Chapter 24 ppt


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Chapter 24 ppt

  1. 1. Africa, India, and the Changes and Exchanges New British Empire in Africa 1750–1870 1750– New Africa States Muslim States in Africa► Serious drought hit the coastlands of southeastern Africa in ► In West Africa movements to purify Islam led to the the early nineteenth century construction of new states through the classic Muslim This led to conflicts over grazing and farming lands. pattern of jihad. During these conflicts Shaka used strict military drill and close- close- ► The largest of these reform movements occurred in the combat warfare in order to build the Zulu kingdom. Hausa states and led to the establishment of the Sokoto► Some neighboring Africans created their own states (such Caliphate (1809–1906). (1809– as Swaziland and Lesotho) in order to protect themselves ► The new Muslim states became centers of Islamic learning against the expansionist Zulu kingdom. and reform.► Shaka ruled the Zulu kingdom for little more than a ► Sokoto and other Muslim states both sold slaves and used decade, but he succeeded in creating a new national slaves in order to raise food, thus making it possible for identity as well as a new kingdom. them to seclude free Muslim women in their homes in accordance with reformed Muslim practice. Modernization in Egypt Muhammad Ali► In Egypt, Muhammad Ali (r. 1805–1848) carried out a 1805– series of modernizing reforms that were intended to build up Egypt’s military strength. Egypt’► In order to pay for his reform program, Muhammad Ali required Egyptian peasants to cultivate cotton and other crops for export.► Muhammad Ali’s grandson Ismail placed even more Ali’ emphasis on westernizing Egypt.► Ismail’s ambitious construction programs (railroads, the Ismail’ new capital city of Cairo) were funded by borrowing from French and British banks, which led Britain and France to occupy the country when the market for cotton collapsed after the American Civil War. 1
  2. 2. Modernization in Ethiopia France and Algeria ► In the mid- to late nineteenth century mid- ► In 1830 France invaded Algeria. Ethiopian kings: ► It took the French eighteen years to defeat Reconquered territory that had been lost since the sixteenth century Algerian resistance organized by the Muslim Purchased modern European weapons holy man Abd al-Qadir. al- Began to manufacture weapons locally It took another thirty years to put down resistance forces in the mountains. ► An attempt to hold British officials captive led to a temporary British occupation in ► By 1871 130,000 European settlers had the 1860s, but the British withdrew and taken possession of rich Algerian farmland. the modernization program continued. European Penetration Abolition and Legitimate Trade► European explorers carried out peaceful ► In 1808 news of slave revolts like that on Saint expeditions in order to: Domingue and the activities of abolitionists combined to lead Britain and the United States to Trace the course of Africa’s rivers Africa’ prohibit their citizens from participating in the Assess the mineral wealth of the continent slave trade. Convert Africans to Christianity. ► The British used their navy in order to stop the► David Livingstone, Henry Morton Stanley, slave trade, but the continued demand for slaves and other explorers traced the courses of in Cuba and Brazil meant that the trade did not the Nile, the Niger, the Zambezi, and the end until 1867. Congo rivers. ► As the slave trade declined, Africans expanded their “legitimate trade” in gold and other goods. trade” Palm Oil Making Palm Oil► The most successful new export was palm oil that was exported to British manufacturers of soap, candles, and lubricants.► The increased export of palm oil altered the social structure of coastal trading communities of the Niger Delta, as is demonstrated in the career of the canoe slave Jaja who became a wealthy palm oil trader in the 1870s. 2
  3. 3. Slave and Ivory Trade Secondary Empires► When British patrols ended the slave trade ► The demand for ivory along the East African on the Atlantic coast, slave traders in the coast allowed African and Arab merchants Atlantic trade began to purchase their hundreds of miles inland to build large personal trading empires. slaves from East African markets. ► Historians refer to these empires as “secondary► Zanzibar Island and neighboring territories empires” because they depended on Western empires” ruled by the Sultan of Oman were important demand for ivory and other goods and on in the slave trade, the ivory trade, and in Western manufacturers for weapons. the cultivation of cloves on plantations using ► Egypt’s expansion southward in the nineteenth Egypt’ slave labor. century may also be considered a secondary empire. Muhammad Ali invaded the Egyptian Sudan in order to secure slaves for his armies. Ivory Pieces India Under British Rule Company Men The British East India Company► In the eighteenth century the Mughal Empire was ► By the early 1800s the British East India defeated and its capital sacked by marauding Iranian armies. Company had:► Internally, the Mughal’s deputies (nawabs) had Mughal’ pushed the French out of south India become de facto independent rulers of their forced the Mughal Empire to recognize states. Company rule over Bengal► British, French, and Dutch companies staffed by taken control of large territories that became ambitious young “Company Men” established Men” the core of the “Bombay Presidency.” Presidency.” trading posts and strategic places and hired Indian troops (sepoys) to defend them. 3
  4. 4. The Raj Indian Government► The British raj (reign) over India aimed both ► Before 1850 the British created a government that relied on: to: sepoy military power Introduce administrative and social reform disarmed the warriors of the Indian states To hold the support of Indian allies by gave free reign to Christian missionaries respecting Indian social and religious customs. established a private land ownership system in order to ease tax collection.► These contradictory goals led to many ► At the same time, the British bolstered the inconsistencies in British policies toward “traditional” power of princes and holy men and traditional” India. invented “traditional” rituals to celebrate their own traditional” rule. The Sepoy Rebellion Political Reform & Industrial Impact► British political and economic influence benefited ► After the rebellion of 1857–1858 the British 1857– Indian elites and created jobs in some sectors. eliminated the last traces of Mughal and► It did bring new oppression to the poor and Company rule and installed a new caused the collapse of the traditional textile government, administered from London. industry. ► The new government continued to:► Discontent among the needy and particularly emphasize both tradition and reform among the Indian soldiers led to the Sepoy maintain Indian princes in luxury Rebellion of 1857. Stage elaborate ceremonial pageants known as The rebellion was suppressed in 1858, but it gave the durbars British a severe shock. Indian Civil Service The British in India► An efficient bureaucracy, the Indian Civil ► After1857 the British government and British Service, now controlled the Indian masses. enterprises: expanded the production and export of agricultural► Recruitment into the ICS was by commodities examinations that were theoretically open to built irrigation systems, railroads, and telegraph lines all, but in practice, racist attitudes ► Freer movement of people into the cities caused prevented Indians from gaining access to the spread of cholera, which was brought under the upper levels of administration. control when new sewage and filtered water systems were installed in the major cities in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. 4
  5. 5. Rising Indian Nationalism Brahmo Samaj Movement► The failure of the rebellion of 1857 ► Inthe early nineteenth century Ram Mouhan Roy prompted some Indians to argue that the and his Brahmo Samaj movement tried to: only way for Indians to regain control of Reconcile Indian religious traditions with Western values Reform traditional abuses of women. their destiny was to reduce their country’s country’ ► After 1857, Indian intellectuals tended to turn social and ethnic divisions and to promote a toward Western secular values and western Pan-Indian nationalism. Pan- nationalism as a way of developing a Pan-Indian Pan- nationalism that would transcend regional and religious differences. Ram Mouhan Roy Indian National Congress ► Indian middle class nationalists convened the first Indian National Congress in 1885. ► The Congress promoted national unity and argued for greater inclusion of Indians in the Civil Service, but it was an elite organization with little support from the masses. Colonies and Commerce ► British defeat of French and Dutch forces in the Napoleonic Wars allowed Britain to expand its control in South Africa, Southeast Asia, and the southern Caribbean. Britain’s Eastern Empire ► The Cape Colony was valuable to Britain because of its strategic importance as a supply station on the route to India. ► In response to British pressure the descendants of earlier French and Dutch settlers (the Afrikaners) embarked on a “Great Trek” to found new colonies Trek” on the fertile high field that had been depopulated by the Zulu wars. 5
  6. 6. Britain’s Southeast Asian Posts Thomas Raffles► The British also established a series of strategic outposts in Southeast Asia. Thomas Raffles established the free port of Singapore in 1824 Assam was annexed to India in 1826 Burma was annexed in 1852 Imperial Policies and Shipping Exportation of Goods► Historians usually depict Britain in this ► Whether colonized or not, African, Asian, period as a reluctant empire builder, more and Pacific lands were being drawn into the interested in trade than in acquiring commercial networks created by British territory. expansion and industrialization.► Most of the new colonies were intended to ► These areas became exporters of raw serve as ports in a global shipping network that the British envisioned in terms of free materials and agricultural goods and trade, as opposed to the previous importers of affordable manufactured mercantilist trade policy. products. Colonization of Shipbuilding Australia and New Zealand►A second impetus to global commercial ► The development of new ships and shipping expansion was the technological revolution contributed to the colonization of Australia and in the construction of oceangoing ships in New Zealand by British settlers that displaced the indigenous populations. the nineteenth century. ► Portuguese mariners sighted Australia in the► Use of iron to fasten timbers together and early seventeenth century, and Captain James the use of huge canvas sails allowed Cook surveyed New Zealand and the eastern shipbuilders to make larger, faster vessels Australian coast between 1769 and 1778. that lowered the cost of shipping and thus ► Unfamiliar diseases brought by new overseas stimulated maritime trade. contacts substantially reduced the populations of the hunter-gatherer Aborigines of Australia and hunter- the Maori of New Zealand. 6
  7. 7. Captain James Cook Immigration ► Australia received British convicts and, after the discovery of gold in 1851, a flood of free European (and some Chinese) settlers. ► British settlers came more slowly to New Zealand until defeat of the Maori, faster ships, and a short gold rush brought more British immigrants after 1860. Governing Themselves New Labor Migrations► The British crown gradually turned governing ► Between 1834 and 1870 large numbers of power over to the British settlers of Australia and Indians, Chinese, and Africans went New Zealand, but Aborigines and the Maori overseas as laborers. experienced discrimination. ► British India was the greatest source of► Australia did develop powerful trade unions. migrant laborers, and British colonies► New Zealand promoted the availability of land for the common person. (particularly sugar plantations) were the► Both Australia and New Zealand granted women principal destinations of the migrants. the right to vote in 1894. Indentured Servitude Returns Changes in Indentured Servitude► With the end of slavery, the demand for cheap ► These new indentured migrants were similar to labor in the British colonies, Cuba, and Hawaii was the European emigrants of the time in that they filled by Indians, free Africans, Chinese, and left their homelands voluntarily in order to make Japanese workers. money that they could send or take back home or to finance a new life in their new country.► These workers served under contracts of ► However, people recruited as indentured laborers indenture which bound them to work for a were: specified number of years in return for free much poorer than European emigrants passage to their overseas destination, a small took lower-paying jobs lower- salary, and free housing, clothing and medical unable to afford the passage to the most desirable care. areas 7