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T & T2111

  1. 2. Name - Nutan khatri Batch – D-4 Subject – Air Travel Industry Submitted to – Ms Nirali shah
  2. 3. I want to share my heartily gratitude to all who Help me in completion of this presentation in any manner.
  3. 4. <ul><li>Today I am going to sell a product that is tour package for that I will be describing four countries from Africa continent Egypt, Kenya , Tanzania, south Africa , their history ,tourist attractions , restrictions, documents required for visit ,etc. </li></ul>
  4. 6. <ul><li>Capital - Cairo (and largest city) </li></ul><ul><li>Official languages – Arabic </li></ul><ul><li>Currency - Egyptian pound (EGP) </li></ul><ul><li>Drives on the - right </li></ul><ul><li>Calling code - 20 </li></ul>
  5. 7. Egyptian history dates back to about 4000 B.C. , when the kingdoms of upper and lower Egypt, already highly sophisticated, were united. Egypt's golden age coincided with the 18th and 19th dynasties (16th to 13th century B.C. ), during which the empire was established. Persia conquered Egypt in 525 B.C. , Alexander the Great subdued it in 332 B.C. , and then the dynasty of the Ptolemies ruled the land until 30 B.C. , when Cleopatra, last of the line, committed suicide and Egypt became a Roman, then Byzantine, province. Arab caliphs ruled Egypt from 641 until 1517, when the Turks took it for their Ottoman Empire. Napoléon's armies occupied the country from 1798 to 1801. In 1805, Mohammed Ali, leader of a band of Albanian soldiers, became pasha of Egypt. After completion of the Suez Canal in 1869, the French and British took increasing interest in Egypt. British troops occupied Egypt in 1882, and British resident agents became its actual administrators, though it remained under nominal Turkish sovereignty. In 1914, this fiction was ended, and Egypt became a protectorate of Britain. Egyptian nationalism, led by Zaghlul Pasha and the Wafd Party, forced Britain to relinquish its claims on the country. Egypt became an independent sovereign state on Feb. 28, 1922, with Fu'ad I as its king. In 1936, by an Anglo-Egyptian treaty of alliance, all British troops and officials were to be withdrawn, except from the Suez Canal Zone. When World War II started, Egypt remained neutral
  6. 8. Tensions grew between the Wafd Party and the monarchy following independence, and in 1952, the army, led by Gen. Mohammed Naguib, seized power. Three days later, King Farouk abdicated in favor of his infant son. The monarchy was abolished and a republic proclaimed on June 18, 1953, with Naguib becoming president and prime minister. He relinquished the prime ministership in 1954 to Gamal Abdel Nasser, leader of the ruling military junta. Nasser also assumed the presidency in 1956. Nasser's policies embroiled his country in continual conflict. In 1956, the U.S. and Britain withdrew their pledges of financial aid for the building of the Aswan High Dam. In response, Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal and expelled British oil and embassy officials. The Soviet Union then agreed to finance the dam and would come to exert increasing influence over Egypt in the coming decade. Israel, barred from the canal and exasperated by terrorist raids, invaded the Gaza Strip and the Sinai Peninsula. Britain and France, after demanding Egyptian evacuation of the canal zone, attacked Egypt on Oct. 31, 1956. Worldwide pressure forced Britain, France, and Israel to halt the hostilities. A UN emergency force occupied the canal zone, and all troops were evacuated in the spring of 1957. From 1956 to 1961, Egypt and Syria united to form a single country called the United Arab Republic (UAR). Syria ended this relationship in 1961 after a military coup, but Egypt continued to call itself the UAR until 1971.
  7. 10. Giza is famous for the Giza Plateau, which is the site of some of the most impressive ancient monuments in the world. The Great Pyramid of Giza, also known as Khufu's Pyramid or Pyramid of Cheops, is the oldest and largest of the ancient pyramids in the Giza Necropolis, and was constructed around 2560 BC.
  8. 11. <ul><li>The Egyptian Museum houses the most elaborate display of Egyptian antiquities that you can every hope to see. It is massive -- it is impossible to see the whole thing in detail in one day. The first floor is home to relics from the Old, Middle, and new Kingdoms, most notably the statue of Akhenaton in the main foyer and Hathor suckling from the cow in the very back. </li></ul>
  9. 12. Khan el khalili bazaar : one of Cairo's most important shopping areas. But more than that, they represent the market tradition which established Cairo as a major center of trade, and at the Khan, one will still find foreign merchants.
  10. 13. Papyrus is an important plant to the people of Egypt, and one that is associated with the priceless Egyptian scrolls. All art work is done on papyrus paper only . Papyrus institute
  11. 14. The Nile cruiser often consider as a floating hotel. It explores a luxuries way of travel. You can travel to Luxor, kom ombo, Edfu by Nile cruise.
  12. 15. Kom ombo: Everything is duplicated along the main axis.  There are two entrances, two courts, two colonades, two hypostyle halls and two sanctuaries. 
  13. 16. Luxor, was built in the heart of the ancient city, and was dedicated to the god Amun. Today the temple is a major attraction, with tourists from the cruise boats almost forming a continuous chain as they walk from their mooring points, along the road that runs along by the river, to the temple site. Luxor
  14. 18. EDFU temple : The impressive twin towered entrance pylon with two statues of the falcon headed god Horus guarding the main entrance. The walls are carved with reliefs depicting the Pharaoh smiting his enemies. The four grooves were for flag masts.
  15. 20. <ul><li>Capital - (and largest city) Nairobi </li></ul><ul><li>Official languages- Swahili, English ] </li></ul><ul><li>Currency- Kenyan shilling (KES) </li></ul><ul><li>Drives on the- left </li></ul><ul><li>Calling code- 254 </li></ul>
  16. 21. <ul><li>Until 1920 the area that is now Kenya was called the British East African Protectorate. Kenya The country is named after Mount Kenya, a significant landmark and the second among the highest mountain peaks of Africa. The Portuguese were the first Europeans to explore the region of current-day Kenya, Vasco de Gama having visited Mombasa in 1498. However, most historians consider that the colonial history of Kenya dates from the establishment of a German protectorate over the Sultan of Zanzibar's coastal possessions in 1885, followed by the arrival of the Imperial British East Africa Company in 1888. The Kenyan coast had served host to communities of ironworkers and communities of subsistence farmers, hunters and fishers who supported the economy with agriculture, fishing, metal production and trade with foreign countries. Around the 6th or 9th century CE Kenya switched to a maritime-based economy and began to specialize in shipbuilding to travel south by sea to other port cities such as Kilwa and Shanga along the East African coast. </li></ul>
  17. 22. <ul><li>Mombasa became the major port city of pre-colonial Kenya in the Middle Ages and was used to trade with other African port cities, Persia, Arab traders, Yemen and even India . Paleontologists believe people may first have inhabited Kenya about 2 million years ago. In the 700s, Arab seafarers established settlements along the coast, and the Portuguese took control of the area in the early 1500s. More than 40 ethnic groups reside in Kenya. Its largest group, the Kikuyu, migrated to the region at the beginning of the 18th century. The land became a British protectorate in 1890 and a Crown colony in 1920, called British East Africa. Nationalist stirrings began in the 1940s, and in 1952 the Mau Mau movement, made up of Kikuyu militants, rebelled against the government. The fighting lasted until 1956. On Dec. 12, 1963, Kenya achieved full independence. Jomo Kenyatta, a nationalist leader during the fight to win independence who had been jailed by the British, was its first president. From 1964 to 1992, the country was ruled as a one-party state by the Kenya African National Union (KANU), first under Kenyatta, and then under Daniel arap Moi. Demonstrations and riots put pressure on Moi to allow multiparty elections in 1992. </li></ul>
  18. 24. Mount kenya national park: It is situated at the slope of mt. kenya , and has a large number of wild life . Zebra's are the main attraction of the national park .
  19. 25. Masai mara: Masai Mara National Reserve, an undisputed paradise for the sheer quantity and variety of wildlife. Renowned for its lions and for the annual Great Wildebeest Migration, Kenya's greatest reserve is as magical as your wildest safari dreams.
  20. 28. Lake Nakuru: The main attraction for tourists at Lake Nakuru National Park is enormous flocks of pastel pink flamingo. Lake Nakuru set in a picturesque landscape of surrounding woodland and grassland next to Nakuru town. You have a chance to see the white rhino and sighting of leopards at Lake Nakuru. You can get a close view of the pink flamingos and other water birds – a total of 450 varieties.
  21. 29. Makalia Falls, Lake Nakuru
  22. 31. <ul><li>Capital – Dodoma </li></ul><ul><li>Largest city –D ar es Salaam </li></ul><ul><li>Currency - Tanzanian shilling (TZS) </li></ul><ul><li>Calling code - 255 </li></ul><ul><li>Drives on the - left </li></ul>
  23. 32. <ul><li>Arab traders first began to colonize the area in 700. Portuguese explorers reached the coastal regions in 1500 and held some control until the 17th century, when the sultan of Oman took power. With what are now Burundi and Rwanda, Tanganyika became the colony of German East Africa in 1885. After World War I, it was administered by Britain under a League of Nations mandate and later as a UN trust territory. </li></ul><ul><li>Although not mentioned in old histories until the 12th century, Zanzibar was always believed to have had connections with southern Arabia. The Portuguese made it one of their tributaries in 1503 and later established a trading post, but they were driven from Oman by Arabs in 1698. Zanzibar was declared independent of Oman in 1861 and, in 1890, it became a British protectorate </li></ul>
  24. 33. Tanganyika became independent on Dec. 9, 1961; Zanzibar on Dec. 10, 1963. On April 26, 1964, the two nations merged into the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar. The name was changed to Tanzania six months later. An invasion by Ugandan troops in Nov. 1978 was followed by a counterattack in Jan. 1979, in which 5,000 Tanzanian troops were joined by 3,000 Ugandan exiles opposed to President Idi Amin. Within a month, full-scale war developed. Tanzanian president Julius Nyerere kept troops in Uganda in open support of former Ugandan president Milton Obote, despite protests from opposition groups, until the national elections in Dec. 1980. In Nov. 1985, Nyerere stepped down as president. Ali Hassan Mwinyi, his vice president, succeeded him. Running unopposed, Mwinyi was elected president in October. Shortly thereafter plans were announced to study the benefits of instituting a multiparty democracy, and in Oct. 1995 the country's first multiparty elections since independence took place.
  25. 34. Often called &quot;Africa's Eden&quot; and the &quot;8th Natural Wonder of the World,&quot; this collapsed volcano (a &quot;caldera&quot;) is located in the Ngorongoro Conservation Area. This is a natural sanctuary for thousands of birds, insects and animals such as lions, zebra, black rhino and wildebeest, all free to wander.
  26. 35. This is one of the best places in Africa to see lion and cheetah close up. The vast, open grasslands of the Serengeti are without doubt one of Africa's finest wildlife areas, and being there at the height of the migration is a never-to-be-forgotten experience.
  27. 36. This unusual park lies in the shadow of the Great Rift Valley whose reddish brown escarpment wall looms 1,950 feet high (600 meters) on the eastern horizon. Waterfalls spill over the cliff and hot springs bubble to the surface in the south.
  28. 38. <ul><li>Capital - cape town </li></ul><ul><li>Largest city- Johannesburg </li></ul><ul><li>Currency- Rand (ZAR) </li></ul><ul><li>Drive on the - left </li></ul><ul><li>Official languages - Afrikaans English, Southern Ndebele, Northern Sotho, Southern Sotho, Swazi, Tsonga, Tswana, Venda, Xhosa, Zulu </li></ul>
  29. 39. The San people were the first settlers; the Khoikhoi and Bantu-speaking tribes followed. The Dutch East India Company landed the first European settlers on the Cape of Good Hope in 1652, launching a colony that by the end of the 18th century numbered only about 15,000. Known as Boers or Afrikaners, and speaking a Dutch dialect known as Afrikaans, the settlers as early as 1795 tried to establish an independent republic. After occupying the Cape Colony in that year, Britain took permanent possession in 1815 at the end of the Napoleonic Wars, bringing in 5,000 settlers. Anglicization of government and the freeing of slaves in 1833 drove about 12,000 Afrikaners to make the “great trek” north and east into African tribal territory, where they established the republics of the Transvaal and the Orange Free State. The discovery of diamonds in 1867 and gold nine years later brought an influx of “outlanders” into the republics and spurred Cape Colony prime minister Cecil Rhodes to plot annexation. Rhodes's scheme of sparking an “outlander” rebellion, to which an armed party under Leander Starr Jameson would ride to the rescue, misfired in 1895, forcing Rhodes to resign. What British expansionists called the “inevitable” war with the Boers broke out on Oct. 11, 1899. The defeat of the Boers in 1902 led in 1910 to the Union of South Africa, composed of four provinces, the two former republics, and the old Cape and Natal colonies. Louis Botha, a Boer, became the first prime minister. Organized political activity among Africans started with the establishment of the African National Congress in 1912.
  30. 40. Jan Christiaan Smuts brought the nation into World War II on the Allied side against Nationalist opposition, and South Africa became a charter member of the United Nations in 1945, but he refused to sign the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Apartheid—racial separation—dominated domestic politics as the Nationalists gained power and imposed greater restrictions on Bantus (black Africans), Asians, and Coloreds (in South Africa the term meant any nonwhite person). Black voters were removed from the voter rolls in 1936. Over the next half-century, the nonwhite population of South Africa was forced out of designated white areas. The Group Areas Acts of 1950 and 1986 forced about 1.5 million Africans to move from cities to rural townships, where they lived in abject poverty under repressive laws. In 1991, a multiracial forum led by de Klerk and Mandela, the Convention for a Democratic South Africa (CODESA), began working on a new constitution. In 1993, an interim constitution was passed, which dismantled apartheid and provided for a multiracial democracy with majority rule. The peaceful transition of South Africa from one of the world's most repressive societies into a democracy is one of the 20th century's most remarkable success stories. Mandela and de Klerk were jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993. In 1997 the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, chaired by Desmond Tutu, began hearings regarding human rights violations between 1960 and 1993. The commission promised amnesty to those who confessed their crimes under the apartheid system. In 1998, F. W. de Klerk, P.W. Botha, and leaders of the ANC appeared before the commission, and the nation continued to grapple with its enlightened but often painful and divisive process of national recovery.
  31. 42. Cape of good hope : It is the south most part of the continent Africa. It is to said two ocean Indian & pacific meets over there . For the early seafarers the Cape of Good Hope marked the turning point in their luck because once the &quot;Cape of Storms&quot;, as Bartholomeus Diaz called it in 1488, had been passed, the battle against the sea was basically won.
  32. 43. The castle of good hope : The castle is home to an art collection and the William Fehr Collection, historic military memorabilia and artillery and other display items that reveal its history.
  33. 44. Table Mountain is the definitive symbol of Cape Town. It dominates all photographs of the Mother City and is a part of everyday life even if you never set foot on its hallowed slopes.
  34. 45. Victoria & Alfred water front : Situated between Robben Island and Table Mountain in the heart of Cape Town's working harbour, the V&A Waterfront has become South Africa's most visited destination. Set against a backdrop of magnificent sea and mountain views.
  35. 46. <ul><li>Beach is just down the road from Simons Town n on the False Bay coast, so not only is the water is a little warmer and the scenery stunning, but you'll find an interesting wildlife relationship in action: here it's the penguins who rule and the people who make way for their diminutive neighbours. </li></ul>
  36. 48. Johannesburg Apartheid Museum : The Apartheid Museum is a very interesting museum complex in Johannesburg, dedicated to illustrating apartheid and post-apartheid history of South Africa. Located alongside Gold Reef City, it has many exhibits, created by a team of curators, filmmakers, historians, and designers.
  37. 49. Johannesburg Skyline : Home to some of the tallest structures of Africa, Johannesburg contains many skyscrapers, the most notable being the Sentech Tower, Hill brow Tower and the Carlton Centre. The observation deck of the Carlton Centre should not be missed, because it provides panoramic views of the entire city.
  38. 50. Gold Reef City: it is part of the over 100 km long gold reef that lays below the city of Johannesburg. Escorted tours explore the underground and one can attend demonstrations as to how gold is &quot;made&quot;.
  39. 51. Sun City Located just 187 km from Johannesburg, Sun City is a luxurious South African casino resort near the city of Rustenburg. Often called the South African Las Vegas, it has casinos, 2 golf courses, safaris and wildlife tours (in the nearby Pilanesberg National Park) , as well as a theme park. Sun City has been awarded the Gold Heritage classification for its responsible eco-tourism practices
  40. 52. <ul><li>Meet & Greet </li></ul><ul><li>In-flight Entertainment </li></ul><ul><li>On Board Shopping </li></ul><ul><li>choice of meal </li></ul><ul><li>Magazines and News papers </li></ul><ul><li>Wi-Fi network </li></ul>
  41. 53. Bassinets are available on board for infants; however it is advisable to call your airline to make the necessary reservations at least 48 hours before boarding, as your infant's height and/or weight may make bassinets unusable for them from a safety and comfort standpoint. Bassinet
  42. 54. Check email, surf the web, and login to your company's VPN—all from your seat. In-flight Wi-Fi access is available on many flights, Recharge your batteries right from your seat. Be more productive with in-flight power adapters for you laptop and other mobile devices. Wi-Fi network
  43. 55. LCD screens displaying the flight route can be used to watch movies too. They provide us games & music for internment. In-flight Entertainment
  44. 56. Just because you're 30,000 feet in the air doesn't mean you can't shop. You can choose from 120 items, including perfumes, cosmetics, beverages, gifts, bijouterie, watches, and fashion accessories.
  45. 58. AVML Contains only plant-derived foods and dairy products. Meals are cooked Indian style.
  46. 59. Hindu (HNML) No beef/veal or pork is used in the preparation of Hindu meals. However lamb, fowl, fish and milk products are allowed.
  47. 60. BBML (Baby Meal): Vegetable and fruit based meals for baby will be available on flights
  48. 61. Low Salt (LSML) No salt is used in the preparation of these meals and highly salted ingredients are avoided.
  49. 63. Mission: To represent, lead and serve the airline industry. IATA - International Air Transport Association IATA was founded in Havana, Cuba, in April 1945. Leadership Chairman of IATA Board of Governors (2009-2010), Tony Tyler, CEO, Cathay Pacific Airways IATA Director General and CEO, Giovanni Bisignani Membership  IATA membership: some 230 airlines, 125 countries. Flights by IATA members represent 93% of world’s international scheduled traffic (Available Seat Kilometers)  IATA members total freight – 42.4 million tonnes in 2008, of which 28.2 million tones were international IATA members total passengers 2008 (scheduled) - 1.6 billion of which 709 million were international IATA Offices IATA has 74 offices in 68 countries covering 148 nations  Head Office:  Montreal, Canada Executive Office: Geneva, Switzerland Regional Offices in Amman, Beijing, Johannesburg, Miami, Moscow, Singapore, Washington Giovanni Bisignani joined the International Air Transport Association as Director General & CEO in June 2002. Since that time Mr. Bisignani has completely re-shaped and re-focused the organization to better serve its global membership of 230 airlines with a mission to represent, lead and serve the air transport industry. While securely managing
  50. 64. UFTAA -The United Federation of Travel Agents’ Associations <ul><li>The United Federation of Travel Agents’ Associations (UFTAA) emanates from the </li></ul><ul><li>Universal Federation of Travel Agents’ Associations created in Rome, Italy, on November 22nd, 1966. UFTAA was originally founded as a result of a merger of two large world organizations, FIAV and UOTAA, recognizing the need to unify travel agencies and tour-operators into one international federation. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1989, coming from Brussels, UFTAA set up its General Secretariat in the Principality of Monaco. </li></ul><ul><li>UFTAA started its operation as a Confederation on January 1st, 2003. It is a non-profit Confederation of international scope, representing Regional Federations comprising some 80 national associations . </li></ul><ul><li>UFTAA is a world body representing the travel agency and tourism industry. UFTAA effectively represents Travel Agents and Tour Operators views on both Inbound and Outbound travel by continuous dialogue and consultation with other international organizations such as the International Air Transport Association (IATA), the International Hotel and Restaurant Association (IH&RA) the International Union of Railways (IUR), the International Road Union (IRU), and the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) to mention only a few. UFTAA has consultative status with the UN/NGO/ECOSOC, and works closely with other world bodies such as UNESCO, WHO etc for a sustainable and responsible tourism. UFTAA is an affiliate member of the World Tourism Organization (WTO) and its Business Council (WTOBC). UFTAA is a world body representing the travel agency and tourism industry. UFTAA effectively represents Travel Agents and Tour Operators views on both Inbound and Outbound travel by continuous dialogue and consultation with other international organizations such as the International Air Transport Association (IATA), the International Hotel and Restaurant Association (IH&RA) the International Union of Railways (IUR), the International Road Union (IRU), and the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) to mention only a few. UFTAA has consultative status with the UN/NGO/ECOSOC, and works closely with other world bodies such as UNESCO, WHO etc for a sustainable and responsible tourism. UFTAA is an affiliate member of the World Tourism Organization (WTO) and its Business Council (WTOBC). UFTAA is a world body representing the travel agency and tourism industry. </li></ul>About the United Federation of Travel Agents’ Associations
  51. 65. The Pacific Asia Travel Association (PATA) is an organization aiming to promote the sustainable development of tourism in the Asia-Pacific region Founded in 1951, the Pacific Asia Travel Association (PATA) continues to be the leading authority, advocate and catalyst for the responsible development of Asia Pacific’s travel and tourism industry. PATA's uniquely structured organization has helped unite the many facets of tourism in the region. PATA provides leadership and advocacy to the collective efforts of nearly 100 government, state and city tourism bodies, more than 55 airlines and cruise lines, and hundreds of travel industry companies. In addition, thousands of travel professionals belong to a global network of PATA chapters.   Through PATA’s unique partnerships with and between its members, it continues to enhance the sustainable growth, value and quality of travel and tourism to, from and within Asia Pacific -- the world’s most dynamic region. PATA : the Pacific Asia Travel Association
  52. 66. ICAO : The International Civil Aviation Organization The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), an agency of the United nations, codifies the principles and techniques of international air navigation and fosters the planning and development of international air transport to ensure safe and orderly growth. Its headquarters are located in the quainter international of Montreal, Canada. The International Civil Aviation Organization, a UN Specialized Agency, is the global forum for civil aviation. ICAO works to achieve its vision of safe, secure and sustainable development of civil aviation through cooperation amongst its member States. ICAO's activities in the environment field are primarily focused on those problems that benefit most from a common co-ordinated approach, on a worldwide basis, namely aircraft noise and the impact of aircraft engine emissions. Most of this work is undertaken through the ICAO Council's Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection (CAEP), which consists of Members and Observers from States, intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations representing aviation industry and environmental interests. ICAO maintains close relations with other UN policy-making bodies that have expressed an interest in civil aviation, notably with the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, to which it provides regular statements on ICAO's emission-related activities.ICAO has produced a number of publications and held some organized workshops in this field.
  53. 67. <ul><li>The Warsaw Convention is an international convention which regulates liability for international carriage of persons, luggage or goods performed by aircraft for reward. </li></ul><ul><li>Originally signed in 1929 in Warsaw (hence the name), it was amended in 1955 at The Hague and in 1975 in Montreal. United States courts have held that, at least for some purposes, the Warsaw Convention is a different instrument from the Warsaw Convention as Amended by the Hague Protocol. </li></ul><ul><li>In particular, the Warsaw Convention: </li></ul><ul><li>mandates carriers to issue passenger tickets; </li></ul><ul><li>requires carriers to issue baggage checks for checked luggage; </li></ul><ul><li>creates a limitation period of 2 years within which a claim must be brought (Article 29); and </li></ul><ul><li>limits a carrier's liability to at most: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>250,000 Francs or 16,600 Special Drawing Rights (SDR) for personal injury; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>17 SDR per kilogram for checked luggage and cargo, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5,000 Francs or 332 SDR for the hand luggage of a traveler. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The sums limiting liability were originally given in Francs (defined in terms of a particular quantity of gold by article 22 paragraph 5 of the convention). These sums were amended by the Montreal Additional Protocol No. 2 to substitute an expression given in terms of SDR's. These sums are valid in the absence of a differing agreement (on a higher sum) with the carrier. Agreements on lower sums are null and void. </li></ul><ul><li>On June 1, 2009, the exchange rate was 1.00 SDR = 1.088 EUR or 1.00 SDR = 1.548 USD . </li></ul><ul><li>A court may also award a claiming party's costs, unless the carrier made an offer within 6 months of the loss (or at least 6 months before the beginning of any legal proceedings) which the claiming party has failed to beat. </li></ul>
  54. 68. The Convention on International Civil Aviation , also known as the Chicago Convention , established the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), a specialized agency of the United Nations charged with coordinating and regulating international air travel. The Convention establishes rules of airspace, aircraft registration and safety, and details the rights of the signatories in relation to air travel. The Convention also exempts air fuels from tax. Convention on International Civil Aviation (also known as Chicago Convention), was signed on 7 December 1944 by 52 States. Pending ratification of the Convention by 26 States, the Provisional International Civil Aviation Organization (PICAO) was established. It functioned from 6 June 1945 until 4 April 1947. By 5 March 1947 the 26th ratification was received. ICAO came into being on 4 April 1947. In October of the same year, ICAO became a specialized agency of the United Nations linked to Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC). The Convention on International Civil Aviation set forth the purpose of ICAO:&quot;WHEREAS the future development of international civil aviation can greatly help to create and preserve friendship and understanding among the nations and peoples of the world, yet its abuse can become a threat to the general security; and WHEREAS it is desirable to avoid friction and to promote that co-operation between nations and peoples upon which the peace of the world depends; THEREFORE, the undersigned governments having agreed on certain principles and arrangements in order that international civil aviation may be developed in a safe and orderly manner and that international air transport services may be established on the basis of equality of opportunity and operated soundly and economically; Have accordingly concluded this Convention to that end.&quot;
  55. 70. Import regulations:: Free import (irrespective of age): 1. 200 cigarettes or 25 cigars or 200 grammes of tobacco; 2. 1 litre of alcoholic beverages; 3. a reasonable quantity of perfume and 1 liter of Eau de Cologne; 4. non-commercial articles up to a value of EGP 100.-; 5. personal effects, including electric appliances such as a razor or a hair dryer; 6. provided registered in passport (or passport replacing document), in small units and for personal use: articles such as a camera, radio, recorder, bathing, diving or fishing equipment, a small generator set etc. In case such articles are not exported, customs taxes and duties will be levied. Prohibited: - narcotics, drugs, cotton; - all kinds of live, frozen or stuffed birds or any bird derived product. Export regulations:: Free export of the same articles as shown under &quot;free import&quot; which have been imported by passenger. Prohibited: - drugs and food; - gold and silver, purchased on the local market, unless in very small quantities and for personal use.
  56. 71. Import regulations:: Free import by passengers of 16 years or older:  - 1/2 lb. of tobacco or 200 cigarettes or 50 cigars; - 1 bottle of alcoholic beverages; - 1 pint of perfume. Prohibited is the import of fruit, imitation firearms, children's ' toy pistols, etc. Meat and meat products or any product from domestic or wild poultry, which must be declared and destroyed. Export regulations:: Free export of a reasonable quantity of tobacco products and alcoholic beverages. Skin or game trophies require an export permit. Prohibited of export are gold and diamonds and skin or game trophies, which are not obtained from the authorized personnel of the Government of Kenya. Kenya
  57. 72. Import regulations:: Free import of: 1. 250 grammas of tobacco or 200 cigarettes or 50 cigars; 2. 1 bottle of alcoholic beverages; 3. 1 pint of perfume. Arms and Ammunition regulations:: It is advisable to obtain a permit from the police in advance as firearms will be lodged with customs, pending the issue of the permit. Wild Fauna and Flora:: For plants and plant products a phytosanitary certificate is required. For fruits an additional declaration that Xanthomonas citri (Hasse) Dowson does not occur in the country of origin is required. Export regulation :: Free export of a reasonable quantity of tobacco products and alcoholic beverages. Pets:: Health Certificate of competent veterinary surgeon is required. All live animals are subject to inspection on arrival and will be kept in quarantine for a certain period. Dogs and cats must have been vaccinated against rabies. Dogs: less than 3 years and 6 months at the latest prior to arrival. Cats: less than 1 year and 1 month at the latest prior to arrival.
  58. 73. Free import of: 1. 200 cigarettes and 50 cigars and 250 g of tobacco ; 2. 2 bottles (2 litres) of wine and 1 bottle (1 liter) of spirits or liquor 3. 50 ml. of perfume and 250 ml. of eau de toilette per person; 4. other goods (new, used or duty free) up to a value of ZAR 3,000.-. All goods other than the above, acquired abroad by residents of South Africa must be declared by them on arrival. All these goods will be subject to import duties. If goods are re-imported passenger must show the DA65 or NEP-form that was issued on departure. Jewellery which was taken abroad and then remodelled, processed, repaired or exchanged, must be accompanied by documentary proof of this transaction. The jewellery and all costs must be described on this document. Duty and VAT will be levied on the cost of repair or remodelling of jewellery. Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages limited to those over 18 years. South Africa Import regulations :
  59. 74. <ul><li>We have avoided back tracking and zigzagging at the same time any special demand will be taken care by us . </li></ul><ul><li>We have used the most convenient transportation option which will save your time and money. </li></ul><ul><li>The itinerary is designed in such a way that maximum utilization of time with enjoyment & have time for relaxation too. </li></ul><ul><li>We have included the best sight seeing places accompanied by most convenient accommodation. </li></ul>
  60. 75. <ul><li>Pass port </li></ul><ul><li>Valid up to 6 months </li></ul><ul><li>Air ticket </li></ul><ul><li>Travel insurance </li></ul><ul><li>For the period of stay </li></ul><ul><li>Yellow fever vaccination certificate </li></ul>
  61. 76. <ul><li>Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>Tanzania </li></ul><ul><li>Kenya </li></ul><ul><li>South Africa </li></ul>
  62. 77. <ul><li>Egypt : Egyptian pound (EGP) </li></ul><ul><li>1.00 EGP=8.81545 INR </li></ul><ul><li>Tanzania : Tanzanian shilling (TZS) </li></ul><ul><li>Kenya : Kenyan shilling (KES) </li></ul><ul><li>1.00 KES=0.641546 INR </li></ul><ul><li>South Africa : Rand (ZAR) </li></ul><ul><li>1.00 ZAR=6.05897 INR </li></ul>
  63. 78. <ul><li>Valid passport </li></ul><ul><li>10 passport size photograph </li></ul><ul><li>Application form duly filled in </li></ul><ul><li>Air ticket </li></ul><ul><li>Last 3 year IT paper </li></ul><ul><li>Last 6 months bank statements </li></ul><ul><li>Investment ,LIC policies, property paper </li></ul><ul><li>Yellow fever vaccination certificate </li></ul>
  64. 83. Day | 1 Welcome aboard for an exciting and comprehensive tour to Egypt - 'the land of the Nile'. Tonight enjoy the Sound and Light show. Today, embark on your exciting tour of Egypt. On arrival you will greeted by your friendly Tour Manager / local representative outside the baggage hall. Check into your conveniently located hotel (check in by 1400 hrs). Later this evening, enjoy the Sound and Light show at the pyramids of Giza. You can get a glimpse back in time to see, feel and imagine how it was when the powerful Egyptians ruled. Tonight, enjoy a sumptuous Indian dinner. Overnight at Hotel Movenpick Pyramid / Intercontinental Pyramids Park or similar in Cairo.
  65. 84. Sound And Light Show at Giza The performance of this spectacular sound and laser light show is a must to see while in Cairo . The voice of the great sphinx tells you the story of Pharaohs and their life's story and how the great pyramids where built.
  66. 85. <ul><li>Guided city tour of Cairo After a buffet breakfast, we take you on a full day guided city tour of Cairo, the heart of Egypt. Visit the Great Pyramid of Khufu, one of the seven Wonders of the World. Also see the Pyramid of Menkaure, Pyramid of Khafre and the Sphinx We also visit the Papyrus Institute and see beautiful paintings being made. Later, visit the Egyptian Museum, which houses over 100,000 antiquities from every period of ancient Egyptian history. Do not miss the gallery featuring the famous treasures of Tutankhamun. We proceed to the medieval Bazaars of Khan-El-Khalili where you can shop for spices, precious stones and curios. Enjoy a veg / non-veg dinner at an Indian restaurant. Overnight at hotel Intercontinental Pyramids or similar in Cairo. </li></ul>
  67. 86. <ul><li>After an American breakfast at the hotel, On arrival at Aswan; proceed on a guided city tour visiting the High Dam - one   of the outstanding architectural achievements of the twentieth century after which we proceed to the Cruise centre to board the luxury cruise liner. After boarding, enjoy the delicious 'welcome aboard' buffet lunch. Later today, we sail to Kom Ombo. The rest of the day is at leisure. Enjoy dinner on the cruise. Overnight on board the cruise. </li></ul>
  68. 87. <ul><li>After breakfast, we proceed to visit the famous 'Temple of Two Gods'. Dedicated to Sobek and Haroeris, the crocodile gods, this temple was constructed during the Roman era and is noted for the engravings on the walls. After the city sights of Kom Ombo, we board the cruise and sail to Edfu town situated on the west bank of the river Nile. On arrival, we proceed to the famous Edfu temple dedicated to God Horus, represented by the Falcon. This is one of the most beautiful Egyptian temples distinguished by its huge splendid structure that blends Pharoic and Greek architecture. Later tonight, we sail to the magnificent town of Luxor, considered the greatest outdoor museum of the world. Enjoy dinner on board the cruise. Overnight on board the cruise. </li></ul>
  69. 88. <ul><li>After a delicious breakfast onboard the cruise, we proceed on a tour of Luxor – the city of palaces. Visit the famous tombs in the Valley of Kings. Visit the temple of Hatshepsut. We then proceed to the Temple of Queen Hatshepsut, the only queen who ruled Egypt. Further proceed to visit Karnak and Luxor Temples. Enjoy a Horse Carriage ride this evening at Old Luxor city center. Later, transfer back to the cruise. Dinner on board the cruise. Overnight on board the cruise. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  70. 89. <ul><li>Today after an American breakfast at the hotel, transfer to the airport to board your flight to Kenya for a thrilling Safari adventure. Arrive at Jomo Kenyatta International Airport Nairobi and transfer to your hotel. Later, in the afternoon proceed for a city tour. View the Parliament building, Kenyatta International Conference Center and then proceed to View point for a breathtaking view of the city including a visit to the city market. Tonight enjoy an Indian dinner. Overnight at Hilton Hotel or similar in Nairobi. </li></ul>
  71. 90. <ul><li>After an American breakfast, check out and proceed to the world-famous Masai Mara Game Reserve via the Great Rift Valley. En route enjoy the beautiful scenery. Arrive at your lodge in time for Indian lunch and check in at the lodge. In the afternoon, enjoy an enthralling game-viewing drive. Spotting lions, cheetahs and other spectacular predators is the highlight of your day. This evening, enjoy a sumptuous Indian dinner at your lodge. Overnight at Mara Sopa Lodge or similar in Masai Mara. </li></ul>
  72. 91. <ul><li>Early morning, you set out on an exciting game-drive to view the teeming wildlife savoring their morning kill. After breakfast, proceed on a full-day game-viewing drive to search for the myriad species of game that make this reserve their home. If you are lucky, you can witness the kill in action, moment by moment, right in front of your unbelieving eyes! After a sumptuous Indian lunch at your lodge, proceed for another exciting game drive, where you can expect to see the famous ‘Big 5’. In the evening, enjoy a delicious Indian dinner at your lodge. Overnight at Mara Sopa Lodge or similar in Masai Mara. </li></ul>
  73. 92. <ul><li>After an American breakfast, check out and drive to Lake Nakuru set in a picturesque landscape of surrounding woodland and grassland next to Nakuru town. After a sumptuous Indian lunch at the lodge, we proceed on an exciting game-drive including a visit to Baboon cliff. You have a chance to see the white rhino and sighting of leopards at Lake Nakuru. You can get a close view of the pink flamingos and other water birds – a total of 450 varieties. In the evening, enjoy a delicious Indian dinner at the Lodge. Overnight at Lake Nakuru Lodge or similar in Lake Nakuru. </li></ul>
  74. 93. <ul><li>After an American breakfast, check out and drive via Nyahururu Falls (Thompson’s Falls) to the Mt. Kenya Area. Check into Mountain Lodge, which is ideally located in the Mt. Kenya National Park and overlooking a water-hole. In the afternoon after a sumptuous Indian lunch at the Lodge, you can watch a host of wild animals visiting the waterhole. This evening, enjoy a delicious Indian dinner. Spend the night at the Lodge viewing various animals as they come to visit the waterhole and saltlicks. Enjoy Indian Dinner at the Lodge. Overnight at the Serena Mountain Lodge or similar at Mount Kenya. </li></ul>
  75. 94. <ul><li>After an American breakfast, check out and drive to the Mt. Kenya Area, to the highest mountain in Kenya, straddling the Equator – Mt. Kenya. This Mountain is filled with distinctive giant vegetation and the vast gentle slopes are cloaked in lush forest and bamboo jungle. You also get a chance to stop at the Equator. Check in at the famous Mt. Kenya Safari Club, from where you can enjoy a spectacular view of Mt. Kenya – the highest peak of Kenya. Later, enjoy an Indian lunch here. The beautiful and majestic surroundings abound with a variety of game, including elephants, rhinos, buffaloes, several species of gazelles and monkeys. This evening, enjoy a delicious Indian dinner. Overnight at Mount Kenya Safari Club or similar at Mt. Kenya. </li></ul>
  76. 95. <ul><li>Breakfast at the camp. Morning transfer to Mara Airstrip for flight to Kilimanjaro via Nairobi departing at 11h00. On arrival at Kilimanjaro airport at 13h45, meet and drive to Ngorongoro area via Arusha for lunch. After lunch continue drive to your lodge Quite possibly the most famous of all Africa’s conservation areas, this is one of the places in Africa where you stand a very good chance of seeing the &quot;Big Five&quot;. Spend two nights at the Ngorongoro, where the high altitude of the Crater Rim will ensure you sleep well. Dinner and overnight at Ngorongoro Sopa Lodge. </li></ul>
  77. 96. <ul><li>Today you descend into the Crater in four wheel drive vehicles and spend 6 hours exploring the short grass plains of the crater floor.  Because the grasses are short, game is easily spotted and can be approached quiet easily.  Ngorongoro is ten to twelve miles in diameter and two thousand feet deep.  Late lunch at the lodge. Dinner and overnight at Ngorongoro Sopa Lodge </li></ul>
  78. 97. After an American breakfast at the hotel, Proceed to Serengeti national park ,famous for tree climbing lion & other wild cat species .Lunch at local restaurant. drive to lake manyara national park enjoy the wild beauty .Over night at hotel.
  79. 98. <ul><li>Today, embark on your exciting tour of South Africa. On arrival at Cape Town airport you will be met by our professional and experienced tour manager/ local representative in the arrival area located outside the customs hall. Proceed directly to your centrally located hotel. Tonight enjoy a delicious Indian dinner. Overnight at hotel Protea President or similar in Cape Town . </li></ul>
  80. 99. <ul><li>After an American breakfast at the hotel, proceed on an exciting guided sightseeing tour of this beautiful city with the majestic Table Mountain. See castle of good hope . Ride a cable car to the top of mountain for breathtaking views of the ocean and city. Visit the famous Victoria and the Alfred Waterfront, one of Cape Town’s biggest tourist attractions and drive past some of the best beaches of Cape Town. Tonight enjoy an Indian dinner. Overnight at hotel Protea President or similar in Cape Town. </li></ul>
  81. 100. After an American breakfast at the hotel visit Penguin Island, Beach is just down the road from Simons Town n on the False Bay coast, so not only is the water is a little warmer and the scenery stunning, but you'll find an interesting wildlife relationship in action: here it's the penguins who rule and the people who make way for their diminutive neighbours. enjoy the day at island ,dinner & over night at hotel.
  82. 102. <ul><li>After an American breakfast at the hotel, checkout and proceed to George for your flight to Johannesburg. On arrival at Johannesburg, drive to the fantastic man- made wonder of the world, Sun City. It is a city that knows no limits, a city that never sleeps! Each day and every night, from the heart of an ancient volcano, Sun City rocks you like you have never been rocked before. The rest of the day is free at leisure. Tonight, enjoy an Indian dinner at the hotel. Overnight at Hotel Sun City Main or similar in Sun City. </li></ul>
  83. 103. <ul><li>After breakfast explore the Johannesburg city visit apartheid museum , take lunch in Indian restaurant . Day at leisure ,late evening enjoy the best city view from Carlton Centre skyline. Tonight enjoy a delicious Indian dinner. Over night at hotel </li></ul>
  84. 104. <ul><li>After an American breakfast at the hotel, check out and proceed to Gold Reef City. Enjoy a Gold Reef City Tour, the Jozi Story. This magical trip down memory lane will tell you all about how Johannesburg came into being, how gold was discovered on the reef and how the lives of men and women formed an integral part of a rich and fascinating heritage. Later enjoy a panoramic view of this beautiful city and check into your hotel. Tonight enjoy an Indian dinner. Overnight at Mondior Concorde or similar in Johannesburg. </li></ul>
  85. 105. <ul><li>Fly back home with wonderful memories of your holiday </li></ul><ul><li>Today after an American Breakfast at the hotel, proceed to the Airport for your flight back home. Return home with wonderful memories of your holiday. </li></ul><ul><li>Good bye </li></ul>
  86. 106. FLIGHT SCHEDULE Dep. City Arrival City Dep. Time Arrival Time Airline Code BOM CAI 0450 1050 MS CAI NBO 1100 1700 MS NBO JRO 0600 0700 KQ JRO CPT 043O 2215 * KQ CPT JNB 1050 1250 SA JNB BOM 0935 0150 ** SA
  87. 107. <ul><li>http://www.vacationsexotica.com/africa.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.kesari.in/ </li></ul><ul><li>www.makemytrip.com </li></ul><ul><li>www.thomescook.co.in </li></ul><ul><li>www.sotc.com </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.icao.int/cgi/goto_m.pl?icao/en/hist/history02.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://chicago.worldres.com </li></ul><ul><li>http://images.google.co.in/images?gbv=2&hl=en&ei=wpyTSoOSFo6MkAXJiox1&sa=X&oi=spell&resnum=0&ct=result&cd=1&q=kenya+airways&spell=1&start=0 </li></ul><ul><li>http://images.google.co.in/images?hl=en&q=uftaa&um=1&ie=UTF-8&sa=N&tab=wi </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.xe.com/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://freenet-homepage.de/copilot/B737-800SouthAfricanAirwaysZS-SJO01.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>www.iatatravelcentre.com </li></ul>