Cengel ch15
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Cengel ch15 Cengel ch15 Presentation Transcript

  • CHAPTER 15Chemical and PhaseEquilibrium
  • Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 15-1A reactionchamber thatcontains amixture of CO2,CO, and O2 at aspecifiedtemperature andpressure.15-1
  • Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 15-2Equilibrium criteriafor a chemicalreaction that takesplace adiabatically.15-2
  • Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 15-3A control massundergoing a chemicalreaction at a specifiedtemperature andpressure.15-3
  • Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 15-4Criteria for chemicalequilibrium at aspecified temperatureand pressure.15-4
  • Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 15-5An infinitesimal reaction in achamber at constant temperatureand pressure.15-5
  • Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 15-7Three equivalent Kp relationsfor reacting ideal-gas mixtures.15-6
  • Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 15-9The larger the KP,the more completethe reaction.15-7
  • Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 15-10The presence of inertgases does not affectthe equilibriumconstant, but it doesaffect the equilibriumcomposition.15-8
  • Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 15-11Equilibrium-constantrelation for theionization reaction ofhydrogen.15-9
  • Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 15-14The number of KP relations needed todetermine the equilibriumcomposition of a reacting mixture isthe difference between the number ofspecies and the number of elements.15-10
  • Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 15-16Exothermicreactions are lesscomplete at highertemperatures.15-11
  • Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 15-18A liquid–vapor mixture inequilibrium at a constanttemperature and pressure.15-12
  • Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 15-20A multicomponentmultiphase system is inphase equilibrium whenthe specific Gibbsfunction of eachcomponent is the same inall phases.15-13
  • Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 15-21Equilibriumdiagram for thetwo-phase mixtureof oxygen andnitrogen at 0.1 MPa.15-14
  • Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 15-22Unlike temperature,the mole fraction ofspecies on the twosides of a liquid–gas(or solid–gas orsolid–liquid)interface are usuallynot the same.15-15
  • Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.FIGURE 15-23Dissolved gases in aliquid can be drivenoff by heating theliquid.15-16