The Flu, What It Can Do And


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Education on the 2009 Seasonal Flu & H1N1 Flu: How it's transmitted, treated, and methods of prevention, including handwashing and vaccination. Up to date info from the CDC.

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The Flu, What It Can Do And

  1. 1. The Flu, What it can do and How to protect You! A presentation on the Seasonal and H1N1 Influenzas By Lisa Hezel, RN WCC
  2. 2. About the Speaker  Been a nurse for 16 years.  Certified in Wound Care with National Alliance of Wound Care since 2007.  Work at St. John’s Mercy Medical Center in Creve Coeur, MO.  Wife and mother of 2 children.  Flu survivor!
  3. 3. Where I work  Nurse Manager of St. John’s Hyperbaric and Wound Treatment Center and St. John’s Diabetic Foot Clinic.  I love my job!
  4. 4. What we will cover today:  Seasonal Influenza and the Swine Flu.  How it is spread  How is it treated  What you can do to protect yourself and loved ones.
  5. 5. There are 3 types of Flu: ◦ Seasonal (H3N2) ◦ Avian (H5N1) ◦ Swine (H1N1)
  6. 6. Quick Question….  What does the H & N stand for? ◦ It stands for Hemagglutinin and Neuraminidase. There are 16 types of the H protein, numbered H1 through H16, and 9 types of the N protein, numbered N1 through N9. That makes 144 possible combinations of the virus, a constantly changing challenge for prevention or treatment
  7. 7. Peak months for seasonal influenza  Source: cip/clinical.htm
  8. 8. How the flu is spread  Sneezing  Coughing  Shaking hands  Sharing drinks  Close Contact with sick people  Going to work or school when you are sick—should stay home if you have a fever of 100.8 or more and not return until you are 24 hours with out fever (without using Tylenol).
  9. 9. The most common symptoms of the Seasonal Flu are:  SUDDEN onset  Chills  Fever  Sore throat  Muscle pains  Severe headache  Coughing  Weakness and general discomfort  Runny or stuffy nose
  10. 10. Why you don’t want to get the flu  Uncomplicated flu usually resolves after 3—7 days for most people, although cough and malaise can persist for up to 2 weeks or more.  The flu can cause primary influenza viral pneumonia or a secondary bacterial pneumonia.  Exacerbate underlying medical conditions, i.e. asthma.  Other possible complications: sinusitis, or otitis media (ear infection); or contribute to co-infections with other viral or bacterial pathogens
  11. 11. Who is most at risk for complications?  65 years and older  Young children,  Pregnant women and women up to 2 weeks from end of pregnancy  People with certain chronic medical conditions (such as asthma, heart failure, chronic lung disease) and people with a weak immune system (such as diabetes, HIV)  People younger than 19 years of age who are receiving long-term aspirin therapy
  12. 12. How long are you “contagious?”  Incubation period: 1—4 days  Adults: shed influenza virus from the day before symptoms begin through 5—10 days after illness onset.  The amount of virus shed, decreases rapidly by 3—5 days after onset.  Young children: shed virus several days before illness onset, and children can be infectious for 10 or more days after onset of symptoms.  Severely immunocompromised persons can shed virus for weeks or months.
  13. 13. Treating the seasonal flu  Prevention is the best method.  Anti-viral medications Tamiflu and Relenza (only helps if taken within the 1st 48 hours)  Rest and fluids  Stay Home!
  14. 14. The Swine flu (H1N1)  Swine Influenza (swine flu) is a respiratory disease of pigs caused by Type A influenza viruses that causes regular outbreaks in pigs.  This is now considered a “moderate” pandemic by the CDC (Category 2).
  15. 15. What is a pandemic?  A pandemic affects the entire world and not just a country or continent.  Pandemic flu is usually more severe than seasonal flu with a higher death rate.
  16. 16. What is a pandemic?  Pandemic influenza is a virus to which we have no natural immunity.  It originates in wild birds and then jumps to other species, including pigs and humans.  “Swine flu” has bird, pig and human genes, a very unusual occurrence.
  17. 17. Recent Pandemics  1918-19 - H1N1, "Spanish flu” Severe: Humans had no immunity to any of the 8 gene sequences  1957-58 “Asian flu” Mild: We had immunity to 5 of 8 gene sequences  1968-69 "Hong Kong flu” Milder: We had immunity to 6 of 8 gene sequences  1997- ? H5N1, “Bird Flu” Severe: Humans have no immunity  2009 - ? A/H1N1, “Swine Flu” Moderate: We have no immunity to any of the 8 gene sequences, but have modern medicine to help us this time.
  18. 18. What makes the H1N1 Influenza Virus so Strong?  Adaptability: the ability to survive different environments.  This table shows how long 3 different viruses can survive outside of their host. Cold Couple of hours Flu Up to 8 hours Small Pox 24 hrs / up to 12 weeks in a scab
  19. 19. What does the Swine Flu Look Like?
  20. 20. What are the symptoms of swine flu?  Similar to the symptoms of regular human flu:  fever, cough, sore throat, body aches, headache, chills and fatigue.  Some people have reported diarrhea and vomiting associated with swine flu.  In the past, severe illness (pneumonia and respiratory failure) and deaths have been reported with swine flu infection in people.  Like seasonal flu, swine flu may cause a worsening of underlying chronic medical conditions.
  21. 21. Fatalities from H1N1  H1N1 currently has a mortality rate of around 0.5%, or 5 times the death rate of seasonal influenza, with prompt, first-rate medical care.  Average age of death: 38  Affects children and young adults  1/3 have no pre-existing medical conditions
  22. 22. Who is most at risk for complications?  Ages 5-50  Pre-existing conditions: ◦ Asthma ◦ Diabetes ◦ Pregnancy ◦ Heart disease
  23. 23. Treating the H1N1 is the same as the seasonal flu  Prevention is the best method.  Anti-viral medications Tamiflu and Relenza (only help if taken within the 1st 48 hours)  Rest and fluids  Stay Home!
  24. 24. Adults Children  Difficulty breathing or • Trouble breathing shortness of breath • Bluish skin color • Not drinking enough  Pain or pressure in the chest or abdomen • Not waking up or not interacting  Sudden dizziness • So irritable-- does not want  Confusion to be held • Flu-like symptoms improve  Severe or persistent but return with fever and vomiting worse cough • Fever with a rash When to seek emergency treatment
  25. 25. What to do if you become sick?  If you live in areas where swine influenza cases have been identified and become ill with influenza-like symptoms, contact your health care provider.  Your health care provider will determine whether influenza testing or treatment is needed.  Stay home and avoid contact with other people as much as possible to keep from spreading your illness to others.
  26. 26. Preventing illness  Vaccinations for seasonal flu and H1N1 ◦ Currently the doses of the H1N1 are being given to populations with the most risk. ◦ Healthcare workers ◦ Pregnant women ◦ Emergency services ◦ “High risk” people—cancer, severe pulmonary illnesses, etc.
  27. 27. Vaccinations  Both the seasonal and H1N1 vaccines come in an injectable form and a form you can inhale (Flu-Mist).  Persons with asthma or other pulmonary conditions should not get the flu mist.
  28. 28. Contraindications to the Flu Vaccine  Allergies to eggs  Sick with a fever  Mercury allergy (preservative )  History of Guillain-Barre syndrome  Less than 14 weeks pregnant.  In years past, pregnancy was also a contraindication to flu vaccine but, today, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) of the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) recommends flu vaccine for women more than 14 weeks pregnant.
  29. 29. The Seasonal Influenza (H3N2) Vaccine  Each year, many laboratories throughout the world, including in the United States, collect flu viruses.  World Health Organization (WHO) reference laboratories, do detailed testing on these viruses.  WHO also test how well antibodies made to the current vaccine react to the circulating virus and new flu viruses.  This information, along with information about flu activity, is summarized and presented to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and at a WHO meeting.  Three viruses (two subtypes of influenza A viruses and one influenza B virus) to go into flu vaccines for the following fall and winter.  Usually, one or two of the three virus strains in the vaccine are changed each year.
  30. 30. Is the vaccine for H1N1 safe?
  31. 31. Is the vaccine for H1N1 safe?  The A/H1N1 flu vaccine is safe ◦ According to the CDC in a report released on Wednesday 11/25/09.  22 million Americans have already been inoculated.  3,200 reports of possible side effects. ◦ Mostly minor:  soreness or swelling from the shot
  32. 32. Why should I get it?  As of November 20, 2009 there have been 4008 deaths from Pandemic Swine Flu in the US.  98,000 Americans have been Hospitalized with the H1N1 Swine Flu.  22 million Americans have gotten ill from it.  Of those, here’s the number for children: ◦ 36,000 have been hospitalized .
  33. 33. Other ways to protect yourself  Cover your nose and mouth when you cough or sneeze.  Wash your hands often with soap and water, especially after you cough or sneeze.  Alcohol-based hand cleaners are also effective.  Avoid touching your eyes, nose or mouth.  Try to avoid close contact with sick people.
  34. 34. Sneeze Cough  Droplets of whatever is in  Coughs come out very the nose and mouth fast and can propel come zipping out at germs and moisture up about 100 miles an hour. to about 30 feet when you cough. Did you know?
  35. 35. Proper Etiquette for coughing & sneezing  Cover your mouth and nose with a tissue when coughing or sneezing.  Put your used tissue in the waste basket.  Cover your cough or sneeze in your arm.  If you cough or sneeze on your hands, wash them!
  36. 36. Wash your hands!  Viruses and bacteria can live 2 hours or longer on surfaces like cafeteria tables, doorknobs, and desks.  Frequent hand washing will reduce the chance of contamination from these common surfaces.
  37. 37. Best hand washing practices  Get your paper towel ready  Turn on faucet, wet your hand and lather well with soap.  Rub your hands vigorously for at least 20 seconds. Remember to scrub all surfaces.  Rinse well.  Dry your hands with a clean or disposable towel.  If possible, use your towel to turn off the faucet.
  38. 38. When to wash your hands: Before After Preparing food Preparing food, especially raw meat or poultry Eating Using the toilet/changing a diaper Treating wounds or giving Blowing your nose, medicine coughing or sneezing into your hands Touching a sick or injured Touching a sick or injured person person Inserting or removing Treating wounds contact lenses Handling garbage or something that could be contaminated, such as a cleaning cloth or soiled shoes
  39. 39. One more Question: Can you get the Swine flu from eating pork?
  40. 40. Can you get the Swine flu from eating pork?  No! Eating properly handled and cooked pork and pork products is safe.  Cooking pork to an internal temperature of 160°F (72°C) kills the swine flu virus as it does other bacteria and viruses.  Enjoy your bacon!
  41. 41. Sources   lth/2009/04/23/2009-04- 23_should_we_be_concerned_about_sw ine_flu_two_new_cases_pop_up_in_calif ornia.html  o?site=MensHealth&channel=health&cat egory=colds.flu&conitem=2111fdf3fed34 210VgnVCM10000030281eac____  vaccine/influenza/flu_vaccine_facts.shtm l
  42. 42. More sources!  wser/2009/11/98000-americans-have- been-hospitalized-because-of-swine- flu.html  cine.htm  9-11/26/content_12541662.htm