<ul><li>GANDHARA ART </li></ul><ul><li>Ancient province from the Khyber Pass to the Indus River and Kabul Valley </li></ul><ul><li>6 th – 4 th century BCE dominated by the successors of Alexander the Great </li></ul><ul><li>Rejoined to India under the Mauryan Dynasty – Buddhist influence </li></ul><ul><li>Proof of trade and cultural exchange between Mediterranean and Central/South Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Figure shows dress of wealthy Kushan person, drapery style reflects Hellenistic influence </li></ul><ul><li>Face suggests racial mixture </li></ul><ul><li>Concept of a Bodhisattva – continues to associate with man – help others </li></ul>Standing Bodhisattva 2 nd -3 rd century CE Kushan Period, Pakistan Kimbell Art Museum, Fort Worth
The Ambassadors Hans Holbein the Younger This 16 th century work shows many items of interest to Europeans which reflect global connections, but of particular interest is the “oriental” rug. These rugs, referred to in art circles as ”Holbein rugs” were often placed in paintings to show the wealth and sophistication of the subjects.
Close-up view of the rug in Holbein’s The Ambassadors
Majolica Pottery with Black Man 1490-1500 Renaissance Italy Rotterdam Museum Early Renaissance artists looked upon Africans with respect under humanist influence. Africans were often considered curiosity items in Europe. Some Africans were used as domestic servants as a status symbol for wealth Europeans.
Portuguese Soldier 19 th century Benin London Museum of Mankind West African bronzes often portrayed Europeans with armor and weapons form the 15 th century on. African artists continued to portray what gave the Europeans power- technology.
Lidded Salt Celler <ul><li>15 th -16 th century </li></ul><ul><li>Sierra Leone: Sapi-Portuguese Ivory </li></ul><ul><li>Metropolitan Museum of Art </li></ul><ul><li>Rose design is a European design so this piece was made by African artists for a Euorpean commission or a European market. European sailors liked to bring elaborate salt cellers home as gifts. </li></ul>
15 th 16 th cen. Sierra Leone – Lidded Saltceller – Sapi-Portuguese ivory Rose design is similar to 16 th century Portuguese decorative arts. Carvings on bottom are reflective of African beliefs. Snakes are spirits who bring wealth to those who own them. Elaborate saltcellers represented wealth in Europe in the Renaissance. This piece represents wealth from trade in and African sense in the bottom carvings and wealth and status in Renaissance Europe.
Salt Cellar with European Riders 16 th century Benin Elaborate salt cellars were popular were popular not only for royalty and aristocracy in Europe, but also for merchants to use as “gifts” to important officials. London Museum of Mankind
Salt Cellar with European King 16 th -17 th Century Ivory Benin/Portuguese London Museum of Mankind Since African artists were not brought to Europe to meet the king, it is likely that this work was done by giving the artist a portrait as a model.
SaltcellarPortuguese Figures 15 th -16 th century Benin Metropolitan Museum of Art New York Although obviously made for a Portuguese market, the African artist was well aware of the value of salt. “ By the Middle Ages, caravans of 40,000 camels carried salt from Taoudenni to Timbuktu, a 435-mile journey taking as long as one month.” (Kurlansky, p. 48. “ Africans have maintained a tradition of a wide variety of different salts for different dishes, but they always treat any salt as a valuable substance that must not be wasted.” (Kurlansky, p. 50.)
British Administrator 19 th century? Yoruba/Colonial Nigeria Museum of Natural History, New York Art shows the continuity of depicting European with weapons.
British Functionary on a Bycicle 20th century – Yoruba/Colonial Nigeria Pietermeritzburg Museum, South Africa Note the continued fascination of the African artist with European technology.
Palace Door with Colonial Official Before 1939 Yoruba: Ikere, Nigeria London Museum of Mankind Like an oba? Artist critique?
Late 19 th century European artists imitated the woodblock print. National Gallery of Art – Van Gogh Teaching Program Vincent van Gogh’s The Courtesan 1887 oil on canvass Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam Keisai Eisen Courtesan 1820s
Japanese artists experimented with western perspective as seen in this work by Utagawa Hiroshige. Night View of Saruwaka Street The Fitzwilliam Museum