Training & development


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Training & development

  1. 1. Training & Development. Amit's INDEXINDEX 1 Sr. No. Particular Page No. 1. Introduction. 2. 2. Object of Training. 4. 3. Identify Training Need. 6. 4. Training & Development has competitive advantage. 8. 5. Benefits of Training. 9. 6. Training Methods. 10. 7. Implementation of training Programme. 15. 8. Evaluation of Programme. 16. 9. E-Learning. 17. 10. E-learning Advantage & Disadvantages. 18. 11. How to make training effective. 19. 12. Summary. 20.
  2. 2. Training & Development. Amit's TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT Learning Objectives After reading this Project, you should be able to:  Understanding the nature and importance of training and development and identify the various inputs that should go into any such programme.  Important Methods & Benefits of Training & Development  Delineate the different stages in a training and development programme and describe each step.  Understanding the need for and the ways of training for international assignments 2
  3. 3. Training & Development. Amit's INTRODUCTION Today Human Resources are significant factor of any organization. Mostly service organization like Bank & Insurance companies success depends upon quality & quantity of Human resources because people have taken on an even more central role in building a firm's competitive advantage. Organization can achieved sustained competitive advantage through providing appropriate training & education to their employees. Therefore Training & Development programmed is very significant to any organization. Origin: - The beginning of training could trace to the Stone Age when people started transferring knowledge through signs and deeds to others. Vocational training started during the Industrial Revolution when apprentices were provided direct instructions in the operation of machines. Training and development is increasingly recognized, now, as a most important organizational activity. Rapid technological changes require newer skills and knowledge in many areas. Training has to be continuously offered to keep employees updated and effective. There are some who believe that training has necessarily been given undue importance and that the experience on-the-job is good enough to develop necessary skills and efficiency to perform the job. It is true that training cannot entirely substitute experience, but it has certain definite advantages over it. 1. Training unlike experience can shorten the time required to reach maximum efficiency. 3
  4. 4. Training & Development. Amit's 2. Cost of training is much less than the cost of gaining experience particularly if one is dealing with expensive equipment. 3. The results of experience can sometimes be accidental, particularly when experience depends solely on trial and error. 4. The element of predictability is far less when compared to the outcome of a well conceived and conducted training programme. 5. Clear description of performance problem. 6. Frequent feedback to measure the progress of learners/participants. Definition: "It is attempt to improve current or future employee performance by increasing an employees ability to perform through learning usually by changing employees attitude or increasing his or her skill & knowledge" -Shirley Bosky "Training & Development is a one of the significant technique to encourage employee to take interest in his work by developing skill & knowledge which will definitely reflects in organizational profits." "Training & Development refer to those specific learning opportunity designed to help employees grow." 4
  5. 5. Training & Development. Amit's Training & development need arise to fulfill the gap between standard performance of employee & actual performance. Where the employee is lacking or behind in his work. Extreme supervision on employees works help to decide degree of training & Development programmes. People often confuse with the Training and Education. But both are different in some points as follows. Training Education Application Method. Theoretical Orientation. Job Experience. Classroom Training Specific Task. General Concept. Narrow Perspective Broad Perspective. 5
  6. 6. Training & Development. Amit's OBJECTIVES OF TRAINING The objectives of training according to the employees belonging to different levels of organizations. The basic objective of training, however, is to establish a match between employee and his job. This training is designed to improve knowledge, skills, and attitude and, thus equip the individual to be more effective in his present job or prepare him for a future assignment. However, individual’s growth should not be taken as an end. From the point of view of an organization individual growth is a means to organizational effectiveness. The viability depends on the efficiency that an organization achieves in meeting its goals.  Induction Training constitutes a significant step in the induction of the individual into the company’s way of life. Its helps the employee to know the company’s culture, structure, relationship’s role, policies and rules of the organizations. The basic idea is to take relatively young people and expose them to the various departments and functions of the organization to help them to know the organization better. At the end of this period, either the trainees are placed in a specific department or they are allowed to choose.  Updating A significant objective of training is to prevent the obsolescence of the employees by updating their skills and knowledge. The jobs that employees have been doing are not static. They change, sometimes, without the necessary awareness. For example, introduction of computers has changes job substantially. So the training becomes necessary to update them, to reach the newer skills and their efficiency does not suffer because of lack of understanding of the new technology. 6
  7. 7. Training & Development. Amit's  Preparing for Future Assignments One of the objects of the training is to provide an employee an opportunity to climb up the promotional ladder. There are two ways to do this, One, people with potential can be identified and sent to appropriate training programmes to prepare them for future positions. The other could be to train them for the next level and wait for the opportunity to absorb them. Another variation of this could be that an employee is promoted and then sent for training. In all cases, it helps an organization to have trained manpower available as and when needed.  Competence Organizations, which have stagnated for long, need to identify certain individuals who are creative and show potential for innovation and sent them to special training programmes designed to realize the new competencies. These programmes do not necessarily meet the job related requirements but are designed to induce certain special talents. Programmes on creativity, innovativeness, and the like are now offered by many agencies. Designing Training & Development Programmes: - Who are Trainees?  Who are Trainers? What methods & Techniques? What should be level of training? What is the Principle of Learning? Where to conduct programmes? 7
  8. 8. Training & Development. Amit's IDENTIFYING TRAINING NEEDS Identifying training needs is a process that involves establishing areas where employees lack skill, knowledge, and ability in effectively performing the job and also identifying organizational constraints that are creating road blocks in the performance. • Organizational Analysis The analysis would help identify deficiencies and mechanisms that would be needed to make adjustments in those deficiencies. This analysis begins with an understanding of short-term and long-term goals of the organizations, as a whole, and for each department specifically. This would help to identify what capacities are needed to fulfill these goals. • Task Analysis This involves a detailed analysis of various components of jobs, and how they are performed. Analysis of tasks would indicate whether tasks have changed over period of time and whether employees have adequate skill in performing these tasks. • Man Analysis The focus is on employee’s skills abilities, knowledge, and attitude. Of the three, this is a more complex component because of difficulties in assessing human contribution. Generally such indicators as production data, meeting deadlines, quality of performance, personal data such as work behaviour, absenteeism, late- coming provide input for man analysis. 8
  9. 9. Training & Development. Amit's • Analysis of Equipment Change in equipment or modification of existing machines and equipment calls for new skills and abilities. An analysis of changing technology, therefore, becomes a handy mechanism to identify the kind of training that would be required. • Brainstorming It is a helpful way to determine training needs especially of a group. The technique consists of involving professionals with different backgrounds, assigning them a task and fixing a time limit. At the end of the time limit, the ideas generated are closely scrutinized to see what kind of training would help them in performing tasks. • Problem Clinic In this case a homogeneous group meets informally to discuss a common problem and develop a solution. So, a group of engineers can get together and discuss a problem say machine maintenance, which is bothering all of them. Their solution would help in identifying the nature of training that would facilitate better machine maintenance. • Simulation Simulation or business games are useful techniques to identify training needs. Some structured exercises are developed and individual or teams are asked to compete with each other on these exercises. The exercises require the possession or lack of certain skills like problem solving, communication, information processing, and so on. Performance, on these games, highlights areas where training may be useful. 9
  10. 10. Training & Development. Amit's TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT HAS A COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE Companies derive competitive advantage from training and development. Training and development programmes help to remove deficiencies in employees. This is particularly true when 1. The deficiency is caused by lack ability rather than a lack of motivation to perform. 2. The individuals involved have the aptitude and motivation need to learn to do the job better. 3. Supervisors and peers are supportive of the desired behaviors. There is greater stability, flexibility, and capacity for growth in an organization. Training contributes to employee stability in at least two ways. Employees become efficient after undergoing training. Efficient employees contribute to the growth of the organization. Growth renders stability to the workforce. Further, trained employees tend to stay with the organization. All rounder can be transferred to any job. Flexibility is therefore ensured. Growth indicates prosperity, which is reflected in increased profits from year to year. Further the need of employees will be met through training and development programmes. Training serves as an effective source of recruitment. Training is an investment in HR with a promise of better returns in future. 10
  11. 11. Training & Development. Amit's Training becomes almost essential when mergers or acquisitions take place, as has happened to the ICICI Bank. When Bank of Madura got merged with the best bank of 2003 (ICICI), 2400 employees average are of 28 years. The average age of the merged bank was 43. Integration became a challenge and training therefore become imperative. BENEFITS OF EMPLOYEE TRAINING To Organization 1. Leads to improved profitability and /or more positive attitudes towards profit orientation. 2. Improves the job knowledge and skills at all levels of the organization 3. Helps people identify with organizational goals 4. Improves relationship between boss and subordinate 5. Creates an appropriate climate for growth, communication 6. Helps keep costs down in many areas, e.g. production, personnel, administration, etc. 11
  12. 12. Training & Development. Amit's To the Individual 1. Helps the individual in making better decisions and effective problem solving. 2. Aids in encouraging and achieving self-development and self-confidence 3. Helps a person handle stress, tension, frustration and conflict 4. Moves a person towards personal goals while improving interactive skills 5. Helps a person develop speaking and listening skills; also writing skills when exercises are required 6. Helps eliminate fear in attempting new tasks TRAINING METHODS A variety of training methods are available and used by training agencies and organizations. The choice of a method or a mix of methods is a function of a number of considerations. 1. The purpose of training is an important consideration in the choice o methodology. Knowledge can be provided by traditional methods of training like lectures, and discussions. Skills and attitudes have to be developed by experiential methods or training like in-basket, T-group etc. 12
  13. 13. Training & Development. Amit's 2. The natures of contents often determine the nature of methodology. A concept can be clarified through a lecture the operation of machine may best be demonstrated. 3. Finally, all organizations have to be concerned with cost factors. Cost considerations have to be taken into account while deciding on methods of training. However, cost considerations should not override the quality considerations. A brief discussion on some of the most prevalent methods of training is provided below.  Lectures Lecture is a verbal presentation of information by an instructor to a large audience. The lecturer is presumed to possess a considerable depth of knowledge of the subject at hand. A virtue of this method is that is can be used for very large groups and hence the cost per trainee is low. This method is mainly used in colleges and universities, though its application is restricted in training factory employees. Limitations of the lecture method account for its low popularity. The method violates the principle of learning by practice. It constitutes a one-way communication. There is no feedback from the audience. Continued lecturing is likely to bore the audience. However, the lecture method can be made effective if it is combined with other method of training.  Audio-Visuals Audio-Visuals include television slides, overheads, video-types, and films. These can be used to provide a wide range of realistic examples of job conditions and situations in the condensed period of time. Further, the quality of the presentation can be controlled and will remain equal for all training groups. But, audio-Visuals 13
  14. 14. Training & Development. Amit's constitute a one-way system of communication with no scope for the audience to raise doubts for clarification and there is no flexibility of presentation from audience to audience.  On-the-Job Training (OJT) Majority of industrial training is of the on-the-job-training type. OJT is conducted at the work site and in the context of the job. Often, it is informal, as when an experienced worker shows a trainee how to perform the job tasks. Job rotation, brainstorming sessions, and syndicate techniques are some of the methods that would come under this category. Merits: - 1. It is the most effective method as the trainee learns by experience, making him or her highly competent. 2. The method is least expensive since no formal training is organized. 3. The trainee is highly motivated to learn since he or she is aware of the fact that his or her success on the job depends on the training received. 4. Finally, the training is free from an artificial situation of a classroom Demerits: - 1. The experience employee may lack expertise or inclination to train the juniors. 2. The training programme itself is not systemically organized. 3. A poorly conducted OJT programme is likely to create safety hazards, result in damaged products or materials, and bring unnecessary stress to the trainees. 14
  15. 15. Training & Development. Amit's  Programmed Instruction (PI) This is method where training is offered without the intervention of a trainer. Information is provided to the trainee on blocks, either in a book form of through a teaching machine. After reading each block of material, the learner must answer a question about it. Feedback in the form the correct answer is provided after each response. Thus, programmed instruction (PI) involves: 1. Presenting question, facts, or problems to the learner. 2. Allowing the person to respond. 3. Providing feedback on the accuracy of his or his answers. 4. If the answers are correct, the learner proceeds to the next block. If not, he or she repeats the same. Advantages: - 1. It is self-paced-trainees can progress through the programmes at their own speed. 2. Strong motivation is provided to the learner to repeat learning. 3. Material is also structured and self-contained, offering much scope for practice. Disadvantages: - 1. The scope of learning is less, compared to other methods of training. 2. Cost of preparing the books, manuals and machinery is considerably high. 15
  16. 16. Training & Development. Amit's  Computer-Assisted-Instruction (CAI) CAI is an improved system when compared to the PI method, in at least three respects. First, CAI provides for accountability as tests are taken on the computer so that the management can monitor each trainee’s progress and needs. Second, a CAI training programme can also modified easily to reflect technological innovations in the equipment for which the employee is being trained. Third, this training also tends to be more flexible in that trainees can usually use the computer almost any time they want, and thus get training when they prefer. Not to be ignored is the fact that feedback from CAI is as rich and colorful as modern electronic games, complete with audio instructions and visual displays. A deterrent with regard to CAI is its high cost, but repeated use may justify the cost.  Simulation A simulator is any kind of equipment or technique that duplicates as nearly as possible the actual conditions encountered on the job. Simulation then, is an attempt to create a realistic decision-making environment for the trainee. For example, activities of an organization may be simulated and the trainee may be asked to make a decision in support to those activities. The results of those decisions are reported back to the trainee with an explanation of what would have happened had they actually been made in the workplace. The trainee learns from this feedback and improves his/her subsequent simulation and workplace decisions.  Case Study Case study is a written description of an actual situation in business that provokes, in the reader, the need to decide what is going on what the situation really is or what the problems are, and what can and should be done. Case study can provide stimulating discussions among participants, as well as excellence opportunities for individuals to defend their analytical and judgment abilities. 16
  17. 17. Training & Development. Amit's  Role Playing It generally focuses on emotional mainly human relations issues rather than actual ones. The essence of role-playing is to create a realistic situation, as in case study, and then have the trainees assume the parts of specific personalities in the situation. For example, a male worker may assume the role of a female supervisor, and the supervisor may assume the role of a male worker. Then, both may be given a typical work situation and asked to respond as they expect others to do. The consequence is a better understanding among individuals. Role-playing helps promote interpersonal relations. Attitude change is another result of role-playing.  Vestibule Training It utilizes equipment, which closely resembles the actual ones used on the job. However, training takes place away from the work environment. The trainee is then permitted to learn under simulated conditions, without disrupting ongoing operations. A primary advantage of vestibule training is that it relives the employee from the pressure of having to produce while learning. The emphasis is on learning skills required by the job. Of course, the cost of duplicate facilities and a special trainer is an obvious disadvantage.  Sensitivity Training Sensitivity training uses small numbers of trainees, usually fewer than 12 in a group. They meet with a passive trainer and gain insight into their own and others behaviour. Meetings have no agenda, are held away from the workplaces. The objectives of sensitivity training are to provide the participants with increased awareness of their own behaviour and how others perceive them-grater sensitivity to the behaviour of others, and increased understanding of group’s processes. The drawback of this method is that once the training is over, the participants are themselves again and they resort to their old habits. Sensitivity training can go by a 17
  18. 18. Training & Development. Amit's variety of names-laboratory training, encounter groups, or T-groups (training groups). CONDUCT OF TRAINING A final consideration is where the training and development programme is to be conducted. Actually, the decision comes down to the following choices: 1. At the job itself 2. On site but not the job-example, in a training room in the company. 3. Off the site, such as in a university or college classroom, hotel, a resort, or conferences center. Typically, basic skills are taught at the job, and basic grammar skills are taught on the site. Much of interpersonal and conceptual skills are learnt off the site. 18
  19. 19. Training & Development. Amit's IMPLEMENTATION OF THE TRAINING PROGRAMME. Once the training programme has been designed, it needs to be implemented. Implementation is beset with certain problems. In the first place, most managers are action-oriented and frequently say they are too busy to engage in training efforts. Secondly, availability of trainers is a problem. In addition to possessing communication skills, the trainers must know the company’s philosophy, its objectives, its formal and informal organizations, and goals of the training programme. Training and development requires a higher degree of creativity than, perhaps any other personnel specialty. Scheduling training around the present work is another problem. How to schedule training without disrupting the regular work? There is also the problem of record keeping about the performance of a trainee during his or her training period. This information may be useful to evaluate the progress of the trainee in the company. Programme implementation involves action on the following lines: 1. Deciding the location and organizing training and other facilities. 2. Scheduling the training programme. 3. Conducting the programme. 4. Monitoring the progress of trainees. 19
  20. 20. Training & Development. Amit's EVALUATION OF PROGRAMME The last stage in the training and development process is the evaluation of results. Since huge sums of money are spent on training and development, how far the programme has been useful must be judged/determined. Evaluation helps determine the results of the training and development programme. In practice, however, organizations either overlook or lack facilities for evaluation.  Need for Evaluation The main objective of evaluating the training programmes is to determine if they are accomplishing specific training objectives that are, correcting performance deficiencies. A second reason for evaluation is to ensure that any changes in trainee capabilities are due to the training programme and due to any other conditions. Training programmes should be evaluated to determine their cost effectiveness. Evaluation is useful to explain programme failure, should it occur. Finally, credibility of training and development is greatly enhanced when it is proved that organization has benefited tangibly from it.  Principles of Evaluation Evaluation of the training programme must be based on the following principles. 1. Evaluation specialist must be clear about the goals and purposes of evaluation. 2. Evaluation must be specific. 3. Evaluation must be continuous. 4. Evaluation must provide the means and focus for trainers to be able to appraise themselves, their practices, and their products. 5. Evaluation must be based on objective methods and standards. 20
  21. 21. Training & Development. Amit's 6. Realistic target dates must be set for each phase of the evaluation process. A sense of urgency must be developed, but deadlines that are unreasonably high will result in poor evaluation. E-LEARNING E-Learning refers to the use of Internet or an organizational intranet to conduct training on-line. E-learning is becoming increasingly popular because of the large number of employees, who need training. Take Wipro, for example, out of its 17,500 employees, 25, 00 are on site and 15,000 employees are in off-shore centres at Bangalore, Hyderabad, Chennai, Pune and Delhi. How to organize training for all these? Wipro also has a policy of subjecting any employee for a two-week training every year. E-learning helps Wipro considerably. Similarly, at Satyam nearly 80% of the employees are logged into the in-house learning management system for various courses. Infosys has almost 10% of its total training through e-learning. It is not that e-learning replaces traditional training system. In fact, e-learning becomes more effective when blended with traditional learning methods. Many firms use e-learning as a prerequisite before classroom training popularly called blended training, a combination of e-learning with classroom approach. Learning that requires discussion, tutoring and team-work can go on-line, though it might also stay in the classroom. 21
  22. 22. Training & Development. Amit's Requisites for E-Learning E-learning does not simply mean putting existing courses and materials on a website. Following requisites need to be provided before launching learning on-line. • Sufficient top management support and funding needs to be committed to develop and implement e-learning. • Managers and HR professionals need to be “retrained” to accept the idea that training is being decentralized and individualized. • Current training methods are not adequately meeting organizational training needs. • Potential learners are adequately computer literate and have ready access to computers and the Internet. • Sufficient number of learners exists and many of them are self-motivated to direct their own learning. 22
  23. 23. Training & Development. Amit's E-LEARNING ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES • It is self-paced. Trainees can proceed on their own time • May cause trainee anxiety • It is interactive, lapping multiple trainee senses • Not all trainees may be ready for e- learning • Allows for consistency in the delivery of training • Not all trainees may have easy and uninterrupted access to computers • Enables scoring of services/assessments and the appropriate feedback • Not appropriate for all training content (e.g. leadership, cultural change. • Incorporates built-in guidance and help of trainees to use when needed • Requires significant upfront cost and investment • It is relatively easy for trainers to update content • No significantly greater learning evidenced in research studies • Can be used to enhance instructor0led training. • Requires significant top management support to be successful HOW TO MAKE TRAINING EFFECTIVE. 23
  24. 24. Training & Development. Amit's 1. Ensure that the management commits itself to allocate major resources and adequate time to training. This is what high-performing organizations do. 2. Ensure that training contributes to competitive strategies of the firm. Different strategies need different HR skills for implementation. Let training help employees at all levels acquire the needed skills. 3. Ensure that a comprehensive and systematic approach to training exists, and training and retraining are done at all levels on a continuous and ongoing basis. 4. Make learning one of the fundamental values of the company. Let this philosophy percolate down to all employees in the organization. 5. Ensure that there is proper linkage among organizational, operational and individual training needs. 6. Create a system to evaluate the effectiveness of training. SUMMARY 24
  25. 25. Training & Development. Amit's Training and development activities are designed, considerable costs notwithstanding, to impart specific skills abilities and knowledge to employees. Distinction is often made between training and education, and between these two and development. Training refers to imparting specific skills. Education is the process of theoretical learning in classrooms. Development refers to the learning opportunities designed to help employees grow and evolve a vision about the future. All the three form a part of training and development-only target groups of employees differ. Training is confined to shop-floor workers and development is meant for executives. Education, of course is needed for all employees, irrespective of their hierarchy. Skills education, developments, ethics, attitudinal changes and decision- making skills must go into any programme of training and development. A programme of training and development is important as it lends stability and flexibility to an organization, besides contributing to its capacity to grow. Accident, scrap, and damage to machinery of employees will be taken care by training and development. Training process involves several steps • Defining organizational objectives and strategies, • Assessment of training needs, • Establishing training goals, • Devising the training programme, • Implementation of the programme, and 25
  26. 26. Training & Development. Amit's • Evaluation of the results Several barriers impede the effectiveness of training and there are ways of removing them. 26