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CHAPTER                       15Chemical and PhaseEquilibrium
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 15-1A reactionchamber t...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 15-2Equilibrium criteri...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 15-3A control massunder...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 15-4Criteria for chemic...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 15-5An infinitesimal re...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 15-7Three equivalent Kp...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 15-9The larger the KP,t...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 15-10The presence of in...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 15-11Equilibrium-consta...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 15-14The number of KP r...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 15-16Exothermicreaction...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 15-18A liquid–vapor mix...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 15-20A multicomponentmu...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 15-21Equilibriumdiagram...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 15-22Unlike temperature...
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 15-23Dissolved gases in...
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Cengel ch15

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Transcript of "Cengel ch15"

  1. 1. CHAPTER 15Chemical and PhaseEquilibrium
  2. 2. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 15-1A reactionchamber thatcontains amixture of CO2,CO, and O2 at aspecifiedtemperature andpressure.15-1
  3. 3. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 15-2Equilibrium criteriafor a chemicalreaction that takesplace adiabatically.15-2
  4. 4. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 15-3A control massundergoing a chemicalreaction at a specifiedtemperature andpressure.15-3
  5. 5. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 15-4Criteria for chemicalequilibrium at aspecified temperatureand pressure.15-4
  6. 6. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 15-5An infinitesimal reaction in achamber at constant temperatureand pressure.15-5
  7. 7. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 15-7Three equivalent Kp relationsfor reacting ideal-gas mixtures.15-6
  8. 8. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 15-9The larger the KP,the more completethe reaction.15-7
  9. 9. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 15-10The presence of inertgases does not affectthe equilibriumconstant, but it doesaffect the equilibriumcomposition.15-8
  10. 10. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 15-11Equilibrium-constantrelation for theionization reaction ofhydrogen.15-9
  11. 11. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 15-14The number of KP relations needed todetermine the equilibriumcomposition of a reacting mixture isthe difference between the number ofspecies and the number of elements.15-10
  12. 12. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 15-16Exothermicreactions are lesscomplete at highertemperatures.15-11
  13. 13. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 15-18A liquid–vapor mixture inequilibrium at a constanttemperature and pressure.15-12
  14. 14. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 15-20A multicomponentmultiphase system is inphase equilibrium whenthe specific Gibbsfunction of eachcomponent is the same inall phases.15-13
  15. 15. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 15-21Equilibriumdiagram for thetwo-phase mixtureof oxygen andnitrogen at 0.1 MPa.15-14
  16. 16. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 15-22Unlike temperature,the mole fraction ofspecies on the twosides of a liquid–gas(or solid–gas orsolid–liquid)interface are usuallynot the same.15-15
  17. 17. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 15-23Dissolved gases in aliquid can be drivenoff by heating theliquid.15-16
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