on site testing for each of the above mentioned venues. PFC and THD in general terms measure the pollution and the lack of smoothness and increased heat in the operation and sinusoidal wave of the electric currant in non linear applications. PFC is measured as a percentage of 1.0 and THD is represented as a number between 3 and 190. A PFC number above .95 is considered good and a number .85 and below is considered very bad. The importance of these numbers can be shown by how much money is being wasted at each declining number. For example a PFC rating of .80 wastes 23 percent of every dollar spent on energy. If your electric bill is $10 a month one can see its $2.30 a month wasted. When you bill runs into the thousands and or millions of dollars per year it becomes a staggering amount of money very quickly. This is money that can be recovered and spent else ware with the right equipment and as you can see pays for itself. For THD any number above 5 all the way to 190 is considered to be needlessly warring out the motor being used. This costs the government money in two additionally ways, one is that it increased month in month out maintenance and added down time, and two causes a quickening of capital equipment costs.( the motor to burn out ) prematurely adding to an increase in capital equipment replacement expense. Even though you don’t see this cost on your monthly bill be assured you are surely paying for it. When these increased costs are added together it becomes clear to see that all governments must address this problem to allow for the money wasted to be better used else ware. Reducing generating expense by about 19% annually wile being able to provide 100% of a government electric needs allows the power company to expand revenues considerably with out the cost of increased electric capital expense. This would further allow the government to increase its yearly revenues by the same amount by using these funds to rollover into improvements in self generating renewable energy projects.
  • 25. Cause of Low Power Factor Low power factor is caused by inductive loads (such as transformers, electric motors, and high-intensity discharge lighting), which are a major portion of the power consumed in industrial complexes. Unlike resistive loads that create heat by consuming kilowatts, inductive loads require the current to create a magnetic field, and the magnetic field produces the desired work. The total or apparent power required by an inductive device is a composite of the following: • Real power (measured in kilowatts, kW) • Reactive power, the nonworking power caused by the magnetizing current, required to operate the device (measured in kilovars, kVAR) Reactive power required by inductive loads increases the amount of apparent power (measured in kilovolt amps, kVA) in your distribution system. The increase in reactive and apparent power causes the power factor to decrease. Why Improve Your Power Factor? Some of the benefits of improving your power factor are as follows: • Your utility bill will be smaller. Low power factor requires an increase in the electric utility’s generation and transmission capacity to handle the reactive power component caused by inductive loads. Utilities usually charge a penalty fee to customers with power factors less than 0.95. You can avoid this additional fee by increasing your power factor. • Your electrical system’s branch capacity will increase. Uncorrected power factor will cause power losses in your distribution system. You may experience voltage drops as power losses increase. Excessive voltage drops can cause overheating and premature failure of motors and other inductive equipment.
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  • 28. solar map
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  • 31. wisper 500
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  • 33. 5 MEGS 11.11 Hectares—765,000 kwh / month
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  • 39. Closed and Open Loops There are two basic types of loops: closed and open. Open loop systems are the simplest. Used successfully for decades, ground water is drawn from an aquifer through one well, passes through the heat pump's heat exchanger, and is discharged to the same aquifer through a second well at a distance from the first. Generally, two to three gallons per minute per ton of capacity are necessary for effective heat exchange. Since the temperature of ground water is nearly constant throughout the year, open loops are a popular option in areas where they are permitted. Open loop systems do have some associated challenges: Some local ground water chemical conditions can lead to fouling the heat pump's heat exchanger. Such situations may require precautions to keep carbon dioxide and other gases in solution in the water. Other options include the use of cupronickel heat exchangers and heat exchangers that can be cleaned without introducing chemicals into the groundwater. Increasing environmental concerns mean that local officials must be consulted to assure compliance with regulations concerning water use and acceptable water discharge methods. For example, discharge to a sanitary sewer system is rarely acceptable. Horizontal Loops Horizontal closed loop installations are generally most cost-effective for small installations, particularly for new construction where sufficient land area is available. These installations involve burying pipe in trenches dug with back-hoes or chain trenchers. Up to six pipes, usually in parallel connections, are buried in each trench, with minimum separations of a foot between pipes and ten to fifteen feet between trenches . Vertical Loops Vertical closed loops are preferred in many situations. For example, most large commercial buildings and schools use vertical loops because the land area required for horizontal loops would be prohibitive. Vertical loops are also used where the soil is too shallow for trenching. Vertical loops also minimize the disturbance to existing landscaping. For vertical closed loop systems, a U-tube (more rarely, two U-tubes) is installed in a well drilled 100 to 400 feet deep. Because conditions in the ground may vary greatly, loop lengths can range from 130 to 300 feet per ton of heat exchange. Multiple drill holes are required for most installations, where the pipes are generally joined in parallel or series-parallel configurations. Slinky Loops Increasingly, "Slinky" coils -- overlapping coils of polyethylene pipe -- are used to increase the heat exchange per foot of trench, but require more pipe per ton of capacity. Two-pipe systems may require 200 to 300 feet of trench per ton of nominal heat exchange capacity. The trench length decreases as the number of pipes in the trench increases -- or as Slinky coil overlap increases. (Illustration below shows a slinky coil in a pond) Pond Loops Pond closed loops are a special kind of closed loop system. Where there is a pond or stream that is deep enough and with enough flow, closed loop coils can be placed on the pond bottom. Fluid is pumped just as for a conventional closed loop ground system where conditions are suitable, the economics are very attractive, and no aquatic system impacts have been shown.
  • 40.  
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  • 42. Filling used tires with Ferro cement you end up with a low cost cistern
  • 43.  
  • 44. MicroTurbines can operate connected to a utility grid or provide stand alone power to critical loads. Transition time between these two operating modes is less than 10 seconds, allowing customers to secure their critical power needs. Today’s businesses face a tough situation – continuity of electric power is becoming more critical to their business success while the potential for extended utility power outages is increasing. Recent large area weather-related power outages and the continued threat of terrorist disruption, are reminders of how fragile our electric infrastructure really is. Traditional backup gensets just sit there as idle assets most of the time, and then don’t always start when you do need them. The new paradigm is to operate MicroTurbines as continuous power supplies – saving money in CHP, CCHP or Resource Recovery applications most of the time, and quickly transitioning to standby power when you need it. We call this “Dual Mode” operation. It’s a reliable standby power source that pays for itself. A Dual Mode Controller to facilitate protection of critical loads. Acting like an automatic transfer switch, the Dual Mode Controller monitors incoming power and tells the Microturbines connected to it to switch to stand alone operation when the grid fails. Protected loads see less than 10 seconds of outage while the microturbines transition from grid-parallel to stand alone operation. As noted in this article in Distributed Energy magazine, one of the largest natural gas transmission and storage corporations use MicroTurbines at several of their facilities. Among them, Dominion Transmission’s Ithaca, New York, station relied on their MicroTurbines to keep the gas flowing when they lost power for more than a day during the August 2003 Great Northeastern Blackout.
    • All MicroTurbines operate:
    • Continuously or On-Demand
    • Stand alone or Grid Connect
    • Individually or Multi-pack
    • Run on a variety of fuels
      • Low or High Pressure Natural Gas
      • Biogas (landfill, wastewater treatment centers, anaerobic)
      • Flare gas
      • Diesel
      • Propane
      • Kerosene
  • 45.  
  • 46.
    • The concept comprises flare header isolation equipment, a gas recovery system and a reliable flare gas ignition system. The flare gas recovery will be designed to meet the specific process conditions on the plant.
    • System description A fast opening valve will be installed in the flare header, a bursting disc or a rupture pin valve will be fitted in parallel as a secondary protection. During normal operation, the flare gas recovery system will capture the underlying flare gas that continuously leaks or is released into the flare header and direct it back into the gas processing facility. Also low flow depressurisations may be recovered to facilitate maintenance without flaring. If a process upset should occur the fast opening valve opens and the gas will be diverted to the flare. The flare is an essential safety system, used for the safe disposal of flows from pressure safety valves and depressurisation of processing equipment. The flare gas recovery system must not compromise this capability.
    • The recovery system must be able to open quickly enough to avoid back pressuring equipment and systems connected to the flare header.
    • The reliability must comply with relevant safety standards.
    • A reliable method for re-ignition of the gas must be in place.
    • The flare gas recovery system should be simple and reliable.
    • Flare Gas Recovery System The flare is the most visible sign of wasted resources and pollution from oil, gas and petrochemical plants. Introducing flare gas recovery systems will have several benefits:
    • Reduced emissions of CO 2 and NOx
    • The gas normally burnt can be exported, used as fuel gas, re-injected, used as feed for boilers, and recovered back into the feedstock or any other system utilising gas.
    • The environmentally friendly system will extend the lifetime of your flare tips, saving significant maintenance cost for shutdown and flare tip replacement.
    • The increased environmental awareness has introduced quota trading schemes for CO 2 and NOx. A flare gas recovery system will provide a reduction which can be traded and make a flare gas recovery project economically sound.
    The patented flare gas recovery system eliminates the need for continuous flaring of gas from oil, gas and petrochemical plants. The gas is safely and cost effectively recovered and can be utilised for other purposes. The system offers a substantial reduction in CO2 and NOx emissions.
  • 47. Features: In accordance with API RP 521 Easy and safe recovery of the flare gas Closed flare line Environmentally friendly - Substantial reduction of CO2 and NOx emissions Cost effective solution Reduced flare maintenance costs and increased flare tip lifetime Well proven engineering The first flare gas recovery system using the Statoil patent was first put in operation in 1994. Experience and continuous improvements have made the system a well proven system, and included in API 521. Each oil or gas plant will have different requirements and Aibel can design the system to be adapted to our customers' process specifications . Basic specification: Flare line size: 10 - 48 &quot; Fast opening valve: Opening time < 2 sec. Gas recovery: Passive by crossover line , active by booster skid Capacity: 100 - 10.000 Sm3/h Pressure: 1 - 100 barg The leading international specialist in design and manufacture of Flare Gas Ignition and Recovery Systems for Oil & Gas producing facilities and Petrochemical plants. The technology has proven itself during years of operation on several installations in the North Sea. Our experience ensures professional craftsmanship in design and installation/ commissioning.
  • 48. A flare system consists of a vapor header that collects the flare gases from various sources, a knockout vessel, a liquid seal vessel, and the flare itself. The flare gas recovery unit connection is typically located between the knockout vessel and the liquid seal. Any liquids in the flare gas should be removed before introduction into the flare gas recovery unit. The primary control variable of the John Zink flare gas recovery unit is flare system pressure. As the flare header pressure reaches the predetermined pressure control set point, a liquid ring compressor starts up and begins to compress the flare gas. The compressor uses an operating liquid, usually water, to perform the work of compression on the recovered gas. The operating liquid is cooled in a shell-and-tube heat exchanger, evaporative cooler or air-cooled heat exchanger to control compressor discharge temperature. The compressor discharges the gas into a three-phase separator that separates the operating liquid from the flare gas and then the condensed hydrocarbons from the operating liquid. Instead of venting process vent streams into the flare system, the compressed gases are made available to the operating plant’s fuel gas supply or possibly as a process feedstock. Integration and control of a flare gas recovery unit is of critical importance. For example, care must be exercised in the design of the recovery system to prevent application of a vacuum to the vapor header that might draw in air and create a flammable mixture in either the flare header or the fuel gas system. When all compressors are operating at full capacity and if the process vent flow rate continues to increase, flare gas will begin to pass through the liquid seal and flow to the flare stack. Therefore, the safety function of the flare system is maintained in the event of process upset conditions. Flare Gas Re