Endocrine system
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Endocrine system

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Endocrine system Presentation Transcript

  • 1.  
  • 2. Controls many body functions - exerts control by releasing special chemical substances into the blood called hormones - Hormones affect other endocrine glands or body systems Consists of several glands located in various parts of the body. 1.Pituitary gland
  • 3.  
  • 4. The Pituitary Gland is divided into 2 areas
      • Posterior Pituitary:
        • oxytocin
        • antidiuretic hormone ( ADH )
      • Anterior Pituitary:
        • thyroid-stimulating hormone ( TSH )
        • growth hormone ( GH )
        • adrenocorticotropin ( ACTH )
        • follicle-stimulating hormone ( FSH )
        • luteinizing hormone ( LH )
        • prolactin
  • 5.
    • 2. Thyroid Gland
      • - lies in the anterior neck just below the larynyx.
      • - Two lobes, located on either side of the trachea, connected by a narrow band of tissue called the isthmus .
      • - Sacs inside the gland contain colloid
      • thyroxine ( T4 )
      • triiodothyronine ( T3 )
      • “ C” cells within the thyroid produce the hormone calcitonin .
  • 6.
    • Calcitonin , when released, lowers the amount of calcium in the blood.
    • hypothyroidism, or Myxedema.
    hyperthyroidism, commonly called Graves’ disease.
      • Long term hyperthyroidism:
        • Exopthalmos
          • bulging of the eyeballs
        • In severe cases - a medical emergency called t hyrotoxicosis can result.
  • 7.
    • 3. Parathyroid Glands
      • small, pea-shaped glands, located in the neck near the thyroid
      • usually 4 - number can vary
      • regulate the level of calcium in the body
      • produce parathyroid hormone -  level of calcium in blood
      • Hypocalcemia can result if parathyroids are removed or destroyed.
  • 8. 4. Pancreas
    • Islets of Langerhans
      • specialized tissues in which the endocrine functions of the pancreas occurs
      • include 3 types of cells:
        • alpha (  )
        • beta (  )
        • delta (  )
      • each secretes an important hormone .
  • 9. Alpha (  ) cells release glucagon , essential for controlling blood glucose levels. When blood glucose levels fall,  cells  the amount of glucagon in the blood. Beta Cells (  ) release insulin (antagonistic to glucagon). Insulin  the rate at which various body cells take up glucose. Thus, insulin lowers the blood glucose level. Delta Cells (  ) produce somatostatin , which inhibits both glucagon and insulin.
  • 10.
    • 5. Adrenal Glands
      • 2 small glands that sit atop both kidneys.
      • Each has 2 divisions, each with different functions.
    Adrenal Medulla catecholamine hormones norepinephrine epinephrine
    • Adrenal Cortex
    • steroid hormones
    • glucocorticoids mineralocorticoids
    • androgenic hormones
  • 11.
    • 6. Gonads and Ovaries
      • the endocrine glands associated with human reproduction.
    • Ovaries:
      • located in the abdominal cavity adjacent to the uterus.
      • Manufacture
        • estrogen
        • protesterone
    • Testes:
      • located in the scrotum
      • produce sperm for reproduction
      • Manufacture
      • Testosterone
  • 12. Hypothalamic Hormones/Factors Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH)- ACTH Thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH)- TSH Gonadotropin releasing Hormone (GnRH)- FSH,LH Prolactin release inhibiting hormone (PRIH)- Prolactin Prolactin releasing factor (PRF)- Prolactin
  • 13. Growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH)- GH Growth hormone releasing inhibiting Factor (GHRIF)- GH Malinocyte-stimulating hormone releasing factor (MSH-RF)- α , β & ᵞ -MSH MSH release inhibiting factor (MSH-RIF)- α , β & ᵞ -MSH
  • 14. At cell membrane receptors a) Through alteration of intracellular cAMP concentration b) Through IP3/DAG pathway c) Tyrosin kinase pathway Adrenalin Glucagon TSH,FSH,LH,PTH ACTH Calcitonin Vesopressin(V 2 ) Vasopressin(V 1 ) Oxytocin Insulin Growth hormone Prolactin
  • 15. Steroidal hormones Glucocorticoids Mineralocorticoids Androgens Estrogens Progestins At nuclear receptor Thyroid hormones
  • 16.  
  • 17. Stimuli which cause growth hormone release Fasting Hypoglycaemia Exercise Stress Gh secretion is ↓ by ↑ in plasma free fatty acids High dose of glucocorticoids β adrenergic agonist Gh secretion is ↑ by 5HT agonist α adrenergic agonist
  • 18. Growth hormone inhibitors Somatostatin 14 amino acid Inhibit secretion of- GH TSH Prolactin Insulin Glucagon G.I secretions By pitutary By Pancreas
  • 19. Synthetic octapeptide of somatostatin 40 times more potent Long acting Use Acromegaly Secretory diarrhoeas associated with carcinoids, AIDS, cancer chemotherapy