Adventures in Chocolate

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Slides from a talk that I gave on April 26th

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  • http://www.drinkchoffy.com/about-choffy/what-is-choffy/http://www.criobru.com/
  • Crystal structures are found using x-ray diffraction.Wide-angle (WAXS): shorter-spacing smaller structures – Bragg diffractionSmall-angle (SAXS): finer structures – elastic diffraction
  • Crystal structures are found using x-ray diffraction.Wide-angle (WAXS): shorter-spacing smaller structures – Bragg diffractionSmall-angle (SAXS): finer structures – elastic diffraction
  • 1. Mouthfeel: High fat content (chocolate, cocoa butter, & milkfat) for very smooth moutfeel. It's even advertised as "silky smooth"2. Flavor: Ingredients include chocolate processed with alkali, natural & artificial flavors, & lots of sugar. Alkalizing neutralizes acidity in chocolate flavor, makes color much darker, destroys most flavonoids. Added flavors and sugar also alter flavor. Beans for this cacao most likely Forastero type, probably sourced from West Africa. Other most likely source is Trinitario beans from Southeast Asia.3. High volume production method. Chocolate oriented for large commercial audience. Sourcing via traditional large scale practices, but moving to Fair Trade certified in near future. Also interesting to note heavy marketing to women, messages of "chocolate love" included in packaging.Approximate cost for 50 people: $10 (estimated 2-3 bags)
  • 1. Mouthfeel: High cocoa butter content for very smooth mouthfeel. Used commonly in pastry, chocolate fillings, moulding, enrobing, and icing because high cocoa butter content allows it to set up nicely when tempered. This chocolate is found in upscale pastries and bonbons all around the country. Also a popular eating chocolate.2. Flavor: Chocolate is not alkalized and cocoa content is relatively high, making for more potent flavor. Aromatic bouquet, fresh slightly acid chocolate taste, with intense hints of red fruits. Single origin chocolate, blend of Trinitario and Criollo beans from Madagascar. 3. Medium volume production method; high volume in realm good of quality chocolate. Chocolate oriented for mid range connoisseur audience. Sourcing more careful, likely more ethical.Approximate cost for 50 people: $30 (for 2.2 lb bag of discs, so some leftovers)
  • 1. Mouthfeel: High cocoa butter content for very smooth mouthfeel. Used commonly in pastry, chocolate fillings, moulding, enrobing, and icing because high cocoa butter content allows it to set up nicely when tempered. This chocolate is found in upscale pastries and bonbons all around the country. Also a popular eating chocolate.2. Flavor: Chocolate is not alkalized and cocoa content is relatively high, making for more potent flavor. Aromatic bouquet, fresh slightly acid chocolate taste, with intense hints of red fruits. Single origin chocolate, blend of Trinitario and Criollo beans from Madagascar. 3. Medium volume production method; high volume in realm good of quality chocolate. Chocolate oriented for mid range connoisseur audience. Sourcing more careful, likely more ethical.Approximate cost for 50 people: $30 (for 2.2 lb bag of discs, so some leftovers)
  • 1. Mouthfeel: High cocoa butter content for very smooth mouthfeel. Used commonly in pastry, chocolate fillings, moulding, enrobing, and icing because high cocoa butter content allows it to set up nicely when tempered. This chocolate is found in upscale pastries and bonbons all around the country. Also a popular eating chocolate.2. Flavor: Chocolate is not alkalized and cocoa content is relatively high, making for more potent flavor. Aromatic bouquet, fresh slightly acid chocolate taste, with intense hints of red fruits. Single origin chocolate, blend of Trinitario and Criollo beans from Madagascar. 3. Medium volume production method; high volume in realm good of quality chocolate. Chocolate oriented for mid range connoisseur audience. Sourcing more careful, likely more ethical.Approximate cost for 50 people: $30 (for 2.2 lb bag of discs, so some leftovers)
  • Rogue Chocolatier bar (70% either Hispaniola or Rio Caribe, depending on availability) http://www.roguechocolatier.com/products-page/About this chocolate:1. Mouthfeel: Minimalist chocolate with no added cocoa butter. Only ingredients are cacao beans (in form of chocolate liquor) and sugar. Lower fat content means slower melt. The melt, while slow, is very smooth due to refining and conching.2. Flavor: Higher cocoa content for more potent flavor. Due to careful nature of bean selection and processing, several identifiable flavors. Single origin chocolate, beans from either Dominican Republic or Venezuela, depending on which bar is chosen. 3. Micro batch production method (two person operation, studio setting, small scale equipment). Chocolate oriented for serious connoisseurs. Sourcing extremely careful.Approximate cost for 50 people: $35-42 (5 or 6 bars)
  • 1. Mouthfeel: High cocoa butter content for very smooth mouthfeel. Used commonly in pastry, chocolate fillings, moulding, enrobing, and icing because high cocoa butter content allows it to set up nicely when tempered. This chocolate is found in upscale pastries and bonbons all around the country. Also a popular eating chocolate.2. Flavor: Chocolate is not alkalized and cocoa content is relatively high, making for more potent flavor. Aromatic bouquet, fresh slightly acid chocolate taste, with intense hints of red fruits. Single origin chocolate, blend of Trinitario and Criollo beans from Madagascar. 3. Medium volume production method; high volume in realm good of quality chocolate. Chocolate oriented for mid range connoisseur audience. Sourcing more careful, likely more ethical.Approximate cost for 50 people: $30 (for 2.2 lb bag of discs, so some leftovers)
  • Rogue Chocolatier bar (70% either Hispaniola or Rio Caribe, depending on availability) http://www.roguechocolatier.com/products-page/About this chocolate:1. Mouthfeel: Minimalist chocolate with no added cocoa butter. Only ingredients are cacao beans (in form of chocolate liquor) and sugar. Lower fat content means slower melt. The melt, while slow, is very smooth due to refining and conching.2. Flavor: Higher cocoa content for more potent flavor. Due to careful nature of bean selection and processing, several identifiable flavors. Single origin chocolate, beans from either Dominican Republic or Venezuela, depending on which bar is chosen. 3. Micro batch production method (two person operation, studio setting, small scale equipment). Chocolate oriented for serious connoisseurs. Sourcing extremely careful.Approximate cost for 50 people: $35-42 (5 or 6 bars)
  • Adventures in Chocolate

    1. 1. Adventures in Chocolate Naveen N. Sinha Applied Physics Ph.D. Candidate Harvard University
    2. 2. Find the key components Vary the components Eat chocolate
    3. 3. Find the key components Vary the components Eat chocolate
    4. 4. What foods are similar to chocolate?FIND PHYSICAL ANALOGIES
    5. 5. To find the key components, find similarities toother foods, such as coffee. Cocoa bean Coffee beans
    6. 6. FAILURE: A watery brown liquid with oil residuefloating on top. Not delicious. Crushed beans in basket Brewed cacao beans
    7. 7. Longer times in the spice grinder make a paste,known as cocoa liquor. Cocoa beans in spice grinder Cocoa liquor
    8. 8. Can we find a closer culinary analogy? Cocoa bean Almond
    9. 9. Nut butters seem similar to cocoa liquor;proteins and starches are suspended in fats. solid particles liquid fats x 1000 Walnut-cashew butter Microscopic view
    10. 10. Fat molecules, called triglycerides, are athousand times smaller than the particles. triglyceride molecules x 1000 Walnut-cashew butter Microscopic view
    11. 11. These triglyceride molecules are three fatty acidmolecules attached to a glycerol. triglyceride molecules glycerol double-bond
    12. 12. More saturated fatty acids have higher meltingpoints than unsaturated ones. All unsaturated Mixed All saturated higher melting point
    13. 13. The saturation of chocolate fatty acids leads to a melting point just above room temperature. 72°F 98.6 °FJ. Engmann and M. R. Mackley, “SEMI-SOLID PROCESSING OF CHOCOLATE AND COCOA BUTTER”Trans IChemE, Part C, Food and Bioproducts Processing, 2006, 84(C2): 95–101
    14. 14. Harvesting, fermentation, dryingORIGIN OF CACAO BEANS
    15. 15. cacao pods remove contentscacao beans and pulp ferment 2-8 days dry dry cacao beans H McGee, On Food and Cooking
    16. 16. Stephen Hubbes, Kallari
    17. 17. Miles Masci, Perfect Fuel
    18. 18. Miles Masci, Perfect Fuel
    19. 19. Miles Masci, Perfect Fuel
    20. 20. Stephen Hubbes, Kallari
    21. 21. Stephen Hubbes, Kallari
    22. 22. Stephen Hubbes, Kallari
    23. 23. Stephen Hubbes, Kallari
    24. 24. cacao pods remove contentscacao beans and pulp ferment 2-8 days dry dry cacao beans H McGee, On Food and Cooking
    25. 25. Roasting, Grinding, RefiningCACAO BEAN PROCESSING
    26. 26. dry cocoa beans roast vanilla, nibs lecithin, sugar, grind, refine milk chocolate liquor press conch cocoa butter cocoa cake pulverize cool, formcocoa powder chocolate H McGee, On Food and Cooking
    27. 27. roast winnow grind re-grind Taza Chocolate
    28. 28. dry cocoa beans roast vanilla, nibs lecithin, sugar, grind, refine milk chocolate liquor press conch cocoa butter cocoa cake pulverize cool, formcocoa powder chocolate H McGee, On Food and Cooking
    29. 29. Many chocolate bars indicate the percentage ofingredients that come from the cacao beans. 12% sugar 88% liquor
    30. 30. For our model system, chocolate is a suspensionof sugar and cocoa particles in cocoa butter. Two views of chocolate through an optical microscope, using polarized light.
    31. 31. For our model system, chocolate is a suspensionof sugar and cocoa particles in cocoa butter. sugar cocoa particles cocoa butter
    32. 32. Find the key components Vary the components Eat chocolate
    33. 33. What can we change about this model system? sugar cocoa particles cocoa butter
    34. 34. Add stuff to the chocolateCHANGE THE VARIABLES: I
    35. 35. VARIATION #1: Add olive oil (unsaturated fat) tocreate spreadable chocolate.
    36. 36. Olive oil has more unsaturated fats and lowersthe overall melting point. olive oil higher melting point
    37. 37. VARIATION #2: Add coconut oil (saturated fat) tocreate a scoop-able chocolate paste.
    38. 38. Coconut butter has more saturated fats andraises the overall melting point. coconut butter higher melting point
    39. 39. VARIATION #3: Add corn syrup, which has waterand sugar, to make a pliable chocolate.
    40. 40. The sugars and cocoa particles are hydrophilic,so they bind to the water in the syrup. water sugar, fat cocoa particles hydrophilic hydrophobic
    41. 41. The sugars and cocoa particles are hydrophilic,so they bind to the water in the syrup. water sugar fat hydrophilic hydrophobic
    42. 42. VARIATION #4: Dilute with water and whisk in airto create a chocolate mousse. Cocoa butter crystallizes see “chocolate chantilly” by Herve This
    43. 43. The cocoa butter crystals hold the air bubbles inplace, similar to a chocolate mousse. Liquid cocoa butter, Solid cocoa butter, bubbles incorporated bubbles held in place
    44. 44. FAILURE: Attempt to make Heston Blumenthal’schocolate soil leads to sticky mess. Boil chocolate in syrup. Forms caramels, not crystals.
    45. 45. Change the crystal structureVARY THE COMPONENTS
    46. 46. Chocolate fat molecules can arrange in at leastthree different ways.K Smith, Chocolate Tempering. Confectionary Manufacturing Expo, Brussels, Belgium, June 2006.
    47. 47. Chocolate fat molecules can arrange in at leastthree different ways.K Smith, Chocolate Tempering. Confectionary Manufacturing Expo, Brussels, Belgium, June 2006.
    48. 48. Each of these arrangements has a different melting point.T ( C) 36 33 29-34 30 27 20-27 24 ’ 21 17-22 18 15
    49. 49. Heating and cooling can maximize the number of crystals in the form.T ( C) 36 33 29-34 30 27 20-27 24 ’ 21 17-22 18 15
    50. 50. Heating and cooling can maximize the number of crystals in the form.T ( C) 36 33 30 27 24 21 18 15
    51. 51. Tempered chocolate has a shiny appearance,compared to non-tempered chocolate. 200 m 200 m Tempered Not tempered
    52. 52. Un-tempered chocolate can lead to a light-colored discoloration, known as bloom.
    53. 53. Tempering is essential for making sculpturesfrom chocolate. Enric Rovira
    54. 54. The chocolate rapidly sets into rigid sheets,which can be cut into different shapes.
    55. 55. Can we temper at just one temperature?T ( C) 36 33 30 27 24 21 18 15
    56. 56. Can we temper at just one temperature?
    57. 57. What other factors are important for the tempering process?50°C  RT 50°C  4°C 50°C  4°C 50°C  34°C 50°C  34°Cno agitation 4°C  RT 4°C  RT 32°C  RT 32°C  RT agitation no agitation agitation no agitation Amy Vo
    58. 58. Find the key components Vary the components Eat chocolate
    59. 59. Particle sizePHYSICAL DIFFERENCES
    60. 60. Step 1: Look at the glossiness of each chocolate.Taza Mexicano Taza 87% Endangered Species 88% Jivara Lactee
    61. 61. Step 2. Observe how the chocolate breaks.Taza Mexicano Taza 87% Endangered Species 88% Jivara Lactee
    62. 62. Step 3: Feel the microstructure of the chocolate.Taza Mexicano Taza 87% Endangered Species 88% Jivara Lactee Thanks to Adam Graham and Harvard Center for Nanoscale Science
    63. 63. Taza Mexicano Dark
    64. 64. Taza 87%
    65. 65. Endangered Species 88%
    66. 66. Valhrona Jivara Lactee
    67. 67. The conching process reduces the sizes of boththe sugar crystals and cocoa particles. Smooth Smooth Gritty Gritty
    68. 68. Sugar sweetens the naturally bitter chocolate,but can mask other flavors. More sweet More bitter
    69. 69. The ratio of cocoa butter to cocoa particlesaffects the consistency of the chocolate. Smoother Drier
    70. 70. Test #1DOVE SILKY SMOOTH DARK CHOCOLATE
    71. 71. Lecithin and milk fat are common additives toachieve a smoother texture. lecithin milk fat
    72. 72. TEST #2VALHRONA MANJARI DISKS
    73. 73. These discs are popular for confections due tothe high cocoa butter content. sugar cocoa particles cocoa butter
    74. 74. TEST #3ENDANGERED SPECIES 88%
    75. 75. The high cocoa content results in a dense,intense chocolate. sugar cocoa particles cocoa butter
    76. 76. TEST #4ROGUE CHOCOLATE
    77. 77. This minimalist style is made with just cacaobeans and sugar, and no added cocoa butter. sugar cocoa particles liquor cocoa butter
    78. 78. Find the key components Vary the components Eat chocolate

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