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Ppoja joshi mba 2 Ppoja joshi mba 2 Document Transcript

  • INTRODUCTION 1
  • INTRODUCTIONFuture needs of employees will be met through training and development programmes.Organizations take fresh diploma holders or graduates as apprentices or management trainees.They are absorbed after course completion. In the present industrial era, it is necessary toraise the skill levels and increase the versatility and adoptability of employees. Inadequate jobperformance a decline in productivity or changes resulting out of job redesigning or atechnological break -through require some type of training and development efforts.The aims at this summer training project report are to identify the training and developmentprogramme of the employees of various departments of C.L. Gupta and to gain the partialknowledge of training and development program conduct by the H.R. Department of thecompany. My study aims at this dissertation programmes are to identify the level of jobsatisfaction in the employees of various departments and gain the partial knowledge of jobsatisfaction program conduct by the H.R. Department of the company.Thus it shows that training and development has been becoming more and more importantpart of any industrial undertaking. Moreover management ability does not comeautomatically. It comes slowly and gradually from training experience and growth, since thedays of the early Management pioneers, training has been recognized as vital and legitimatearea of corporate concern.This report is about the study of training and development programmes of C.L. Gupta.During the survey I found that, employees are satisfied with the training and developmentprogrammes of the organization. The major limitation of the project is that, employees don’thave time to fill up the questionnaire. During the survey, I have studied the importance oftraining and development programme for the organization and how training and developmentis exercised in organization. It is also observed that, training and development programmesare directly related with the performance of the employees.A program of training and development is important as it lends stability and flexibility to anorganization, besides contributing to its capacity to grow. Accidents, scrap and damage tomachinery and equipment can be avoided or minimized. Furthermore, future needs ofemployees could be taken care of by training and development. Training and developmentactivities are designed to impart specific skills, abilities and knowledge to the employees.Distinction is often made between training, education and development. Training refers to 2
  • imparting specific skills, Education is the process of theoretical learning in classrooms whileDevelopment refers to learning opportunities designed to help employees grow and evolve intheir respective fields. All the three form a part of training and development – only targetgroups of employees differ. Training is confined to shop-floor workers and development ismeant for executives. Education, of course is needed for all employees, irrespective of theirhierarchy. Successful candidate placed on the jobs need training to perform their dutieseffectively. Workers must be trained to operate machines, reduce scrap, and avoid accidents.It is not only the workers who need training, supervisors, managers and executives also needto be developed in order to enable them to grow and acquire maturity of thought and action.Training and development constitute an ongoing process in any organization. This project isdevoted to a detailed discussion on the nature and process of training and development in atypical industrial establishment. Skill, education, development, ethics related changes and decision-making skill mustgo into any programme of training and development. Training: An IntroductionIn the present industrial era, it is necessary to raise the skill levels and increase the versatilityand adoptability of employees. Inadequate job performance, decline in productivity, changesresulting out of job redesigning or a technological break-through require some type oftraining and development efforts. As the jobs become more complex, the importance ofemployee development also increases in a rapidly changing society. Employee training anddevelopment is not only an activity that is desirable but also an activity that an organizationmust commit resources to if it is to maintain a viable and knowledgeable work force.Thus it shows that training and development is becoming more and more important part ofany industrial undertaking. Moreover, management ability does not come automatically, itcomes slowly and gradually from training experience and growth. Since the days of the earlyManagement pioneers, training has been recognized as vital and legitimate area of corporateconcern.Definition of Training: 3
  • Following are some of the major definitions given by various scholars: According to Flippo, "Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of anemployee for doing a particular job.” According to Lucius, "The term training is used to indicate only a process, by whichthe aptitudes, skills and abilities of the employees to perform specific jobs are increased."Characteristics or Nature of Training On the basis of the definitions by various scholars and on the basis of generalknowledge the following facts can be presented about the nature or training and itscharacteristics: Expense on Training is investment and not wastage: The most important characteristics of training is that expenditure incurred on it isinvestment and not wastage. In other words the expenses on training of employees will be arecurring advantage for the enterprises for a long run, which will be in the form of anincreased efficiency of the employees. It relates to special jobs: The purpose of training is not to increase the general knowledge of the employees butto make them proficient or skillful in a special job. It is beneficial both to the organization and the employees: Training is a process which benefits both the organization and the employees. On onehand, the dream of the enterprise to have more production is fulfilled and on the other hand,because of increased proficiency the employees get better remuneration by increasingproduction in less time. Because of the decrease in number of accidents their life is alsosecured. Training is a continuous process Training is not a process which can give all the knowledge to an employee regardingall the future work. Whenever some new procedure and new technology are adopted in theenterprise, training becomes imperative. 4
  • Difference between Training and Development Basis Training Development Meant for Operatives Executives Focus Current job Current and future jobs Scope Individual employee Work group or organization Goal Fix current skill deficit Prepare for future work demands Initiated by Management The Individual Content Specific job related information General Knowledge Time- frame Immediate Long termIMPORTANCEBENEFITS OF THE BUSINESS BENEFITS OF THE EMPLOYESS• Trained worker works more efficiently. • Training makes an employee more useful to a firm. Hence, getting employment becomes easier.• Workers use machine tools, materials in a • Makes employees more efficient and proper way, thus wastage is reduced to a effective. large extent.• Fewer accidents, trained workers need • Training enables employees to secure not be put under close supervision as they promotions easily. know how to handle operations properly.• Training makes employees more loyal to • It can enable employees to cope up with an organization. They will not leave the organizational, social & technological unit where there is growth opportunity. changes.NEED FOR TRAINING 5
  • Training is needed to serve the following purposes:. Newly recruited employees require training so as to perform their tasks effectively. Training is necessary to prepare existing employees for high level jobs. Existing employees require refresher training so as to keep abreast of the latest developments in job operations. In the face of rapid technological changes this is an absolute necessity. Training is necessary to make employees mobile and versatile. Training is needed to bridge the gap between what the employees have and what the job demands. Training is needed to make employees more productive and useful in long run.Training Methods Training method can be classified by the location of instruction. It may be dividedinto two typesI. On the Job TrainingII. Off the Job TrainingON THE JOB TRAINING: It is provided when the workers are taught relevant knowledge, skills and abilities atthe actual workplace. The widely used training methods are listed below.1. Job Instruction Training The JIT method is a four step instructional process involving preparation,presentation, performance tryout and follow up. It is used generally to teach workers how todo their current jobs. The four steps followed in the JIT methods are: The trainee receives an overview of the job, its purposes and its desired outcomes, with a clear focus on the relevance of training. The trainer demonstrates the job in order to give the employees a model to copy. The trainer shows a right way to handle the job. Next, the employee is permitted to copy the trainer way. Demonstrations by the trainer and practice by the trainee are repeated until the trainee masters the right way to handle the job. Finally, the employee does the job independently without supervision. 6
  • 2. Coaching Coaching is a kind of daily training and feedback given to employees by immediatesupervisors. It involves a continuous process of learning by doing. It may be as an informal,unplanned training and development activity provided by supervisors and peers. In coaching,the supervisor explain things and answers questions, he throws light on why things are donethe way they are, he offers a model for trainee to copy; conducts lot of decision makingmeetings with trainees; procedures are agreed upon and the trainee is given enough authorityto make divisions and even commit mistakes.3. Mentoring Mentoring is the process of shaping competencies or behaviors by providingfeedback, usually to subordinates or even peers, about how to achieve the best in life. Mentoring is relationship in which senior manager in organization assumesresponsibility for grooming a junior person. Generally, technical, interpersonal & politicalskills are conveyed in such a relationship from a more experienced person.Objective:1. To help identify Mentors who can train the next generation Trainees, to align and move into the organization, thus building a talent pool in the years to come.2. To help in institutionalizing a Mentoring system which would help nurture high potential individuals and put them on a faster learning curve?3. Start an initiative that would bring a different culture and space for the future managers.MethodologyPhase 1 Identifying Mentors1. Identify prospective Mentors.2. Identify the Critical Competencies required for being a mentor.3. Map the competencies of the Mentors.4. Identify Individuals who have maturity to become Mentors. 7
  • Phase 2 Training the Mentor.1. Train the Mentors on the key aspects of mentoring and process that aid in institutionalizingmentoring as a system.2. A three-day Role and Identity Lab: This would be designed to build up the energy requiredand the commitment to the process. Each individual would need to find a context, whichwould sustain the role that he is required to play.Phase 3 Mentee TrainingA two-day workshop for all Mentees1. To lay a context for the mentees and understand of the role that he’s required to play.2. Create a context to understand the style and the best fit for the Mentor Mentee Match.APPRENTICESHIP TRAINING Apprenticeship training dates back to the middle Ages, when skilled craftsmen passedon their knowledge to others as a way of preserving the guilds. Today, apprenticeshipprograms are partnerships between labor unions, employers, schools, and the government.They are most often found in the skilled trades and professional unions such as boilerengineers, electrical workers, pipe fitters, and carpenters. The typical apprenticeship programrequires two years of on-the-job experience and about 180 hours of classroom instruction,though requirements vary. An apprentice must be able to demonstrate mastery of all requiredskills and knowledge before being allowed to graduate to journeyman status. This isdocumented through testing and certification processes. Journeymen provide the on-the-jobtraining, while adult education centers and community colleges typically provide theclassroom training. Formal apprenticeship programs are regulated by governmental agenciesthat also set standards and provide services.OFF THE JOB TRAININGSIMULATIONS Simulations are designed to mimic the processes, events, and circumstances of the 8
  • trainees job. Equipment simulators, business games, in-basket exercises, case studies, roleplaying, and behavior modeling, are types of simulations.EQUIPMENT SIMULATORS. Equipment simulators are mechanical devices that incorporate the same procedures,movements and/or decision processes that trainees must use with equipment back on the job.Among those trained with this method are airline pilots, air traffic controllers, militarypersonnel, drivers, maintenance workers, telephone operators, navigators, and engineers. Tobe effective the simulator and how it is used must replicate, as closely as possible, thephysical and psychological (time pressures, conflicting demands, etc.) aspects of the job site.To facilitate this, the equipment operators and their supervisors should be involved in thesimulation design and pre-testing. This reduces potential resistance to the training and, moreimportantly, increases the degree of fidelity between the simulation and the work setting.BUSINESS GAMES. Business games attempt to reflect the way an industry, company, or functional areaoperates. They also reflect a set of relationships, rules, and principles derived fromappropriate theory (e.g., economics, organizational behavior, etc.). Many business gamesrepresent the total organization, but some focus on the functional responsibilities of particularpositions within an organization (e.g., marketing director, human resource manager). Theseare called functional simulations. Games that simulate entire companies or industries providea far better understanding of the big picture. They allow trainees to see how their decisionsand actions influence not only their immediate target but also areas that are related to thattarget. Prior to starting the game trainees are given information describing a situation and therules for playing the game. They are then asked to play the game, usually being asked tomake decisions about what to do given certain information. The trainees are then providedwith feedback about the results of their decisions, and asked to make another decision. Thisprocess continues until some predefined state of the organization exists or a specified numberof trials have been completed. For example, if the focus is on the financial state of acompany, the game might end when the company has reached a specified profitability levelor when the company must declare bankruptcy. Business games involve an element ofcompetition, either against other players or against the game itself. In using them, the trainermust be careful to ensure that the learning points are the focus, rather than the competition. 9
  • IN-BASKET TECHNIQUE. The in-basket technique simulates the type of decisions that would typically behandled in a particular position such as a sales manager or operations manager. It affords anopportunity to assess and/or develop decision-making skills and attitudes. To begin theexercise, trainees are given a description of their role (a current or future job) and generalinformation about the situation. Trainees are then given a packet of materials (such asrequests, complaints, memos, messages, and reports) which make up the in-basket. They areasked to respond to the materials within a particular time period (usually 2 to 4 hours). Whenthe in-basket is completed, the trainer asks the trainee to identify the processes used inresponding to the information and to discuss their appropriateness. The trainer providesfeedback, reinforcing appropriate decisions and processes or asking the trainee to developalternatives. A variation is to have trainees discuss their processes in a group formatmoderated by the trainer. Here the trainer should attempt to get the trainees to discover whatworked well, what didnt and why.CASE STUDY. Case studies are most often used to simulate strategic decision-making situations,rather than the day-to-day decisions that occur in the in-basket. The trainee is first presentedwith a history of the situation in which a real or imaginary organization finds itself. The keyelements and problems, as perceived by the organizations key decision makers, may also beprovided. Case studies range from a few pages in length to more than a hundred. Trainees areasked to respond to a set of questions or objectives. Responses are typically, though notalways, in written form. Longer cases require extensive analysis and assessment of theinformation for its relevance to the decisions being made. Some require the trainee to gatherinformation beyond what was in the case. Once individuals have arrived at their solutions,they discuss the diagnoses and solutions that have been generated in small groups, largegroups, or both. In large groups a trainer should facilitate and direct the discussion. Thetrainer must guide the trainees in examining the possible alternatives and consequenceswithout actually stating what they are. Written and oral responses to the case are evaluated by the trainer. The trainer shouldconvey that there is no single right or wrong solution to the case, but many possible solutionsdepending on the assumptions and interpretations made by the trainees. The value of the caseapproach is the trainees application of known concepts and principles and the discovery of 10
  • new ones. The solutions are not as important as the appropriateness with which principles areapplied and the logic with which solutions are developed.ROLE PLAY. The role play is a simulation of a single event or situation. Trainees who are actors inthe role play are provided with a general description of the situation, a description of theirroles (e.g., their objectives, emotions, and concerns) and the problem they face. Role plays differ in the amount of structure they provide to the actors. A structuredrole play provides trainees with a great deal of detail about the situation that has brought thecharacters together. It also provides in greater detail each characters attitudes, needs,opinions, and so on. Structured role plays may even provide a scripted dialog between thecharacters. This type of role play is used primarily to develop and practice interpersonal skillssuch as communication, conflict resolution, and group decision making. Spontaneous roleplays are loosely constructed scenarios in which one trainee plays herself while others playpeople that the trainee has interacted with in the past (or will in the future). The objective ofthis type of role play is to develop insight into ones own behavior and its impact on others.How much structure is appropriate in the scenario will depend on the learning objectives. Whether structured or spontaneous, role plays may also differ based on the number oftrainees involved. Single, multiple, and role-rotation formats provide for more or lessparticipation in the role play. In a single role play, one group of trainees role plays while therest of the trainees observe. While observing, other trainees analyze the interactions andidentify learning points. This provides a single focus for trainees and allows for feedbackfrom the trainer. This approach may cause the role players to be embarrassed at being thecenter of attention, leading to failure to play the roles in an appropriate manner. It also has thedrawback of not permitting the role players to observe others perform the roles. Having non-trainees act out the role play may eliminate these problems, but adds some cost to thetraining. In a multiple role play, all trainees are formed into groups. Each group acts out thescenario simultaneously. At the conclusion, each group analyzes what happened andidentifies learning points. The groups may then report a summary of their learning to theother groups, followed by a general discussion. This allows greater learning as each groupwill have played the roles somewhat differently. Multiple role plays allow everyone toexperience the role play role play in a short amount of time, but may reduce the quality of 11
  • feedback. The trainer will not be able to observe all groups at once, and trainees are usuallyreluctant to provide constructive feedback to their peers. In addition, trainees may not havethe experience or expertise to provide effective feedback. To overcome this problem, videotapes of the role plays can be used by the trainee and/or trainer for evaluation. The role-rotation method begins as either a single or multiple role play. However,when the trainees have interacted for a period of time, the role play is stopped. Observersthen discuss what has happened so far and what can be learned from it. After the discussion,the role play resumes with different trainees picking up the roles from some, or all, of thecharacters. Role rotation demonstrates the variety of ways the issues in the role play may behandled. Trainees who are observers are more active than in the single role play since theyhave already participated or know they soon will be participating. A drawback is that theprogress of the role play is frequently interrupted, creating additional artificiality. Again,trainees may be inhibited from publicly critiquing the behavior of their fellow trainees.BEHAVIOR MODELING. Behavior modeling is used primarily for skill building arid almost always incombination with some other technique. Interpersonal skills, sales techniques, intervieweeand interviewer behavior, and safety procedures are among the many types of skills that havebeen successfully learned using this method. While live models can be used, it is more typicalto video tape the desired behavior for use in training. The steps in behavior modeling can besummarized as follows:1. Define the key skill deficiencies2. Provide a brief overview of relevant theory3. Specify key learning points and critical behaviors to watch for4. Have an expert model the appropriate behaviors5. Have trainees practice the appropriate behaviors in a structured role play6. Have the trainer and other trainees provide reinforcement for appropriate imitation of themodels behavior Behavior modeling differs from role plays and games by providing the trainee with anexample of what the desired behavior looks like prior to attempting the behavior. While this 12
  • method is primarily behavioral, steps 2 and 3 reflect the cognitively oriented learning featuresof the technique. Feedback to the trainee is especially powerful when video is used to recordboth the models and the trainees performance. Through split screen devices, the performanceof the model and the trainee can be shown side by side. This allows the trainee to clearly seewhere improvements are needed. Simulations are not good at developing declarative knowledge. Some initial level ofdeclarative and procedural knowledge is necessary before a simulation can be usedeffectively. Although some knowledge development can occur in simulations, usually othermethods are required for this type of learning. Simulations provide a context in which thisknowledge is applied. Improving the trainees ability to apply knowledge (i.e., facts,procedures, and strategies) is the focus of simulations. Simulations do a good job ofdeveloping skills because they: Simulate the important conditions and situations that occur on the job Allow the trainee to practice the skill Provide feedback about the appropriateness of their actions Each of the different formats has particular types of skills for which they are more appropriate: Mechanical, machine operation and tool-usage skills are best learned through use of equipment simulators. Business decision-making skills (both day to day and strategic), planning, and complex problem solving can be effectively learned through the use of business games. The in-basket technique is best suited to development of strategic knowledge used in making day-to-day decisions. Case studies are most appropriate for developing analytic skills, higher-level principles, and complex problem-solving strategies. Because trainees do not actually implement their decision/solution, its focus is more on what to do (strategic knowledge) than on how to get it done (skills). Role plays provide a good vehicle for developing interpersonal skills and personal insight, allowing trainees to practice interacting with others and receiving feedback. They are an especially effective technique for creating attitude change, allowing trainees to experience their feelings about their behavior and others reactions to it. 13
  • TRAINING PROCESSSTEP: 1 Need Analysis:* Identification of Training Needs:1.1. For Executives: Key duties & responsibilities are mentioned positionwise, after thatrequired competency to carry out those duties & responsibilities are mentioned (Generic,behavioral & technical). Thereafter competence level of each individual is taken.1.2. For workers: It is recommended by concerned H.O.D.1.3. Organizational Need Basis: It is recommended by RO.D HR.STEPS: 2 Training Design:2.1. Preparation of Training Calendar:a) Yearly calendarb) Monthly training calendar2.2. Identification of Training Faculty:According to the training program, training faculty is identifiedSTEP: 3 Training Implementation:3.1. Imparting Traininga) As per training need attached Nomination is received from concerned HOD for seminar/external specialized training program. Approvals are to be obtained for the training programs(outhouse training) from H.O.D HRb) Attendance sheet is filled during the training program.c) Training feedback is obtained at the end of the training program.STEP: 4 Training EvaluationsTraining Evaluation is to be made on the basis of the feedback given by the HOD this is to bedone within three month after the training. Then the training records are maintained. 14
  • Results and conclusions The training need of the executives and workers were found with recommendation from HODs and analysis of their job responsibilities. The needs identified were associated with the competencies which the employees need to develop to effectively to carry out their job responsibilities. The training also aims to honor their existing skills to work in a productive manner. The training imparted is not just limited to the technical specification of their work but also one of its objectives was to develop the personality and attitude in the employees. This was done to keep in mind the comprehensive nature of the training imparted and increased emphasis on the human resource of the company. For the period April 05-Mar06 the number of training programs were only 84,.But for the periodApr06-Mar07 the number of training programs have been increased to 200 with more emphasis on the safety training . Out of these 200 programs 40% were of safety training, 2% for Induction training, 16% for IT training, 12% for behavioral training, 15% for Core function training. Some of the findings from the TNI exercise are as follows:• It was found that in the company safety is the top priority as the training programs for safety are maximum i.e. 40%.• It was also seen that the thrust on training for quality improvement was a lot sighting.• It reveals the fact that the organization is pretty open to new techniques of production which are also environment friendly.• The thrust by executives on behavioral training and that of workers on technical was quite understandable. The analysis of training calendar gives the following results: The total number of employees trained for the year AprO6-March07 around 3931 covering a total of 25840 hours and 3230 number of man days (1 man-day = 8hours). The man days planned for this period were 3800 of which 85% were achieved. Training and Human Resource Management 15
  • The HR functioning is changing with time and with this change, the relationship between thetraining function and other management activity are changing. The training and developmentactivities are now equally important with that of other HR functions. Gone are the days, whentraining was considered futile, waste of time, resources, and money. Now-a-days, training isan investment because the departments such as, marketing & sales, HR, production, finance,etc depends on training for its survival. If training is not considered as a priority or not seenas a vital part in the organization, then it is difficult to accept that such a company haseffectively carried out HRM. Training actually provides the opportunity to raise the profiledevelopment activities in the organization.To increase the commitment level of employees and growth in quality movement (conceptsof HRM), senior management team is now increasing the role of training. Such concepts ofHRM require careful planning as well as greater emphasis on employee development andlong term education. Training is now the important tool of Human Resource Management tocontrol the attrition rate because it helps in motivating employees, achieving theirprofessional and personal goals, increasing the level of job satisfaction, etc. As a resulttraining is given on a variety of skill development and covers a multitude of courses.Role of HRD Professionals in TrainingThis is the era of cut-throat competition and with this changing scenario of business; the roleof HR professionals in training has been widened. HR role now is: 1. Active involvement in employee education. 2. Rewards for improvement in performance. 3. Rewards to be associated with self esteem and self worth. 4. Providing pre-employment market oriented skill development education and post employment support for advanced education and training 5. Flexible access i.e. anytime, anywhere training.Training as ConsultancyTraining consultancy provides industry professional to work with an organization inachieving its training and development objectives.Estimation of Training Outsourcing 16
  • It has been estimated that 58% of the emerging market in training outsourcing is in customereducation, while only 42 percent of the market is in employee education. The training consultancies offer various benefits such as:Training Courses that Consultancies OfferThe various courses that consultancies offer are:• Business Training Courses o Management Development  Conflict Management  Managing Diversity  Project Management  Stress Management  Time Management  Senior Management Workshops 17
  • o Sales  Negotiation Skills  Sales Techniqueo Customer Care  Customer Care Training  Managing Customerso Human Resource  HR Administration  Induction Training  Recruitment & Selection  Successful Appraisingo Personal Development Courses  Workshops on: • Assertive Skills • Building Confidence • Coping with Change • Interview Techniques • Maximize Potential  One to One Coaching • Focused entirely on personal objectives • Move forward at individual pace • Material used in tailor made to specific development Need 18
  • Importance of Training Consultancies• It helps in enhancing company’s image• It helps in strengthening the team spirit• It helps in applying knowledge, developing core competencies, and reducing work load• It helps in improving the work relations• It helps in developing focused and inspired staff• It leads to greater chances of successConsultants can provide help on following areas:• Management Development• Team Building Leadership• Health & Safety Training• Interpersonal Skills• Sales TrainingThe continued need for individual and organizational development can be traced to numerousdemands, including maintaining superiority in the marketplace, enhancing employee skillsand knowledge, and increasing productivity. Training is one of the most pervasive methodsfor enhancing the productivity of individuals and communicating organizational goals to newpersonnel. In 2000, U.S. organizations with 100 or more employees budgeted to spend $54billion on formal training (“Industry Report,” 2000). Given the importance and potentialimpact of training on organizations and the costs associated with the development andimplementation of training, it is important that both researchers and practitioners have abetter understanding of the relationship between design and evaluation features and theeffectiveness of training and development efforts.Meta-analysis quantitatively aggregates the results of primary studies to arrive at an overallconclusion or summary across these studies. In addition, meta-analysis makes it possible toassess relationships not investigated in the original primary studies. These, among others (seeArthur, Bennett, & Huffcutt, 2001), are some of the advantages of meta-analysis overnarrative reviews. Although there have been a multitude of meta-analyses in other domains ofindustrial/organizational psychology (e.g., cognitive ability, employment interviews,assessment centers, and employment-related personality testing) that now allow researchersto make broad summary statements about observable effects and relationships in thesedomains, summaries of the training effectiveness literature appear to be limited to the 19
  • periodic narrative Annual Reviews. A notable exception is Burke and Day (1986), who,however, limited their meta-analysis to the effectiveness of only managerial training.Consequently, the goal of the present article is to address this gap in the training effectivenessliterature by conducting a meta-analysis of the relationship between specified design andevaluation features and the effectiveness of training in organizations. We accomplish thisgoal by first identifying design and evaluation features related to the effectiveness oforganizational training programs and interventions, focusing specifically on those featuresover which practitioners and researchers have a reasonable degree of control. We then discussour use of meta-analytic procedures to quantify the effect of each feature and conclude with adiscussion of the implications of our findings for both practitioners and researcher. 20
  • COMPANYPROFILE 21
  • C.L. GUPTAWe are 118-year-old company, in Moradabad, a city 150 kms. from Delhi. Thus have a greatexperience in this field. We have our own infra-structure of 1,200,000 sq.ft area with largenumber of veteran, professionals, technical staff & more than 2000 skilled labors, thecompany combined with design, matrxing, machinery process & as semblance in onecontinuous line. Our company follows the principle of honoring the contract, keeping the bestcredit & first quality.C.L.GUPTA is known as a reputed Export House in India, specializing in various areas ofproduct development. The company offering for various products all sorts of Handicraftsitems. Our items are with the latest trends of International Market and well appreciated.C.L.GUPTA is fully prepared to cover the continuing from Brass, E.P.N.S, Wrought Iron,Copper, Aluminum, S.Steel, Wooden & Bone Handicrafts, specialize in Home & OfficeDecoration, Christmas Decoration, Garden Accessories, Bathroom Accessories, KitchenWares, Hotel Wares, Nauticals, Costume Jewellery,Home Furnishings & Other HouseholdproductProud Members Of:-1) Indo German Chamber of Commerce.2) Messe Frankfurt Venue GmbH & Co.Kg3) Export Promotion Council for Handicrafts.4) Chamber Of Indian Industries.5) Export Promotion Bureau.6) India Exposition Mart.7) Moradabad West Industries Chamber.COMPANY DETAILS18 Km. Stone, Delhi road, Vill. Jivai, Jyotibaphule Nagar – 244221Phone: +91-591-305 1234 till 34, Fax: +91-591-305 1111, e-mail: info@clgupta.comWe are 118-year-old company, in Moradabad, a city 150 kms. from Delhi.InfrastructureFactory Land Area: 50 acres, Covered Area: 1,200,000 sq.ft 22
  • In-house Electricity Generation: 6.0 MWResidential Complex within factory premises for CraftsmenA task force of 2000+ direct & indirectSome of our major clients are :Pottery Barn, Ikea, Target Stores, Crate & Barrel, Restoration Hardware, Cost Plus WorldMarket, Marks & Spencer, Becara Historical Collections, Schubert Varia, Pete Van Roonetc.Some of our major clients are,Pottery Barn, Ikea, Target Stores, Crate & Barrel, Restoration Hardware, Cost Plus WorldMarket, Marks & Spencer, Becara Historical Collections, Schubert Varia, Pete Van Roonetc.OUR POLICIESQuality Policy : Our Foremost Commitment is to satisfy our customers by providing qualityproducts and on time services that meet their requirements. It shall be our endeavor toachieve quality and excellence in all our activities.Quality Objective:1- To provide products that meet customer requirements consistently.2- To constantly improve quality through preventive action.3- To Develop employees through continuous training in knowledge and skills.4- To Establish and implement ISO 9001: 2000 quality management system.Quality Policy & Objectives- Definition :The quality policy and objectives of the companyhave been defined by the management in conformity with the corporate objective andchanging customer need & expectation. The company personnel shall be made aware of theimplication of quality policy through training to ensure that is understood & implemented 23
  • SAFETY POLICY OF THE COMPANY 1. Co. has locked gates with 24 hours security guard on site. 1. Implement procedure to screen the coming & going of any individual who are not the employee of the company e.g. registration at the gate 7 use of the visitors identification. 2. Visitors’ gate pass is given to visitors. 3. Entry of visitor’s details in register at main gate. 4. Signed gate pass is received by visitors after visit at gate. 5. CCTV`s are used at main gate & many location. 6. Guard is appointed at main gate. 7. Employees are checked by metal detector at main gate. 8. A protective wall is around premises. 9. Only experienced security guard have appointed. 10. Security guards are remaining on duty during working hours. 11. Tracking of incoming & outgoing goods. 12. Vehicle parking area is situated outside the company. 13. Punch cards are used for in –out time for employee. 14. We are using mercury lights in factory compound. 2.) Factory worker documentation& identification 1. All employees have identity card 2. All labor has identity cards. 3. Employee’s documents are checked 3.) Container loading process 1. Container are loaded inside the factory ground using their own workers 2. All containers must first be searched for any concealed material prior to loading. 3. When all the containers are fully loaded, make sure the container seal is legitimate and applied. 4. Correcting by your own personnel and that this seal is not broken all the way to 24
  • the container yard.STRENGTH OF COMPANY • An ISO 9001:2000 company. • A 100% export unit. • Team headed by professional. • Excellent industrial relation in company. • Impeccable track record of statutory payment and repayment to banks and financial institutions. • No income tax, sales tax, excise and custom claims and proceedings are pending against the company. • Company’s affairs are guided by a professional board of directors comprising to individuals who are expert in their respective fields. • All major commercial/manufacturing activities co-ordinate and controlled through a fully computerized network. • Neither union activities nor union exist. • Superb and imported technology. • National Award for Best Performance in the year 1999 & 2000. • Manufacture and export of Brass gift items & planters, Silver plated gift items, Iron, Glass, Copper and Wooden gift items.HUMAN RESOURCE GUIDELINESPOLICYIt is the policy of C.L.Gupta to provide Supervisors with the flexibility to schedule workhours that will be efficient and productive while meeting the needs of the business andaccommodating the personal needs of Employees.GUIDELINESWORK WEEK/WORK DAY The workweek for all Employees consists of a period beginning at 12:00 a.m. Monday of each week and continuing through 11:59 p.m. the following Sunday.The workday begins each day at midnight. 25
  • WORK SCHEDULEThe Regular Work Schedule for each Employee is forty (40) hours and normally consists offive (5) days (Monday through Friday). An Irregular Work Schedule deviates from the typical Monday through Friday work schedule. It may start on any day of the week. These hours are established by C. L. Gupta ; the schedule may vary in the number of hours worked in a day, number of days worked in a week or may contain rotating shifts over a given time period depending on business requirements, the nature of the work itself, local service needs, and other business demands.Shift scheduling within the workweek must be established, approved by Management andannounced in advance of implementation.STANDARD WORK DAYA standard work day normally consists of 8 hours of work per day, schedules (excluding a1/2-hour uncompensated meal period); may be altered by the Supervisor or Employee withSupervisory approval to meet business and personal needs. The goal is to balance work to a40-hour work week unless overtime is scheduled. Although there is no federal or staterequirement to provide for meal and break periods, C.L.Gupta expects employees to take a ½hour uncompensated meal period.CORE WORK HOURSTypically, core hours are 9a.m. to 2 p.m. to accommodate various schedules and projectneeds, Supervisors may set core work hours within their groups. Core work hours ensure theappropriate support to fulfill business needs and meet team objectives.FORMAL BREAK SCHEDULESIf formal breaks are observed in the work group, then a regular 8 hour work shift will include2 compensated break periods of 15 minutes each. If a 10+ hour shift is worked, an additional10 minute compensated break period will be added.Meal and break periods vary from department to department because of businessrequirements. Scheduling of meals and breaks must be approved by the departmentManager/Supervisor. 26
  • VARIABLE START/DEPARTURE TIMESEmployees may request variable start or departure times. Supervisory approval is requiredand decisions will be based on Employees’ performance and business needs. Once thestarting time is established, it becomes the Employee’s normal work schedule untilrenegotiated with supervision.SHIFT DIFFERENTIALAll Employees who work on second or third shift will receive additional compensation of11.5% above their regular hourly rate for all hours worked. In order to qualify for shiftdifferential pay, an Employee’s regularly scheduled shift must start at 12:00 noon orthereafterMAKE-UP TIMEC.L.Gupta understands that situations will arise where Employees may need to be away fromwork during their regular work schedule. C.L.Gupta offers flexible schedules whereEmployees are allowed to make this time up. If an Employee needs to miss work, he/sheshould notify and seek approval from his/her Supervisor for when to make up the missedtime. Employees may be allowed this flexibility with Supervisor approval and based on thefollowing considerations: ♦ There is work to be done ♦ The Employees work performance and attendance are acceptable ♦ The Employee has requested to make up time at least 24 hours in advance. ♦ Frequency with which the employee requests to make-up time ♦ Where a safety hazard exist, another employee or supervisor should be in the same work area.If the decision is made to make up the time, hours must be made up within the same week fornon-exempt Employees and within the same pay period for exempt Employees.CALL-IN PAY 27
  • Call-In is the time period during which an Employee is required, during non- scheduled working hours, to return to a worksite after completion of a regular assignment or work period. The work provided or service performed when called back usually is of a special or emergency nature, and on infrequent and sporadic occasions. See attached AES policy for more details. ♦ Non-exempt Employees will receive a minimum of 4 hours pay per day, or actual time worked, whichever is greater PRE-SCHEDULED OVERTIME Prescheduled overtime is not considered “Call-In Pay” because the Non-Exempt Employee knows before the regular shift ends there is a requirement to return to the facility to perform work. ♦ An employee who is scheduled to work outside normal work hours will receive a minimum of 2 hours pay per day, or actual time worked, whichever is greater. ♦ An employee making multiple trips will be paid an additional minimum of 2 hours for a maximum of 4 hours per day, or actual time worked, whichever is greater. ♦ There must be a minimum of 3 hours between trips.ON-CALL (STANDBY) PAYOn-Call: Time period during which an employee is required, during non-scheduled workinghours, to be available in order to respond, normally within fifteen (15) minutes, and to report,if called upon, normally within one (1) hour, to perform work or provide service. Seeattached AES policy for more details.Standby: Same as On-CallPager Duty: On-Call or Standby time during which the employee is specifically contacted bypager.If Management requests a non-exempt Employee to be on standby, the Employee will receive1 hours of straight time pay per each 24-hour period on call. 28
  • ♦ Typically standby Employees carry a pager and remain in the area during the duration of the assigned period. This time occurs outside scheduled work hours. ♦ If an Employee is called into the facility “call-in” pay will start at arrival at the facility and will be paid in lieu of standby pay. REMOTE MONITORING Non-exempt Employees who are assigned remote monitoring responsibilities (off-site test status monitoring), outside of normal work hours, will receive a minimum of 2 hours pay per day, Monday through Friday, and 4 hours pay per day, Saturday and Sunday or actual hours worked if greater. ♦ Non-exempt Employees required to perform test monitoring longer than 2 hours during the work week and 4 hours per weekend should be assigned work onsite. ♦ Prescheduled remote monitoring is not considered for “Call-In Pay.”LACK OF WORKIf a non-exempt Employee reports to work on a normal work day and is advised that there isno work or runs out of work, they will receive a minimum of 4 hours pay or actual timeworked, whichever is greater. This does not apply to extended announced or emergency shutdown situations. ♦ Lack of work situations that last for an extended period of time will be addressed on a case-by-case basis.RESPONSIBILITIESSUPERVISOR ♦ Determines whether operational and business requirements support/require flexible work hours. ♦ Communicates time and attendance expectations and how it relates to performance. ♦ Approves all deviations from a regular work schedule. 29
  • ♦ Approves employee’s time in the labor reporting systems; ensures appropriate shift and charge numbers are reported ♦ Notifies Human Resources of all shift changesHUMAN RESOURCES ♦ Guides, counsels, and provides interpretation of this and all policies. PRODUCT PROFILEC.L. GUPTA is the manufacturer and exporter of Brass, Glass, Wood and wax items.C.L.GUPTA is the largest export industry in Moradabad city. It has the largest turnoveramong all the export industries in Moradabad city. C.L.GUPTA manufacture & export almostitems of everything. It manufactures different types of candle stand, house hold utensils, cookware, bathroom fitting items.C.L.GUPTA also deals in Glass. It has a separate section of Glass. It manufactures & exportdifferent kinds of Glass items. It also has a separate section named Mosaic Glass section. Inthis section different items of Glass are manufactured. Mosaic is called the small pieces ofglass; these small pieces are fixed on different Glass items as per customer requirement.Company has a very wide range of the products that are manufacturing in the company.Although the range of the products of the company is not fix and it manufactures the productsaccording to the choice and the order of the customer. Some of the product of the companyare- Hurricane, Votive, Shefali Glass, Vorka Chimney, Vas, Angle Tea Light Holder,Christmas Tree, etc.The products of the company are not fixed. They remain changing. The products of thecompany depend upon the choice of the buyers. Company can’t manufacture products on itsown. The company can only got make the samples and show it to the buyer. If the buyer likesthe sample then he will give the order to the company to manufacture the relevant product. Sowe can see that the products of the company are not fix, company manufactures the productsas per the customer’s order or choice. 30
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  • OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 40
  • OBJECTIVES OF TEH STUDY To study the concept of training and development. To study the various objectives of training and development programmes of the organization. To study the importance of training and development programmes for the organization. To know how training and development exercised in organization. To find out the constraints in training and development. To know why organization uses training and development programmes. To know about the relationship between performance of employee training and development in the organization. To know whether it is beneficial for the organization or not. 41
  • LITERATURE REVIEW 42
  • LITERATURE REVIEWAccording to Flippo, ‘Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of anemployee for doing a particular job.’The choice of evaluation criteria (i.e., the dependent measure used to operationalize theeffectiveness of training) is a primary decision that must be made when evaluating theeffectiveness proposed (e.g., Day, Arthur, & Gettman, 2001; Kraiger, Ford, & Salas, 1993),Kirkpatrick’s (1959, 1976, 1996) four-level model of training evaluation and criteriacontinues to be the most popular (Salas & Canon-Bowers, 2001; Van Buren & Erskine,2002). We used this framework because it is conceptually the most appropriate for ourpurposes. Specifically, within the framework of Kirkpatrick’s model, questions about theeffectiveness of training or instruction programs are usually followed by asking, “Effective interms of what? Reactions, learning, behavior, or results?” Thus, the objectives of trainingdetermine the most appropriate criteria for assessing the effectiveness of training.Reaction criteria, which are operationalized by using self-report measures, represent trainees’affective and attitudinal responses to the training program. However, there is very littlereason to believe that how trainees feel about or whether they like a training program tellsresearchers much, if anything, about (a) how much they learned from the program (learningcriteria), (b) changes in their job-related behaviors or performance (behavioral criteria), or (c)the utility of the program to the organization (results criteria). This is supported by the lack ofrelationship between reaction criteria and the other three criteria (e.g., Alliger & Janak, 1989;Alliger, Tannenbaum, Bennett, Traver, & Shotland, 1997; Arthur, Tubre, Paul, & Edens,2003; Colquitt, LePine, & Noe, 2000; Kaplan & Pascoe, 1977; Noe & Schmitt, 1986). Inspite of the fact that “reaction measures are not a suitable surrogate for other indexes oftraining effectiveness” (Tannenbaum & Yukl, 1992, p. 425), an-ecdotal and other evidencesuggests that reaction measures are the most widely used evaluation criteria in appliedsettings. For in-stance, in the American Society of Training and Development 2002 State-of-the-Industry Report, 78% of the benchmarking organizations surveyed reported usingreaction measures, compared with 32%, 9%, and 7% for learning, behavioral, and results,respectively (Van Buren & Erskine, 2002).Learning criteria are measures of the learning outcomes of training; they are not measures ofjob performance. They are typically operationalized by using paper-and-pencil andperformance tests. According to Tannenbaum and Yukl (1992), “trainee learning appearsto 43
  • be a necessary but not sufficient prerequisite for behavior change” In contrast, behavioralcriteria are measures of actual on-the-job performance and can be used to identify the effectsof training on actual work performance. Issues pertaining to the transfer of training are alsorelevant here. Behavioral criteria are typically operationalized by using supervisor ratings orobjective indicators of performance. Although learning and behavioral criteria areconceptually linked, researchers have had limited success in empirically demonstrating thisrelationship (Alliger et al., 1997; Severin, 1952; cf. Colquitt et al., 2000). This is becausebehavioral criteria are susceptible to environmental variables that can influence the transfer oruse of trained skills or capabilities on the job (Arthur, Bennett, Stanush, & McNelly, 1998;Facteau, Dobbins, Russell, Ladd, & Kudisch, 1995; Qui-n˜ ones, 1997; Quin˜ ones, Ford,Sego, & Smith, 1995; Tracey, Tan-nenbaum, & Kavanagh, 1995). For example, theposttraining en-vironment may not provide opportunities for the learned material or skills tobe applied or performed (Ford, Quin˜ ones, Sego, & Speer Sorra, 1992). Finally, resultscriteria (e.g., productivity, company profits) are the most distal and macro criteria used toevaluate the effectiveness of training. Results criteria are frequently operationalized by usingutility analysis estimates (Cascio, 1991, 1998). Utility analysis provides a methodology toassess the dollar value gained by engaging in specified personnel interventions includingtraining. In summary, it is our contention that given their characteristic feature of capturingdifferent facets of the criterion space—as illustrated by their weak intercorrelations reportedby Alliger et al. (1997)—the effectiveness of a training program may vary as a function of thecriteria chosen to measure effectiveness (Arthur, Tubre, etal., 2003). Thus, it is reasonable toask whether the effectiveness of training—operationalized as effect size ds—var-iessystematically as a function of the outcome criterion measure used. For instance, all thingsbeing equal, are larger effect sizes obtained for training programs that are evaluated by usinglearning versus behavioral criteria? It is important to clarify that criterion type is not anindependent or causal variable in this study. Our objective is to investigate whether theoperationalization of the dependent variable is related to the observed training outcomes (i.e.,effectiveness). Thus, the evaluation criteria (i.e., reaction, learning, behavioral, and results)are simply different operationalizations of the effectiveness of training. Consequently, ourfirst research question is this: Are there differences in the effectiveness of training (i.e., themagnitude of the ds) as a function of the operationalization of the dependent variable?The choice of evaluation criteria (i.e., the dependent measure used to operationalize theeffectiveness of training) is a primary decision that must be made when evaluating theeffectiveness of training. Although newer approaches to, and models of, training evaluation 44
  • have been proposed (e.g., Day, Arthur, & Gettman, 2001; Kraiger, Ford, & Salas, 1993),Kirkpatrick’s (1959, 1976, 1996) four-level model of training evaluation and criteriacontinues to be the most popular (Salas & Canon-Bowers, 2001; Van Buren & Erskine,2002). We used this framework because it is conceptually the most appropriate for ourpurposes. Specifically, within the framework of Kirkpatrick’s model, questions about theeffectiveness of training or instruction programs are usually followed by asking, “Effective interms of what? Reactions, learning, behavior, or results?” Thus, the objectives of trainingdetermine the most appropriate criteria for assessing the effectiveness of training.Reaction criteria, which are operationalized by using self-report measures, represent trainees’affective and attitudinal responses to the training program. However, there is very littlereason to believe that how trainees feel about or whether they like a training program tellsresearchers much, if anything, about (a) how much they learned from the program (learningcriteria), (b) changes in their job-related behaviors or performance (behavioral criteria), or (c)the utility of the program to the organization (results criteria). This is supported by the lack ofrelationship between reaction criteria and the other three criteria (e.g., Alliger & Janak, 1989;Alliger, Tannenbaum, Bennett, Traver, & Shotland, 1997; Arthur, Tubre, Paul, & Edens,2003; Colquitt, LePine, & Noe, 2000; Kaplan & Pascoe, 1977; Noe & Schmitt, 1986). Inspite of the fact that “reaction measures are not a suitable surrogate for other indexes oftraining effectiveness” (Tannenbaum & Yukl, 1992, p. 425), an-ecdotal and other evidencesuggests that reaction measures are the most widely used evaluation criteria in appliedsettings. For in-stance, in the American Society of Training and Development 2002 State-of-the-Industry Report, 78% of the benchmarking organizations surveyed reported usingreaction measures, compared with 32%, 9%, and 7% for learning, behavioral, and results,respectively (Van Buren & Erskine, 2002).Learning criteria are measures of the learning outcomes of training; they are not measures ofjob performance. They are typically operationalized by using paper-and-pencil andperformance tests. According to Tannenbaum and Yukl (1992), “trainee learning appears tobe a necessary but not sufficient prerequisite for behavior change” (p. 425). In contrast,behavioral criteria are measures of actual on-the-job performance and can be used to identifythe effects of training on actual work performance. Issues pertaining to the transfer of trainingare also relevant here. Behavioral criteria are typically operationalized by using supervisorratings or objective indicators of performance. Although learning and behavioral criteria areconceptually linked, researchers have had limited success in empirically demonstrating this 45
  • relationship (Alliger et al., 1997; Severin, 1952; cf. Colquitt et al., 2000). This is becausebehavioral criteria are susceptible to environmental variables that can influence the transfer oruse of trained skills or capabilities on the job (Arthur, Bennett, Stanush, & McNelly, 1998;Facteau, Dobbins, Russell, Ladd, & Kudisch, 1995; Qui-n˜ ones, 1997; Quin˜ ones, Ford,Sego, & Smith, 1995; Tracey, Tan-nenbaum, & Kavanagh, 1995). For example, theposttraining en-vironment may not provide opportunities for the learned material or skills tobe applied or performed (Ford, Quin˜ ones, Sego, & Speer Sorra, 1992). Finally, resultscriteria (e.g., productivity, company profits) are the most distal and macro criteria used toevaluate the effectiveness of training. Results criteria are frequently operationalized by usingutility analysis estimates (Cascio, 1991, 1998). Utility analysis provides a methodology toassess the dollar value gained by engaging in specified personnel interventions includingtraining. In summary, it is our contention that given their characteristic feature of capturingdifferent facets of the criterion space—as illustrated by their weak intercorrelations reportedby Alliger et al. (1997)—the effectiveness of a training program may vary as a function of thecriteria chosen to measure effectiveness (Arthur, Tubre, et al., 2003). Thus, it is reasonable toask whether the effectiveness of training—operationalized as effect size ds—var-iessystematically as a function of the outcome criterion measure used. For instance, all thingsbeing equal, are larger effect sizes obtained for training programs that are evaluated by usinglearning versus behavioral criteria? It is important to clarify that criterion type is not anindependent or causal variable in this study. Our objective is to investigate whether theoperationalization of the dependent variable is related to the observed training outcomes (i.e.,effectiveness). Thus, the evaluation criteria (i.e., reaction, learning, behavioral, and results)are simply different operationalizations of the effectiveness of training. Consequently, ourfirst research question is this: Are there differences in the effectiveness of training (i.e., themagnitude of the ds) as a function of the operationalization of the dependent variable? 46
  • RESEARCHMETHODOLOGY 47
  • RESEARCH METHODOLOGY A variety of methods of study have been adopted by the researcher to fulfill the objectives of the study.  In order to have a better grasp of the study, the researcher chose to become a keen observer, studying the various aspects of the organization.  With a view to understand the crunch of the matter and to find out the ground realities, the researcher formed a schedule specifically for the set of respondents. The researcher met the respondents personally, interviewed them and made them to fill the questionnaire.Research Design a) Type of the research undertaken is analytical. b) Technique used is random sampling. c) Sample size taken is 30. d) Sampling Area-MoradabadData Collection Methods SOURCES OF DATA Primary Data Secondary Data Questionnaire Newsletter Observation Journals Interviews Magazines Visits to other Newspapers Companies Information Books Through Departmental heads Websites 48
  • In this study, the foremost data collection instrument used is the questionnaire method. Thequestionnaire has been designed with both open ended and closed ended questions. Apartfrom this, the research instrument consists of primary and secondary data collected for thestudy.Primary Data: Primary Data is obtained by distributing printed questionnaire to the marketing executivesof the company. Data was also obtained from the observation and interview techniqueadopted by the researcher. Moreover, information was disseminated by the departmentalheads.Secondary Data:Here the information is obtained from the brochure of C.L.Gupta, books, websites,newsletter, journals, magazines, newspapers, etc. 49
  • DATAANALYSIS 50
  • FINDINGS AND ANALYSISQ.1. Are you getting training and development in your organization? Table No – 1 S.No. Options Percentage 1. Individually 60% 2. In team 35% 3. Both 5% Figure No – 1INTERPRETATION:- • 60% employees are getting training and development individually. • 35% employees are getting training and development in team. • 5% employees respond that, they are getting training and development individually And in team both development in team. 51
  • Q.2. Do you know the basic objective of training and development? Table No – 2 S.No. Options Percentage 1. Fully 25% 2. Partially 65% 3. No 10% Figure No – 2INTERPRETATION:- • 25% employees fully know the basic objective of training and development. • 65% employees partially know the basic objective of training and development. • 10% employees don’t know the basic objective of training and development. 52
  • Q.3. Are you satisfied by the training and development provided by the organization? Table No – 3 S.No. Options Percentage 1. Yes 60% 2. No 10% 3. Can’t say 30% Figure No – 3INTERPRETATION:- • 60% employees are satisfied with the training and development provided by the organization. • 10% employees are not satisfied with the training and development provided by the organization.• 30% employees don’t reply. 53
  • Q.4. Do you believe that training and development system reflect any scope of improvementin one’s performance? Table No – 4 S.No. Options Percentage 1. Agreed 60% 2. Partially agreed 30% 3. Disagreed 10% Figure No – 4INTERPRETATION:- • 60% employees believe that training and development system reflect any scope of improvement in one’s performance. • 30% employees are partially agreed that training and development system reflect any scope of improvement in one’s performance. • 10% employee are disagree that training and development system reflect any scope of improvement in one’s performance. 54
  • Q.5. Who is providing the training to you? Table No – 5 S.No. Options Percentage 1. Members of the personnel staff 20% 2. Outsides consultants 10% 3. Yours supervisors 50% 4. Faculty members of universities 20% Figure No – 5INTERPRETATION:- • 20% employees respond that, members of the personnel staff are providing the training to them. • 10% employees respond that, members of the outsides consultants are providing the training to them. • 50% employees respond that, supervisors are providing the training to them. • 20% employees respond that, faculty members of universities are providing the training to them. 55
  • Q.6. Training and development helps you in? Table No – 6 S.No. Options Percentage 1. Career planning 10% 2. Goal achievement 30% 3. Promotion 40% 4. Others 20% Figure No – 6INTERPRETATION:- • 10% employees respond that, training and development helps us in career planning. • 30% employees respond that, training and development helps us in goal achievement. • 40% employees respond that, training and development helps us in promotion. • 20% employees respond that, training and development helps us in other activities. 56
  • Q.7. Are you satisfied with the criteria adopted by your organization? Table No – 7 S.No. Options Percentage 1. Yes 60% 2. No 30% 3. Can’t say 10% Figure No – 7INTERPRETATION:-• 60% employees are satisfied with the criteria adopted by their organization.• 30% employees are not satisfied with the criteria adopted by their organization.• 10% employees don’t respond. 57
  • Q.8. If any development is required after performance appraisal then proper training is givento you? Table No – 8 S.No. Options Percentage 1. Yes 65% 2. No 35% Figure No – 8INTERPRETATION:- • 65% employees respond yes, if any development is required after performance appraisal then proper training is given to them. • 35% employees respond No, if any development is required after performance appraisal then proper training is not given to them proper training is given to them. 58
  • Q.9. Does the training system provides an opportunity for orientation of individual objectivestowards the achievement of organization goal? Table No – 9 S.No. Options Percentage 1. Agreed 35% 2. Partially agreed 50% 3. Disagreed 15% Figure No – 9INTERPRETATION:- • 35% employees are strongly agreed that, the training system provides an opportunity for orientation of individual objectives towards the achievement of organization goal. • 50% employees are partially agreed that, the training system provides an opportunity for orientation of individual objectives towards the achievement of organization goal. • 15% employees are disagreed that, the training system provides an opportunity for orientation of individual objectives towards the achievement of organization goal. 59
  • Q.10. Is the training system of your organization transparent? Table No – 10 S.No. Options Percentage 1. Yes 45% 50% 2. No 20% 30% 3. Can’t say 25% 30% Figure No – 10INTERPRETATION:- • 45% employees said that the training system of the organization is transparent. • 30% employees said that the training system of the organization is not transparent. • 25% employees don’t respond. 60
  • Q.11. Do you feel that any reward is given to you according to your performance? Table No – 11 S.No. Options Percentage 1. Yes 50% 2. No 20% 3. Can’t say 30% Figure No – 11INTERPRETATION:- • 50% employees said yes, that some reward is given to them according to their performance. • 20% employees said No, that no reward is given to them according to their performance. • 30% employees don’t respond. 61
  • Q.12. As per your view which factors make a training programme ineffective? Table No – 12 S.No. Options Percentage 1. Management commitment is lacking and uneven 35% 2. Aggregate spending on training is inadequate 20% 3. Educational institutions award degree but graduates lacks 20% skills 4. Others 25% Figure No – 12INTERPRETATION:- • 35% employees said that, lack of management commitment makes a training programme ineffective. • 20% employees said that, inadequate aggregate spending on training makes a training programme ineffective. • 20% employees said that, the reason behind ineffective training is that, educational institutions award degree but graduates lacks skills. • 25% employees said that, there are some other reasons. 62
  • Q.13. Do you think that need assessment diagnoses present and future challenges to be metthrough training and development? Table No – 13 S.No. Options Percentage 1. Yes 40% 2. No 30% 3. Can’t say 30% Figure No – 13INTERPRETATION:- • 40% employees said yes, that need assessment diagnoses present and future challenges to be met through training and development. • 30% employees said No, that need assessment does not diagnose present and future challenges to be met through training and development. • 30% employees don’t respond. 63
  • Q.14. The methods adopted by your organization is? Table No – 14 S.No. Options Percentage 1. Lectures 55% 2. Audio-visuals 20% 3. On-the-job training 20% 4. Computer-Assisted instruction 5% Figure No – 14INTERPRETATION:- • 55% employees said that, lecture method is adopted by our organization for training and development. • 20% employees said that, audio-visuals class method is adopted by our organization for training and development. • 20% employees said that, On-the-job training method is adopted by our organization for training and development. • 5% employees said that, Computer-Assisted instruction method is adopted by our organization for training and development. 64
  • Q.15. Is your trainer given the honest feedback to you? Table No – 15 S.No. Options Percentage 1. True 60% 2. Partially true 35% 3. False 5% Figure No – 15INTERPRETATION:- • 60% employees said yes, it’s true that our trainer gives us honest feedback. • 35% employees said that it’s partially true that our trainer gives us honest feedback. • 5% employees said that it’s false that our trainer gives us honest feedback. 65
  • CONCLUSION 66
  • CONCLUSIONIt is concluded that most of the employees are not aware with the objective of training anddevelopment. Most of the employees are satisfied with the training and development providedby the organization, most of them are getting training and development individually and few inteams. Most of the employees believe that training and development system reflects scope ofimprovement in one’s performance. Maximum employees respond that supervisors areproviding the training that helps in promotion. Employees are satisfied with the criteria adoptedby their organization. If any development is required after performance appraisal then propertraining is given to them. Employees partially agree that training system provides anopportunity for orientation of individual objectives towards the achievement of organizationgoal. Employees agree that training system of the organization is transparent; some reward isgiven to them according to their performance. They believe that lack of managementcommitment makes training program ineffective, maximum employees that need assessmentdiagnose present and future challenges to be met through training and development. Employeesalso say that lecture method is adopted by the organization for training and development whilea few say that, Computer-Assisted instruction method is adopted by the organization fortraining and development. They agree that the trainer gives honest feedback. 67
  • SUGGESTIONS ANDRECOMMENDATIONS 68
  • SUGGESTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS• Learning should be made one of the fundamental values of the company.• Company should ensure that training contributes to competitive strategies of the firm. Different strategies need different HR skills for implementation. Let training help employees at all level acquire the needed skills.• The company should create a system to evaluate the effectiveness of training.• There should be a comprehensive and systematic approach to training exists, and training and retraining are done at all levels on a continuous and ongoing basis.• There should be a proper linkage among organizational, operational and individual training needs. 69
  • LIMITATIONS 70
  • LIMITATIONSEvery study is bound by limitations and as such this is no exceptions. 1. “Change is Constant” rule of nature. Hence, the study undertaken may not hold good for longer duration. 2. The study was conducted under the assumption that the information given by the respondents is authentic. 3. The analysis and suggestion are given only with respect to marketing aspects as technical suggestion with respect to the product could not be given. 4. Confidential matters were not disclosed by the company. 5. There were time constraints. 71
  • BIBLIOGRAPHY 72
  • BIBLIOGRAPHYBOOKS: • Aswathappa, K (2002) ‘Human Resource and Personnel Management’, 3rd edition, Tata McGraw-Hill Publication Pvt. Limited, New Delhi,pp53-140. • Dessler, Human Resource Management, Prentice-Hall, 9th edition, pp. 45-59. • Kothari C.R., Research Methodology- Methods and techniques, new age international publishers, 2007, 2nd edition, pp. 26, 95, 111.OTHER • Times of India • Company BrochureWEBLIOGRAPHY • http://traininganddevelopment.naukrihub.com/ • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Training_and_development • http://www.businessballs.com/traindev.htm • www.clgupta.com. 73
  • ANNEXURE 74
  • QUESTIONNAIREQ.1. Are you getting training and development in your organization? a. Individually b. In team c. BothQ.2. Do you know the basic objective of training and development? a. Fully b. Partially c. NoQ.3. Are you satisfied by the training and development provided by the organization? a. Yes b. No c. Can’t sayQ.4. Do you believe that training and development system reflect any scope ofimprovement in one’s performance? a. Agreed b. partially agreed c. DisagreedQ.5. Who is providing the training to you? a. Members of the personnel staff b. Outsides consultants c. Yours supervisors d. Faculty members at universitiesQ.6. Training and development helps? a. Career planning b. Goal achievement c. Promotion d. OthersQ.7. Are you satisfied with the criteria adopted by your organization? a. Yes b. No c. Can’t sayQ.8. If any development is required after performance appraisal then proper training isgiven to you? a. Yes b. No 75