Learners & teachers session 1)


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Knowing learners means effectiveness in class management

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Learners & teachers session 1)

  1. 1. Servicios Educativos Integrales 1 DIDACTIC RESOURCES Pablo Mejía Maldonado, Esp, MSc.
  2. 2. DIDACTIC RESOURCES TeachingLearning Approach Method Procedures Techniques Strategies Linguistic Competence Communicative Competence 1965- Noam Chomsky: how well people can form coherent and grammatically correct sentences 1966-Dell Hymes: 1980- Canale and Swain: Grammatical competence: words and rules Sociolinguistic Competence: appropriatness Discourse Competence: cohesion and coherence Stretegic Competence: appropriate use of communication strategies Refers to theories about the nature of language and language learning that serve as the source of practice and principles in language teaching. Is the practical realization of an approach Is an ordered sequence of techniques. Is a single activity rather than a sequence. FRIENDLY CLASSROOM ATMOSPHERE
  3. 3. 02/08/2013 3 DESCRIBING LEARNERS Teaching English to Kids, Adolescents and Adults
  5. 5. 02/08/2013 5 LEARNERS &TEACHERS Major factor How to teach What to teach Different needs Competences Cognitive skills
  6. 6. 02/08/2013 6 LEARNERS &TEACHERS children acquire SL or FL effortlessly Unmotivated uncooperative stereotypes adolescents adults Many barriers of learning: Age effect Past experience HARMER, Jeremy. The Practice of English Language Teaching. 2006.pg37
  7. 7. 02/08/2013 7 LEARNERS &TEACHERS Respond to meaning even if they do not understand individual words Often learn indirectly rather than directly Their understanding comes not just from explanation, but also from what they see, hear, touch and interact with Enthusiasm for learning and curiosity about the world around them Need individual attention and approval from the teacher Keen to talk about themselves and their own lives as main topics in the classroom Limited attention span: 10 min. rich learning experiences variety of resources Individual and group work WHAT TO DO?
  8. 8. 02/08/2013 8 LEARNERS &TEACHERS bright and colorful classroom classroom with windows enough room group work change activities every 10 min. puzzle-like activities making thingsdrawing things games physical movements songs
  9. 9. 02/08/2013 9 The methodologist, Penny Ur, suggests that teenage students are the best language learners. The search for the individual identity is the key challenge for this age group Identity has to be forged among classmates and friends Peer approval may be considerably more important for the student than the teacher attention. Adolescents push teachers to the limits supportive and constructive teacher make Ss become engaged use relevant and involving material build bridges through humanistic teaching Increase Ss’ self- esteem Use their own thoughts & experience WHAT TO DO? What to get?
  10. 10. 02/08/2013 10 unwillingness to speak in the target language disruptive behavior in class need for self-esteem boredom inaudible responses sleeping in classtardiness and poor attendance failure to do homework cheating in tests bullying other Ss damaging school property refusing to accept punishment The family education self-esteem frustration Non-engaged topics or tasks tiredness classroom atmosphere teacher attitude
  11. 11. 02/08/2013 11 1.-They can engage with abstract thought 2.- They have a whole range of life experiences to draw on. 3.- They have expectations about the learning process, and may already have their own set patterns of learning 4.- 5.- They come into class with a rich range of experiences which allow teachers to use a wide range of activities with them. can be critical of teaching methods can become anxious and under-confident about L a L older adults worry that their intellectual powers may be diminishing Stick with an activity for longer Indirect learning through reading, listening, and communicative speaking and writing 6.- They often have a clear understanding of why they are learning and what they want to get out of it.
  12. 12. 02/08/2013 12 aptitude good learner characteristics learner style language levels Individual variations
  13. 13. 02/08/2013 13 These are those students who by nature are solitary, prefer to avoid groups, and who are independent and confident in their own abilities. Most importantly they are analytic and can impose their own structure on learning. They tend to be cool and pragmatic. These are students who prefer to emphasize learning “about language” over learning to use it. They tend to be dependent on those in authority and are perfectly happy to work in non-communicative classrooms, doing what they are told. A classroom of conformists is one which prefers to see well-organized teachers.
  14. 14. 02/08/2013 14 Though they are like conformists. They also enjoy the social aspects of learning and like to learn from direct experiences. They are interested in language use and language as communication rather than language as a system. They enjoy games and groupwork in class. These are language use oriented. They are comfortable out of class and show a degree of confidence and a willingness to take risk which the colleagues may lack. They are much more interested in social interaction with other speakers of the language than they are with analysis of how the language works. They are perfectly happy to operate without the guidance of a teacher.
  15. 15. 02/08/2013 15 Some students are better at learning languages than others. Linguistic traditional aptitude tests Discriminate between the most and the least intelligent students analytic aptitute test: optimistic about all the people in class
  16. 16. 02/08/2013 16 self-reliant positive task orientation creative high aspirations ego involvement goal orientation their-own-way finders perseverant learning autonomy promoters
  17. 17. 02/08/2013 17 Neuro-linguistic programming MI Theory
  18. 18. 02/08/2013 18 Advanced High Intermediate Intermediate Pre Intermediate Elementary Beginners – False beginners TOEFL TOEIC UCLES Teaching Of English as a Foreign Language Teaching Of English for International Communication University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate
  19. 19. 02/08/2013 19 THE PLATEAU EFFECT: Learners at the Biginner level find it easy to see progress while at higher levels students do not find it easy to see where they are going. METHODOLOGY: Repetition is more effective and appropriate for lower students. Discovering Learning is more desirable at any level, eventhough it is more widely used with intermediate students. Whole class discussion works much better with higher students LANGUAGE: It needs to be adjusted to the classroom language and the level we are working with. TOPICS: It is important to match the topics to the level, reserving complex issues for more advanced classes
  20. 20. 02/08/2013 20 Multiple Intelligences vs Learning Styles TYPE LIKES TO IS GOOD AT LEARNS BEST AT LINGUISTIC LEARNER The word player Read, write, tell stories Memorizing names, places, dates and trivia Saying, hearing, and seeing words LOGICAL – MATHEMATICAL The questioner Do experiments, figure things out, work things out, work with numbers, ask questions, explore patterns and relationships. Maths, reasoning, logic and problem solving Categorizing, classifying, working with abstract patterns / relationships. SPATIAL LEARNER The visualizer Draw, build, design and create things, daydream, look at pictures, watch movies, play with machines Imagining things, sensing changing, mazes / puzzles, reading maps, charts. Visualizing, dreaming, using the mind’s eyes, working with colors and pictures MUSICAL LEARNER The music lover Sing, hum tunes, listen to music, play an instrument, respond to music Picking up sounds, remembering melodies, noticing pitches, / rhythms, keeping time Rhythm, melody, music BODILY – KINAESTHETIC LEARNER Move around, touch, and talk, use body language Physical activities: sport / dancing / acting. Touching, moving, interacting with space, processing knowledge through bodily sensations INTERPERSONAL LEARNER The socializer Have lots of friends, talk to people, join groups Understanding people, leading others, organizing, communicating, manipulating, mediating conflicts Sharing, comparing, relating, cooperating, interviewing INTRAPERSONAL LEARNER Work alone, pursue own interests Understanding self, focusing inward on feelings, / dreams following instincts, pursuing interest / goals, being original Working alone, individualized projects, self-paced instruction, having own space.
  21. 21. 02/08/2013 21 It is a number of use of “primary representational systems” to experience the world Visual; what we look and see Auditory; what we hear and listen Kinaesthetic; what we feel internally, externally, or through movement Olfactory; what we smell Gustatory; what we taste This is a framework to analyze different student responses to stimuli and environments
  22. 22. 02/08/2013 22 Pablo Mejía Maldonado. Esp, MSc