RESEARCH EXPLORER

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RESEARCH EXPLORER

  1. 1. Vol . I : Issue. 1 ISSN:2250 - 1940 IMPORTANCE OF FMCG IN RURAL MARKETING Dr. Dhande Rajendra B 1, M.V.Sonje 2 Abstract Rural India is vast with unlimited opportunities. The Indian FMCG sector plays a vital role in rural marketing. The fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) sector is an important contributor to India’s GDP. It is the fourth largest sector of the Indian economy. The FMCG market is estimated to treble from the current figure in the coming decade. The growing Indian population, particularly the middle class and the ru ral segments, presents an opportunity to makers of branded products to convert consumers to branded products like jams, toothpaste, skin care and hair wash, etc. Key words: rural India, fast-moving consumer goods, household care, food and beverages, personal care Introduction The Indian FMCG Sector has a market size of $13.1 billion. Well established distribution networks, as well as intense competition between the organized and unorganized segments are the characteristics of this sector. FMCG in India has a strong and competitive MNC presence across the entire value chain. It has predicted that the FMCG market will reach $33.4 billion in 2015 from $11.6 billion in 2003. The middle class and the rural segments of Indian population are the most promising market for FMCG and give brand makers the opportunity to convert them to branded products. The Indian economy is surging ahead by leaps and bounds, keeping pace with rapid urbanization, increased literacy levels and rising per capita income. The FMCG sector consists of consumer non-durable products, which broadly include personal care, household care and food and beverages. It is largely classified into organized and unorganized segments. The sector is buoyed by intense compet it ion between these two segments. Besides competition, it is marked by a robust distribution network coupled with increasing influx of MNCs across the entire value chain. The sector continues to remain highly fragmented. Table-1 FMCG Categories and Products Category Products Household care Fabric wash (laundry soaps and synthetic detergents), household cleaners (dish/utensils cleaners, floor cleaners, toilet cleaners, air fresheners, insecticides and mosquito repellents, metal polish and furniture polish) Food and beverages Health beverages, soft drinks, staples/cereals, bakery products(biscuits, bread, cakes), snack food, chocolates, ice cream, tea, coffee, soft drinks, processed fruits, vegetables, dairy products, bottled water, branded flour, branded rice, branded sugar, juices, etc. Personal care Oral care, hair care, skin care, personal wash(soaps), cosmetics and toiletries, deodorants, perfumes, feminine hygiene, paper products. India’s FMCG sector creates employment for more than three million people in downstream activities. The total FMCG market is in excess of Rs 850 billion. It is currently growing at double-digit rate and expected to maintain a high growth rate. Exports Of FMCG Products: India is one of the world’s largest producers of a number of FMCG products but its exports are a very small proportion of the overall production. Total exports of food processing industry were $6.9 billion in 2008-09 and marine products accounted for 40% of the total exports. Though the Indian companies are going global, they are focusing more on the overseas market likes Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nepal, Middle East and the CIS countries because of the similar lifestyle and consumption habits between these countries and India. Hindustan Lever Ltd., Godrej consumer, Marico, Dabur and Vicco Laboratories are amongst the top exporting companies. 1 2 Dr. Dhande Rajendra B, Associate Professor, Department of Commerce, L.V.H.Mahavidyalaya, Panchavati, Nashik-3 (MAHARASHTRA) M.V.Sonje Associate Professor, Arts, Sci. & Commerce College, Nampur, Tal. Satana, Dist. Nashik , (MAHARASHTRA) Research Explorer 28 January - June 2012
  2. 2. Vol . I : Issue. 1 ISSN:2250 - 1940 5. Extensive distribution networks and logistics are key to achieving a high level penetration in both the urban and rural markets 6. Factors like low-entry barriers in terms of low capital investment, fiscal incentives from government and low branded awareness in rural areas have led to mushrooming of the unorganized sector. 7. Providing good price points is the key to success. SWOT analysis of the FMCG industry: Strength 1. Low operating cost 2. Established distribution networks in both rural and urban areas 3. Presence of well-known brands in the FMCG sector Weakness 1. Lower scope of investing in technology and achieving economies of scale, especially in small sectors 2. Low export levels 3. ‘Me-too’ products, which illegally mimic the tables of the established brands. These products narrow the scope of FMCG products in rural and semi urban markets Opportunities 1. Untapped rural market 2. Rising income levels i.e. increasing in purchasing power of consumer 3. Large domestic market- population of over one billion 4. Export potential 5. High consumer goods spending Threats 1. Removal of import restrictions requesting in replacing of domestic brands 2. Slowdown in rural demand 3. Tax and regulatory structure Rural marketing - Government policies and incentives: Rural marketing has become the latest marketing mantra of most FMCG majors. Rural India is vast with unlimited opportunities, waiting to be tapped by FMCGs. Indian FMCG sector is busy putting in place a parallel rural marketing strategy. Among the FMCG majors, Hindustan Lever, Marico Industries, Colgate-Palmolive and Britannia Industries are a few of the FMCG majors who have been gung-ho about rural marketing. Seventy percent of the total population of the nation i.e. rural India can bring in the much-needed volumes and help FMCG companies to long in Volume driven growth. That should be music to FMCGs who have already hit situation points in urban India. The Indian government has enacted policies aimed at attaining international competitiveness through lifting of the quantitative restrictions, reducing excise duties, and automatic foreign investment and food laws, resulting in an environment that fosters growth. 100 per cent export-oriented units can be set by government approval and use of foreign brand names is now freely permitted. Recently, the government has announced a cut of 4 per cent in excise duty to fight slowdown of the economy. This announcement has a positive impact on the industry. But the benefit from the 4 per cent reduction in excise duty is unlikely to be uniform across FMCG categories or players. The changes in excise duty do not impact cigarettes, biscuits, or ready to eat foods, as these products are either subject to specific duty or exempt from excise. Even players with manufacturing facilities located mainly in tax free zones will also not see material excise duty savings. Only large FMCG- makers may be the key ones to gain on excise cut. Conclusion There is huge growth potential for all the FMCG companies as the per capita consumption of almost all products in the country is amongst the lowest in the world. The demand or prospect could be increased further if these companies can change the consumer’s mindset and offer new-generation products. Earlier, Indian consumers were using non branded apparel, but today, clothes of different brands are available and the same consumers are willing to pay more for branded clothes. Research Explorer 30 January - June 2012
  3. 3. Vol . I : Issue. 1 ISSN:2250 - 1940 period of time. Consequently, the success of life insurance companies deserves a critical appraisal from various view points. Assuring job satisfaction, over the long-term, requires careful planning and effort both by management and by employees. Managers are encouraged to consider such theories as Herzberg and Maslow. Creating a good blend of factors that contribute to a stimulating, challenging, supportive, and rewarding work environment is vital. Because of the relative prominence of pay in the reward system, it is very essential that salaries be coupled to job responsibilities and that pay increases be tied to performance rather than seniority. In essence, job satisfaction is a product of the events and conditions that people experience in their jobs. If a person’s work is interesting, his pay is fair, his promot ional opportunities are good, his supervisor is supportive, and his co-workers are friendly, then a situat ional approach leads one to predict he is satisfied with his job. Human resources constitute the most complex aspect of administration in an organization and as such they are subject to many varied influences. Moreover, human beings are sensitive. They think, they speak and they act. They alone can provide cutting edge to the organization. Therefore, the significance of human resources has been gaining much momentum in recent years due to vast enhancement in the quantity and quality of service and increase in manpower strength. In this context, an attempt was made to study the effect of role of hierarchy and role stress on the job satisfaction of employees of Life Insurance Corporation of India in Salem Division. Objectives of Study 1. To find out factors underlying stress, hierarchy and job satisfaction of employees in Life Insurance Corporation of India, Salem Division. 2. To measure the effect of role of hierarchy and role stress on the job satisfaction of employees in LIC of India, Salem Division. 3. To assess the combined effect of role of hierarchy and role stress on the job satisfaction of employees in LIC of India, Salem Division. Research Design The study is empirical in character and was conducted in the select branches of LIC of India in Salem Division. By using simple random sampling technique, 263 employees were selected. Questionnaire method was employed to collect the primary data. The secondary data were collected from journals, reports, books, etc. In order to study the attitude of employees, chi-square test, analysis of co-efficient of variation, mean score, factor analysis, Z test, coefficient of correlation, multiple regression a nalysis, and percentage analysis were employed. The following null hypotheses were formed. Ho 1: The demographic variables of the respondents such as gender, age, educational status, monthly salary, category, and length of experience do not have any influence on their acceptance level towards role of hierarchy and role stress on the job satisfaction of employees. Ho 2: There is no significant effect of hierarchy on the job satisfaction of employees. Ho 3: There is no impact of role stress on the job satisfaction of employees. Results and Discussions 1. No significant association is found in the acceptance level of the respondents belonging to different gender, age, salary and category towards role of hierarchy and role stress on the job satisfaction of employees. However, there exists significant association among the respondents belonging to different educational status and length of service towards role of hierarchy and role stress on the job satisfaction of employees. 2. The consistency in the acceptance level was high among the male employees, among the employees belonging to 31-40 years, among the employees having post-graduation and above qualification, among the employees drawing salary Rs.50001-75000, among the Class II employees, and among the employees having 5-10 years of experience towards role of hierarchy and role stress in the job satisfaction of employees. 3. The mean score of the acceptance level reveals that the male respondents, respondents of the age group 31-40 years, respondents belonging to post-graduation and above qualification, respondents belonging to monthly salary Rs.50001-75000, Class I employees, and respondents who have length Research Explorer 32 January - June 2012
  4. 4. Vol . I : Issue. 1 ISSN:2250 - 1940 correlated. Role stress showed positive impact on job satisfaction which may be due to the fact that people work hard when they have to work under pressure. Multiple regression analysis was applied to find the combined effect on the job satisfaction. The employees of both Class II and III were compared on all three variables; it was found that both the groups differed significantly. Class III employees scored significantly high on the entire scale in comparison to the Class II employees which is signified by their mean values. References 1. Groenewegen, P.P, Hutten, J.B (1991). Workload and Job Satisfaction among General Practitioners, Social Science Medical, Vol. 32, No.10, pp. 1111-1119. 2. Sinha, J.B.P and Singh, S (1995). Employees Satisfaction and its Organization Predictors, Indian Journal of Industrial Relations, Vol. 31, No.2. 3. Srivastava, S.K and Roy (1996). Work Adjustment and Job Satisfaction among Pro and Anti Management Workers, Management and Labour Studies, Vol. 21, No- 4, October. 4. Chen YM, Chen SH, Tsai CY, and Lo LY (2007). Role Stress and Job Satisfaction for Nurse Specialists, Journal of Advanced Nursing, Vol.59, No.5, pp.497-509. 5. Jefferey S Ram, Irving M Lane, and Dirk D Steiner (1991). A Current Look at the Job Satisfaction/ Life Satisfaction Relationship: Review and Future Considerations, Human Relations, Vol. 44, No. 3, pp. 287-307. 6. Khaleque, A, Hossain, MM and Hoque, ME (1992). Job Satisfaction, Mental Health, Fatigue & Performance of Industrial Workers, Psychological Studies, Vol.3, No.37, pp. 224-228. SELP AWARD Scientist and academicians with outstanding contribution in their academic and social service fields are honoured by the trust by confirming them awards on the recommendation of the experts. Resume should be submitted to the president of the trust in the concerned application forms. SELP- Young Social Scientist Award Academician and researchers in the field of social sciences below the age of 40 are motivated in their field. SELP - Best Faculty Award To motivate the college teachers belong to the social sciences subject with the age of below 35 years are eligible to apply. Ambethkar Social Service Award Those who are contributing outstanding performance in the field of upliftment of weaker sections are eligible to apply. Periyar Social Reformer Award Those who are contributing outstanding performance in the field of inter caste marriage, abolition of caste and religions are eligible to apply. Research Explorer 34 January - June 2012
  5. 5. Vol . I : Issue. 1 ISSN:2250 - 1940 Despite the formation of specific polices and projects for dealing with rural poverty, and the implementation of a large number of programmes by the government and NGOs in pursuance of these policies, the impact on rural poverty in the country has not been minimal. The basic reason for the failure of many programmes is that they are simply not designed to do so. All programmes, which will be implemented by the NGOs, should be geographically and culturally specific (Charan , 2002). As long as poverty continues to exist it would be difficult to eliminate other rural problems. Simple legislation/programmes are not enough. Since acute economic crisis is the prime reason behind this problem the only method of withdrawing a child from work is by compensating the family adequately for the loss of income. In this corner point, all NGOs must and should think rather than to provide some alternative income generation programme to assisting producers organizations. If NGOs seriously wants to be in this field and, if so, necessarily specialize and they should think much larger scale programmes and project. Not only this, they should have high quality of human resource to mange themselves as organizations and their operations in a more Sinc e poverty is an intense socio-ec onomic p roblem N GOs shou ld requi res long term multipronged strategy to be carried out on a continuous basis. Although at policy level NGOs have been perceived as developmental agents, yet the scene at the grassroots level is not always in consonance with this subjectivity. It is so because base level Government functionaries some time see NGOs workers as outside encroaching/ occupying their space. (Baland and Robinson, 2001)1 And on other side few NGOs thinks different Government agencies are the main hurdles in their way. This may be the major weakness of many NGOs Their mutual interactions and even collaboration makes the effort more effective (Hussain, 2005). Here both Government and voluntary agencies should change their attitude and should be complimentary to each other and must take confidence in each other. The NGOs should make lot of homework in making people’s participation in educating and training to improve their of professional skills, overcoming behavior and cultural resistance of communities may be preferably involved in tackling the problem of rural poverty and always they should try to became closer to the local people. Many NGOs believe economic compulsion is not only the reason for rural poverty. The recent survey shows that more than 29.27% of working children is the need to supplement the family income while only 7.56% of child worker were required to gain employment to earn a minimum living for their families. Only 3.56% are working part time, to finance their own education besides contributing to the inadequate family income. So all NGOs must think in the way of giving more and more low cost job oriented education and their by encouraging more women joining the work force besides empowerment of women would go a long way in elimination of rural poverty( Lagace and Martha, 2007). Apart from the poverty, the second main reason is the present education system in our country. Many children are working because their parents want them to work for the reasons other than economic crises. For example child might lost his interest in the education, failed in the same class many times, corporal punishment by the teachers, parents might wanted to continue their family occupations in the early age, hanging with bad friends, threat of probable unemployment in the future, earn additional income to the family-etc. In short time any NGOs /Government cannot eradicate poverty, so NGOs should think about present education scenario and better concentrate on these topics.(Mashus, 2007). Few Authors (Aparan, 2001; Argyris, 2001) have Rural poverty related NGOs should re-examine their approaches in this field due to its inherent complexity and difference rather than relief and welfare programmes. They should exclusively focus on rural poverty related issues. If these kinds of NGOs could succeed in promoting sustainable livelihood for the poor, so that they can develop requisite level of expertise in rural poverty related sub sectors. And NGOs must think of much larger scale projects and draw financial and human resource from the mainstream. Polices and projects should adopt a holistic approach, taking in to the consideration socio economic set-up of working area. They should also enter into collaborative relation ships with Government agencies and other NGOs. NGOs try hard to solve grass-root level of problem and they should think in upgradation of living standards and education status more particularly of the women and child. More than this, NGOs should learn in employment generation in non-agricultural sectors will go a long in curbing the demand and supply of rural poverty (Aparan, 2001; Argyris, 2001). Research Explorer 36 January - June 2012
  6. 6. Vol . I : Issue. 1 ISSN:2250 - 1940 A STUDY CUSTOMER SATISFACTION LEVEL WITH REFERENCE TO BANKING SERVICES M.Thanagamesh 1 Abstract The consumers banking needs are getting more complex and demands are for more innovative products. As a result, the technology architecture of banks needs to be more flexible and achieve faster go to market product strategy. Today’s Information Technology not only impacts the processing of transaction data, but also affects the personnel performing the task and also the business process. Objectives of this study: To examine the customers satisfaction on different dimensions of the quality services (reliability, timeliness, service speed and so on) and To offer valuable suggestions to reduce problems of customers banking services. Methodology is an important aspect of any project. It helps the researcher to organize and streamline the project. In order to fulfill the above mentioned objectives, the following research design was framed. Findings of this study: 54 percent of the respondents are male and 46 percent of the respondents are Female. Important suggestions of this study: It shows that majority of Respondents have not at all used mobile banking, internet banking and phone banking. The banking authority should create awareness among the public. Even though Information technology has developed to a larger extent in our country there are some frequent problems such as network connection, delay in banking services etc. The banking authority should avoid these delayed processes. Keywords : customer satisfaction, mobile banking, internet banking, phone banking services, quality services, The consumers banking needs are getting more complex and demands are for more innovative products. As a result, the technology architecture of banks needs to be more flexible and achieve faster go to market product strategy. It is widely felt that they had been in complete transformation, as far as banking approach towards technology is concerned. Traditionally, a progressive bank would come with a vision, formulate a strategy to design the process and look at the technology to implement the desired process, which could help to convert the strategy into action. In the modern approach, the technology is factored at the vision stage itself, followed by formulation of technology -enabled strategies and ultimately co-development of processes and technology. The main areas in which the technology is expected to enhance the operational ease of the banks are identified as: * Providing secured network so as to position bankers as a trusted provider of electronic payments. * Enabling business-to-business integration between commercial clients in banks. * Consistency across multiple delivery channels and * Aggregation of customer information. The technology is pivotal and is central to banking. This is one of the major reasons why new private and multinational banks have been able to survive, thrive and adapt in an increasingly competitive space. These banks were able to leverage on low cost channels such as ATM and Net Banking to the optimum levels contributing to reduced operating cost and to the benefit of the customers. Banks have realized that shifting customer access to lower cost channels can help in bringing down the operating cost. These channels are used not only to improve customer service but also to divert traf fic from branches. It is a fact that the cost of the transactions over the delivery channels is lower than doing the transactions through branches. The ATM and Net Banking services enable non stop bankingconvenience banking - 24 hours access to cash-365 days of the year without any additional cost burden to the customer. The ATMs enable the customers withdraw the cash to a fixed ceiling limit, balance enquiry, a mini statement, cheque deposit, fund transfer etc. The net banking facilitates the customer making use at his/her convenience for different types of transactions. 1.2 Statement of the Problem Today’s Information Technology not only impacts the processing of transaction data, but also affects the personnel performing the task and also the business process. Though IT is not panacea for all the organizational ills it can be undoubtedly enhance internal efficiency and competitive edge. To understand 1 M.Thanagamesh, Assistant Professor, Department of Commerce, KandaswamiKandar’s College, Velur (Namakkal) 638182 Research Explorer 38 January - June 2012
  7. 7. Vol . I : Issue. 1 ISSN:2250 - 1940 In the above shown table indicates about the Gender of the respondents. The most of the respondents are belong to male at 54 percent and 46 percent of the respondents are Female. In the above shown table indicates about the Age group of the respondents. The most of the respondents are belong to the age group between 26-35 years stood highest percentage at 43 percent, 31 percent of the respondents the age group between 18-25 years, 14.7 percent of the respondents the age group between 36-45 years and 12 percent of the respondent the age group above 46 years. In the above shown table indicates about the monthly income of the respondents. The monthly income of the most of the respondents are belong to the category of below Rs6000, 30.7 percent of the respondents are belong to the category of 6001 -15000, 12 percent of the respondents are belong to the category of 10,001-15,000, 8 percent of the respondents are belong to the Rs. 20001-40000 and Above Rs. 40000. In the above shown table indicates about the Occupation of the respondents were most of the respondents are belonged to salaried persons at 47 percent, 17 percent of the respondents are belonged to student 11 percent of the respondents are belonged to Retail Business, 6 percent of the respondents are belonged to Private practice and 14.0 percent of the respondents are other category. Opinion about Services Reasons NAME OF THE BANK Total SBI Bank Canara Bank Union Bank City Bank ICICI Bank Lakshmi Vilas Bank ATM 8.6 8.6 7.8 8.2 8.6 8.4 8.4 Any where banking 7.2 7.8 7.4 8.2 7.4 7.8 7.6 Debit Card 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.2 Electronic fund Transfer 7.2 7.8 7.2 8.4 6.2 7.2 7.4 Internet banking 7.2 7.6 7.2 7.8 5.6 7.0 7.2 Mobile banking 8.2 8.0 7 8.4 7.0 7.6 7.8 Multi Cheque 7.4 7.4 7 8.8 6.6 7.8 7.4 7 7.8 6.8 6.8 7.0 7.0 7.4 Portfolio management to customers 7.2 7.4 7.0 8.4 6.2 8.0 7.4 Financial services 6.6 7.2 6.4 7.8 6.0 6.8 6.8 Door step banking 7.8 8.4 7.8 7.8 6.2 7.4 7.8 Advisory services 7.2 7.6 7.4 7.8 5 7 7.2 Housing loans 7.2 7.2 6.6 7.6 6.0 7 6.8 Carrying outstanding instruction of depositors 6.8 7.2 7.2 7.8 5.8 7.2 7 Collection of negotiable instrument 6.4 8.4 7 7.8 5.6 8 7.2 Personal loans 6.6 7 7 7.6 5.6 7.2 6.8 Overall Satisfaction 8.6 7.4 7.2 8.2 5.6 7.6 7.4 Phone banking Source: Primary Data In the questionnaire, the respondents were asked to rate the banks on certain attributes of the services on the scale of 1-5 where 5 signify highly satisfied whereas 1 signifies highly dissatisfied. If the respondent felt inadequate to rate could check the cannot rate column (the value corresponding to that is 0). The satisfaction index is the mean of the rating of the respondents on each attribute against the particular bank. City bank stands high on the satisfaction index on overall satisfaction followed by SBI, Canara Bank and Lakshmi Vilas bank Research Explorer 40 January - June 2012
  8. 8. Vol . I : Issue. 1 ISSN:2250 - 1940 COMPUTER-ASSISTED INSTRUCTION IN ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION IN RELATION TO LEARNERS’ PERSONALITY – A STUDY Mrs.S.Leela Gnanalet 1, Dr.K.S.Ramakrishnan 2 Abstract In those days lecture method was used as an effective tool of instruction in schools even to teach science subjects. Nowadays technology plays a vital role in education. The teacher and learner gain access to technology especially computer and CD for improving learning outcomes. The computer plays an important role in lifelong education and enables students to acquire knowledge and explore possibilities to solve problems. Computer technology is likely to influence education enormously and can play an important role in enhancing the efficiency of the teaching-learning process, making children more creative and providing them with an individualized learning environment. The aim of this study was to find out the effectiveness of Computer-Assisted Instruction in Teaching Environmental Education in Relation to Learners’ Personality. The sample consisted of 40 students in Control Group and 40 students in Experimental Groups. The data were collected using appropriate tools and it was analyzed by t’ and F’ test. The finding was: achievement scores of Experimental Group students were higher than the Control Group students. Keywords : education, environment, technology, teacher, leaner Introduction The most exciting innovation in the Educational Technology is Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI). It is a development of systematic programmed learning and teaching machine. It is a selfinstructional device with the principle of atomization. Computer-Assisted Instruction is “Computer applications applied to traditional teaching methods such as drill, tutorial, demonstration, simulat ion and instructional games”. It is an effective medium and an indispensable aid in the teaching-learnin g process. The instructional process carried out with the help of computer is known as Computer-Assisted Instruction. It is not merely a sophisticated type of programmed instruction but a different kind of instruction altogether. It uses programmed instruction, electronic data processing, data communication, concepts of audiovisual and media theory, communication theory, system theory and learning theory. Computer technology is likely to influence education enormously and can play an important role in enhancing the efficiency of the teaching-learning process. C.A.I, is perhaps the best, because it offers  Individualized instruction  Effective interaction with the learner, and  Immediate feedback Need For the Study Computer is very effective for teaching, learning, analysis and evaluation. Though the computer has flourished in many ways, there is another side in which the teacher is taught through conventional method. It has been observed that there are some defects or disadvantages in conventional classroom method of teaching and learning. In this type of teaching, students have to observe classroom under tight control and rigid supervision. It is highly laborious and time consuming. Many types of divers ion occur due to various factors such as poor performance of the students, inadequate classroom climate, excess class strength, noisy situation etc. The students can learn at their own convenience. There performance or the assessment will not be exactly correct. They cannot be active as compared to experiment method. There are many external disturbances in learning. Thus it has been found that Computer-Assisted Instruction is a very much suitable method for the teaching and learning. Objectives  To develop and validate CAI software for teaching Environmental Education for IX Standard students.  To find out whether there is any significant difference between the students’ achievement scores in Environmental Education of the control group and experimental group at pretest level. 1 2 Mrs.S.Leela Gnanalet, Ph.D. Research Scholar, Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Tirunelveli. Dr.K.S.Ramakrishnan, Asst. Professor, School of Education, TNOU, Chennai. Research Explorer 42 January - June 2012
  9. 9. Vol . I : Issue. 1 ISSN:2250 - 1940 those students who have secured 60% and above marks were alone selected. Further an entrance test prepared by the investigator was administered to the 180 students thus selected. Based on the marks of the entrance test, the students were arranged in descending order. From that the investigator selected the first one for control group, and the next for experimental group. The control group consisted of odd number students and experimental group consisted of even number students. Control group was exposed to traditional method of teaching. It consisted of 40 students of Standard IX. In the same way the experimental group was given treatment through Computer-Assisted Instruction in teaching. It also consisted of 40 students of Standard IX. Thus 80 students were the total sample selected for this study. Tools Used  Syllabus-based computer software packages were developed for the topics of Standard IX Environmental Education.  Syllabus-based pretest and posttest materials were prepared and validated.  Myers-Briggs Types Indicator (MBTI) Personality Test was used. (Developed and Standardized by Jung, 1971).  The personal data of the samples were collected through the questionnaire. Statistical Techniques Used Statistical techniques serve the fundamental purpose of the description and inferential analysis. The following statistical techniques were used in the study.  ‘t’ test was applied to analyze the differential hypothesis.  ‘f ’ test was used to find out the significance of relationship between the sub-group variables. Analysis of Posttest Performance The following table furnishes the data on the post test performance of the control and experimental groups and also furnishes the significance of difference between the achievement scores of students in various groups in detail. Table 1: Significance of Difference between the Achievement Scores of the Control and Experimental Groups at Pretest Level Variable Mean S.D. Contro l 40 14.3 1.9 Experimental  N 40 14.1 2.16 t’ Test 0.547 Level of Significance Not Significant at 0.05 level The calculated t’ value 0.547 is very much lesser than the critical value 1.99 at 0.05 level of significance. This implies that the difference in the achievement of the Control group and Experimental group is not significant. Table 2: Significance of Difference between the Achievement Scores of the Control and Experimental Groups at Posttest level Variable Mean S.D. Contro l 40 72.2 7.24 Experimental  N 40 90.1 2.98 t’ Test 14.2 Level of Significance Significant at 0.05 level The calculated t’ value 14.2 is very much greater than the critical value 1.99 at 0.05 level of significance. This implies that the difference in the achievement of the Control group and Experimental group is significant. Research Explorer 44 January - June 2012
  10. 10. Vol . I : Issue. 1 ISSN:2250 - 1940 The calculated t’ value 0.270 is lesser than the critical value 2.02 at 0.05 level of significance. This indicates that the difference in the achievement of Day Scholars and Hostel Students is not significant. Table 5: Significance of Difference between the Achievement Scores of Students with respect to Parental Education and Parental Occupation Variable Categories Sum of df Mean F Level of Squares Significance Between Groups Between Groups Parental Occupation Within Groups Total 8.633 330.333 37 8.928 39 75.686 5 15.137 271.914 34 7.997 347.600 Total 2 347.600 Parental Education Within Groups 17.267 Not Significant at 39 0.960 0.05 level Not Significant at 1.893 0.05 level The calculated F’ value 0.960 is lesser than the critical value 3.23 at 0.05 level of significance. It implies that the difference in the achievement of the Student of various groups, based on their Parental Education is not significant. The calculated F value 1.893 is lesser than the critical value 2.48 at 0.05 level of significance. It implies that the difference in the achievement of the students of various groups, based on their Parental Occupation is not significant. Table 6: Significance of Difference between the Achievement Scores of the Control and Experimental Groups in Different Types of Learners’ Personality Variable N Mean S.D. Extroversion 22 88.18 2.08 Introversion 18 92.44 2.12 Sensing 22 90.18 2.85 Intuition 18 90.0 3.21 Thinking 17 92.29 2.31 Feeling 23 88.47 2.33 Judging 16 88.31 2.86 Perceiving 24 91.29 2.45 t’ Test Level of Significant 6.35 Significant at 0.05 level 0.180 Not Significant at 0.05 level 5.14 Significant at 0.05 level 3.50 Significant at 0.05 level The calculated ‘t’ value 6.35 is greater than the critical value 2.02 at 0.05 level of significance. This indicates that the difference in the achievement of Extroversion and Introversion personality type students is significant. The calculated’t’ value 0.180 is very much lesser than the critical value 2.02 at 0.05 level of significance. This indicates that the difference in the achievement of Sensing and Intuition personality type students is not significant. The calculated’t’ value 5.14 is greater than the critical value 2.02 at 0.05 level of significance. This indicates that the difference in the achievement of Thinking and Feeling personality type students is significant. The calculated’t’ value 3.50 is greater than the critical value 2.02 at 0.05 level of significance. This indicates that the difference in the achievement of Judging and Perceiving personality type students is significant. Research Explorer 46 January - June 2012
  11. 11. Vol . I : Issue. 1 ISSN:2250 - 1940 CULTIVATION OF CARDAMOM IN INDIA A.Sulthan Mohideen 1 Abstract Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum Maton) the Queen of Spices enjoys a unique position in the international spices market, as one of the most soughed spice. Cardamom is indigenous to the southern stretch of evergreen forests of Western Ghats. Till early seventies India was the main producer and exporter of this commodity. Now Guatemala has emerged as world’s largest producer, offering stiff competition to Indian cardamom in the international market. Tanzania, Sri Lanka, EL Salvador, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia and Papua New Guinea are the other cardamom growing countries. Cardamom is used for flavouring various food preparations, confectionary, beverages and liquors. It is also used for medicinal purpo se, both in Allopathy and Ayurveda systems. In the Middle East countries, cardamom is mainly used for preparation of ëGahwaí (cardamom flavoured coffee). Keywords: cardamom, spices, cultivation, yield, India. Varieties of Cardamom Two varieties of cardamom plants are identified and they are Elettaria cardamomum Maton, variety majorly comprised in wild indigenous places of Sri Lanka and minor of cultivars like, Mysore, Malabar and Vazhukka. These types are grown in different tracts and are mostly identified on the nature of panicles, size of plants and other morphological characters. Cardamom varieties are highly location specific. A mature cardamom plant may measure two to four meters in height. It is a shallow rooted plant. Tiller production takes place throughout the year. However, peak period is from January to March. Flowers are borne on panicles, which emerge directly from the swollen base of the aerial shoot. It i s a cross-pollinated plant and pollination occurs by external agents like honeybees. The panicles are erect in, Mysore prostrate in Malabar and intermediate (pendent) in Vazhukka. Panicles may be branched or simple. The peak period of panicle emergence is from November to March. Flowering normally commences from February and extends to October; May- August being the peak flowering period. After fruit set, about 90-120 days are required for the fruits to attain maturity. The capsules are globose or ovoid or narrowly ellipsoid to elongate in shape, trilocular, containing 15-20 seeds. On maturity, seeds turn dark brown to black in colour and capsule is pale green to dark green. TABLE: CHARACTERISTICS OF CARDAMOM VARIETIES Varity Plant stature Panicle type Capsule type Adaptability States recommended Malabar Dwarf (2 to 3m) Prostrate Round /oblong Lower elevation Karnataka and Kerala Mysore Robust (3 to 5m) Erect Bold /elongated Higher elevation Kerala, Karnataka (900 to 1200m) and Tamil Nadu Robust(3 to 5m) Semi erect Round /oblong Higher elevation (900 to 1200m) Vazhukka Kerala and Tamil Nadu (suited for wide range of environmental condition) Source: http://megcooperation.gov.in/model-baproj/model%20schme3/ph/cardamom.html Cultivar Malabar These cardamom plants have medium size and attain two to three meters height on maturity. The dorsal side of leaves may be pubescent or glabrous. The panicles are prostrate and the capsules are globose to oblong shaped. This type of cardamom plants is better suited to areas of 600 to 1200 meters elevation. ëMalabarí type is considered as relatively less susceptible to thrips. This type is mostly A.Sulthan Mohideen,M.Com.,M.Phil.,(Ph.D), Asst.Professor in Commerce (CA) H.K.R.H. College, (A Grade ) Uthamapalayam – 625 533. Theni District Research Explorer 48 January - June 2012 1
  12. 12. Vol . I : Issue. 1 ISSN:2250 - 1940 possible, preferably within 15 days after extraction since a seed looses its viability on storage. Sowing in September gives maximum germination under field conditions; winter and peak southwest monsoon period should be avoided. Even under ideal conditions, the germination is often less than 50 per cent. Breaking of hard seed coat through seed treatment with acid or similar chemicals improves germination. Acid scarification with 25 per cent nitric acid for 10 minutes to break the seed coat will enhance germination. The seed is ready for sowing the next day. Secondary Nursery There are two methods of raising seedling in secondary nursery: They are bed and polybag nurseries. Bed nursery: Prepare beds as in primary nursery. A layer of cattle manure and wood ash may be spread on the bed and mixed with soil. Seedling of three to four leaf stage from the primary nursery beds can be transplanted in the secondary nursery at a distance of 20 to 25cms. Mulching and watering of beds should be done immediately after transplanting. Over head pandal can be erected to protect seedlings from direct sunlight. Field Planting and Management For planting in a new area, ground should be cleared and if it is a replanting area, old plants should be removed. Shade regulation, terracing and preparation of pits should be done during summer months. Shade regulation Shade regulation is one of the important practices that should be attended to during summer (March-April) in the new planting areas and during May-June after the receipt of summer showers in the existing plantation. If there is thick shade, chopp off branches to provide filtered light of 40 to 60 percent of the open area. Cut alternate side branches of tree in the lower one third to half portion of the total canopy height. Lopping should not be done on one side only. Cutting branches from all the sides ensures a balanced canopy. South-Western slopes should be provided with more shade than NorthEastern slopes. Shade trees should have small leaves, tap root system and in summer, it should not shed leaves. If area is open due to tree fall, planting of quick growing tree spices like Karuna (Vernonia arborea), Corangati (Acrocarpus fraxinifolius), Chandana V iambu (Toona ciliata), Njaval (Syzygium cumini), Jack tree (Atrocarpus hetrophyllus) etc. should be taken up to protect the plants from direct sun light. Field preparation Field operations are to be undertaken with the objective of preventing soil erosion and to conserve soil moisture. In sloppy areas, soil should be protected from soil erosion for which planting should be taken up in terraces. Terraces should be made at required distances on contours depending on the spacing adopted. Pits of 90x90x45 cm can be prepared before commencement of monsoon, about 1/3 of the pit should be filled with top soil and 1/3 should be filled with 1:3 mixture of organic manure and top soil. Planting Planting material of high yielding variety suitable for the areas may be selected for planting. They may be planted in the already prepared and filled pits the plants should be protected from wind by staking. For Mysore and Vazhukka cultivars, plants to plants distances can be 3x3 meters (1111plants per hectare). A spacing of 2.4x2.4meters (1736 plants/ha) is recommended for Tamilnadu, 1.8x1.8 meters spacing (3086 plants per hectare) is suitable for Cv. Malabar in Karnataka. Immediately after planting, the plant base should be mulched well with available dried leaves to prevent soil erosion and conserve moisture. Planting should be done diagonally to the slope to reduce runoff. Weed management Weeds are potential competitors to cardamom for water and nutrients. At the initial stage of plant establishment, weed growth will be more. Two or three rounds of hand weeding at the plant base during May, September and December/January and slash weeding in the inter-space are advisable. Use of spade for weeding is to be avoided as it will loosen the soil and cause soil erosion. The weeded materials may be used for mulching. Research Explorer 50 January - June 2012

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