Notes: Endocrine System

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Notes: Endocrine System

  1. 1. Endocrine System
  2. 2. Endocrine System <ul><li>Glands that secrete chemical messengers (HORMONES) </li></ul><ul><li>Hormones act on specific organs or entire body </li></ul><ul><li>Pituitary, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Adrenal, Pineal, Thymus, Pancreas, Gonads (Ovaries & Testes), Hypothalamus </li></ul>
  3. 3. Pituitary - hangs from the Hypothalamus of the Diencephalon. 2 lobes: <ul><li>Anterior lobe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>  a. Growth hormone (GH) - regulates mitosis & growth of body cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) - controls thyroid activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) - controls activity of adrenal cortex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) - stimulates oogenesis (egg) & spermatogenesis (sperm) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e. Luteinizing hormone (LH) - Stimulates release of male & female sex hormones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>f. Prolactin (PRL) - milk production   </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Pituitary – Post. Lobe <ul><li>  Posterior Lobe: 2 hormones produced in the hypothalamus are stored here;  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a. Oxytocin - causes uterine contractions during labor and milk release during suckling.   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH, Vasopressin) - inhibits urine formation.   </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Thyroid - just below larynx, releases 2 hormones <ul><li>         1. Thyroid Hormone (TH) - it increases cellular activity in skeletal, reproductive & nervous systems </li></ul><ul><li>         2. Calcitonin - decreases blood calcium levels by stimulating the deposition of Calcium into bone. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Parathyroids - 4 masses on back of thyroid. <ul><li>They release parathyroid hormone (PTH)  in response to low calcium levels – increases blood calcium levels by stimulating the removal of Calcium from the bone.   </li></ul>
  7. 7. Pancreas - Hormones are secreted from islets <ul><li>1. Beta Cells: secretes Insulin in response to high levels of glucose - it decreases blood sugar   </li></ul><ul><li>2. Alpha Cells: secretes Glucagon in response to low levels of glucose - it increases blood sugar </li></ul>
  8. 8. Adrenal gland – on top kidneys, 2 areas: <ul><li>1. Cortex - secretes steroids = Corticosteroids (in response to ACTH); 3 types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a. Mineralocorticoids - regulate sodium & potassium levels   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  b. Glucocorticoids - increases breakdown of fats & proteins       to generate blood glucose = anti-stres </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c. Gonadocorticoids - sex hormones (Estrogen, Progesterone, and Testosterone may affect the onset of puberty, pubic and axillary hair development, and sex drive.   </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Medulla - secretes Epinephrine (adrenaline) & Norepinephrine (noradrenalin), &quot;fight or flight&quot; </li></ul>
  9. 9. Gonads <ul><li>1. Testes - testosterone   </li></ul><ul><li>2. Ovaries - estrogen & progesterone </li></ul>
  10. 10. Thymus: upper thorax, posterior to sternum <ul><li>Secretes Thymosin which causes the T-cells of the immune system to mature. </li></ul>

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