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Renaissance Art


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    In the church of Fraga (Aragon-Spain) were tested vaulted new techniques to suggest the Jesus face.



    En la iglesia de Fraga (ARAGON-España) se ensayaron nuevas técnicas de abovedado para sugerir un rostro de Jesús.

    ROSTRO SUBLIMINAL: En la iglesia de Fraga (ARAGON-España) ensayaron sugerir un rostro de Jesús.
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Renaissance Art

  1. 1. The Art of the Renaissance
  2. 2. Art and Power <ul><li>Powerful groups commissioned works of art </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Represented merchants’ dominant influence in community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>i.e. Florentine gov’t hires Michelangelo </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Despots and Oligarchs began sponsoring works of art </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A way to glorify themselves or their families, show wealth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Subject matter remained religious </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intended to spread a particular doctrine, act as a profession of faith, or recall sinners to a moral way of life </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Art and Power (cont) <ul><li>As the 15 th Century moved on, subject matter becomes more secular </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pagan gods/goddesses in paintings increased </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People were conscious of physical uniqueness and wanted it immortalized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paintings displayed wealth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The individual portrait emerged as a distinct genre </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The rich had themselves painted in a scene of romantic chivalry or courtly society </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Art and Power (cont) <ul><li>Narrative artists – depicted the body in more scientific/natural manner </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Female  sensual and voluptuous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Male  strong and heroic </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. The State of the Artist <ul><li>During the Renaissance, the social status of the artist improved </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reputation depended on the support of powerful patrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Usually worked for commission from a prince or family </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>They did not produce works for the public </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Could mean loss of status </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Artists received a practical education from a master artist </li></ul>
  6. 6. The State of the Artist (cont) <ul><li>Most artists began to sign their works whereas medieval artists rarely did </li></ul><ul><li>Some even painted themselves into the painting </li></ul><ul><li>Renaissance artists and humanists came to think that a work of art was the deliberate creation of a new divine personality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Artist shared powers of God </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. The State of the Artist (cont) <ul><li>The Renaissance maintained the gap between the learned minority and the uneducated majority </li></ul><ul><li>The culture of the Renaissance for the mercantile elite did not affect the middle class </li></ul>
  8. 8. Characteristics of Renaissance Art
  9. 9. 1. Realism & Expression <ul><li>Expulsion from the Garden </li></ul><ul><li>Masaccio </li></ul><ul><li>1427 </li></ul><ul><li>First nudes since classical times . </li></ul>
  10. 10. 2. Perspective Perspective! Perspective! Perspective! Perspective! Perspective! First use of linear perspective! Perspective! Perspective! <ul><li>The Trinity </li></ul><ul><li>Masaccio </li></ul><ul><li>1427 </li></ul>What you are, I once was; what I am, you will become.
  11. 11. See the difference???
  12. 12. 3. Classicism <ul><li>Greco-Roman influence. </li></ul><ul><li>Secularism. </li></ul><ul><li>Humanism. </li></ul><ul><li>Individualism  free standing figures. </li></ul><ul><li>Symmetry/Balance </li></ul>The “Classical Pose” Medici “Venus” (1c)
  13. 13. 4. Emphasis on Individualism <ul><li>Batista Sforza & Federico de Montefeltre: The Duke & Dutchess of Urbino </li></ul><ul><li>Piero della Francesca, 1465-1466. </li></ul>
  14. 14. 5. Geometrical Arrangement of Figures <ul><li>The Dreyfus Madonna with the Pomegranate </li></ul><ul><li>Leonardo da Vinci </li></ul><ul><li>1469 </li></ul><ul><li>The figure as architecture! </li></ul>
  15. 15. 6. Light & Shadowing/Softening Edges Chiaroscuro Contrast b/w light and dark Sfumato Layers of color promote depth
  16. 16. 7. Artists as Personalities/Celebrities <ul><li>Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects </li></ul><ul><li>Giorgio Vasari </li></ul><ul><li>1550 </li></ul>
  17. 17. Renaissance Florence
  18. 18. Renaissance Florence The Wool Factory by Mirabello Cavalori, 1570 1252 – first gold florins minted Florentine lion: symbol of St. Mark
  19. 19. Lorenzo the Magnificent 1478 - 1521 Cosimo de Medici 1517 - 1574
  20. 20. Florence Under the Medici Medici Chapel The Medici Palace
  21. 21. Filippo Brunelleschi <ul><li>Commissioned to build the cathedral dome. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used unique architectural concepts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>He studied the ancient Pantheon in Rome. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used ribs for support. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Dome Comparisons Il Duomo St. Peter’s St. Paul’s US Capital (Florence) (Rome) (London) (Washington)
  23. 23. Ghiberti – Gates of Paradise Baptistry Door, Florence – 1425 - 1452
  24. 24. <ul><li>David by Donatello </li></ul><ul><li>1430 </li></ul><ul><li>First free-form bronze since Roman times! </li></ul>The Liberation of Sculpture
  25. 25. The Renaissance 'Individual'
  26. 26. <ul><li>Vitruvian Man </li></ul><ul><li>Leonardo da Vinci </li></ul><ul><li>1492 </li></ul>The L’uomo universale
  27. 27. The Renaissance “Man” <ul><li>Broad knowledge about many things in different fields. </li></ul><ul><li>Deep knowledge/skill in one area. </li></ul><ul><li>Able to link information from different areas/disciplines and create new knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>The Greek ideal of the “well-rounded man” was at the heart of Renaissance education. </li></ul>
  28. 28. 1. Self-Portrait -- da Vinci, 1512 1452 - 1519 <ul><li>Artist </li></ul><ul><li>Sculptor </li></ul><ul><li>Architect </li></ul><ul><li>Scientist </li></ul><ul><li>Engineer </li></ul><ul><li>Inventor </li></ul>
  29. 29. Leonardo, the Artist <ul><li>The Virgin of the Rocks </li></ul><ul><li>Leonardo da Vinci </li></ul><ul><li>1483-1486 </li></ul>
  30. 30. Mona Lisa – da Vinci, 1503-4
  31. 31. Mona Lisa OR da Vinci??
  32. 32. The Last Supper - da Vinci, 1498 & Geometry
  33. 33. horizontal vertical Perspective! The Last Supper - da Vinci, 1498
  34. 34. <ul><li>Detail of Jesus </li></ul><ul><li>The Last Supper </li></ul><ul><li>Leonardo da Vinci </li></ul><ul><li>1498 </li></ul>Deterioration
  35. 35. A Da Vinci “Code”: St. John or Mary Magdalene?
  36. 36. Leonardo, the Sculptor <ul><li>An Equestrian Statue </li></ul><ul><li>1516-1518 </li></ul>
  37. 37. Leonardo, the Architect: Pages from his Notebook <ul><li>Plan of the city of Imola, 1502. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Leonardo, the Scientist (Biology): Pages from his Notebook <ul><li>An example of the humanist desire to unlock the secrets of nature. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Leonardo, the Scientist (Anatomy): Pages from his Notebook
  40. 40. Leonardo, the Inventor: Pages from his Notebook
  41. 41. Man Can Fly?
  42. 42. A study of siege defenses. Studies of water-lifting devices. Leonardo, the Engineer: Pages from his Notebook
  43. 43. Renaissance Rome
  44. 44. Comparing Domes
  45. 45. 2. Michelangelo Buonorrati <ul><li>1475 – 1564 </li></ul><ul><li>He represented the body in three dimensions of sculpture. </li></ul>
  46. 46. <ul><li>David </li></ul><ul><li>Michelangelo Buonarotti </li></ul><ul><li>1504 </li></ul><ul><li>Marble </li></ul>
  47. 47.  15c 16c  What a difference a century makes!
  48. 48. The Sistine Chapel Michelangelo Buonarroti 1508 - 1512
  49. 49. The Sistine Chapel’s Ceiling Michelangelo Buonarroti 1508 - 1512
  50. 50. The Sistine Chapel Details The Creation of the Heavens
  51. 51. The Sistine Chapel Details Creation of Man
  52. 52. The Sistine Chapel Details The Fall from Grace
  53. 53. The Sistine Chapel Details The Last Judgment
  54. 54. 3. Raffaello Sanzio (1483-1520) Self-Portrait , 1506 Portrait of the Artist with a Friend , 1518
  55. 55. Perspective! Betrothal of the Virgin Raphael 1504
  56. 56. The School of Athens – Raphael, 1510 -11 <ul><li>One point perspective. </li></ul><ul><li>All of the important Greek philosophers and thinkers are included  all of the great personalities of the Seven Liberal Arts ! </li></ul><ul><li>A great variety of poses. </li></ul><ul><li>Located in the papal apartments library. </li></ul><ul><li>Raphael worked on this commission simultaneously as Michelangelo was doing the Sistine Chapel. </li></ul><ul><li>No Christian themes here. </li></ul>
  57. 57. The School of Athens – Raphael, 1510 -11 Raphael Da Vinci Michelangelo
  58. 58. Aristotle : looks to this earth [the here and now]. Plato : looks to the heavens [or the IDEAL realm]. The School of Athens – Raphael, details
  59. 59. Averroes Hypatia Pythagoras
  60. 60. Zoroaster Ptolemy Euclid
  61. 61. Raphael!!!
  62. 62. The Liberation of St. Peter by Raphael, 1514
  63. 63. A Portrait of Savonarola <ul><li>By Fra Bartolomeo, 1498. </li></ul><ul><li>Dominican friar who decried money and power. </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-humanist  he saw humanism as too secular, hedonistic, and corrupting. </li></ul><ul><li>The “Bonfire of the Vanities,” 1497. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Burned books, artwork, jewelry, and other luxury goods in public. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Even Botticelli put some of his paintings on the fire!! </li></ul></ul>
  64. 64. Pope Leo X with Cardinal Giulio deMedici and Luigi De Rossi by Raphael, 1518-1519 <ul><li>A Medici Pope. </li></ul><ul><li>He went through the Vatican treasury in a year! </li></ul><ul><li>His extravagances offended even some cardinals [ as well as Martin Luther !]. </li></ul><ul><li>Started selling indulgences . </li></ul>
  65. 65. Birth of Venus – Botticelli, 1485 An attempt to depict perfect beauty.
  66. 66. and now for something completely different…..
  67. 67. Sandro Botticelli The Story of Nastagio degli Onesti, 1483
  68. 68. Sandro Botticelli The Story of Nastagio degli Onesti (without people) by Jose Manuel Ballester
  69. 69. The Northern Renaissance
  70. 70. Renaissance Art in Northern Europe <ul><li>Should not be considered an appendage to Italian art. </li></ul><ul><li>But, Italian influence was strong. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Painting in OIL, developed in Flanders, was widely adopted in Italy . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The differences between the two cultures: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Italy  change was inspired by humanism with its emphasis on the revival of the values of classical antiquity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No. Europe  change was driven by religious reform, the return to Christian values, and the revolt against the authority of the Church. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More princes & kings were patrons of artists. </li></ul>
  71. 71. Characteristics of Northern Renaissance Art <ul><li>The continuation of late medieval attention to details. </li></ul><ul><li>Tendency toward realism & naturalism [less emphasis on the “classical ideal”]. </li></ul><ul><li>Interest in landscapes. </li></ul><ul><li>More emphasis on middle-class and peasant life. </li></ul><ul><li>Details of domestic interiors. </li></ul><ul><li>Great skill in portraiture. </li></ul>
  72. 72. Flemish Realism
  73. 73. Hubert Van Eyck - Adoration of the Lamb , Ghent Altarpiece, 1432
  74. 74. Jan Van Eyck – Portrait of a Man in a Turban, 1433
  75. 75. Rogier van der Weyden (1399-1464) The Deposition 1435
  76. 76. van der Weyden’s Deposition (details)
  77. 77. Pieter Paul Rubens – Prometheus Bound, 1618
  78. 78. The Low Countries
  79. 79. Hieronymus Bosch The Garden of Earthy Delights 1500
  80. 80. Bosch’s “Garden” without people or animals by Jose Manuel Ballester
  81. 81. Bruegel’s, Tower of Babel , 1563
  82. 82. Bruegel’s Winter Landscape, 1621
  83. 83. Bruegel’s Winter Landscape ( without people) by Jose Manuel Ballester
  84. 84. Germany
  85. 85. Albrecht Dürer (1471-1528) <ul><li>The greatest of German artists. </li></ul><ul><li>A scholar as well as an artist. </li></ul><ul><li>His patron was the Emperor Maximilian I. </li></ul><ul><li>Also a scientist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wrote books on geometry, fortifications, and human proportions. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Self-conscious individualism of the Renaissance is seen in his portraits. </li></ul><ul><li> Self-Portrait at 26 , 1498. </li></ul>
  86. 86. Dürer – Self-Portrait in Fur-Collared Robe , 1500
  87. 87. Durer – The Triumphal Arch , 1515-1517
  88. 88. The Triumphal Arch , details
  89. 89. The Triumphal Arch , details
  90. 90. Dürer Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse woodcut, 1498
  91. 91. England
  92. 92. Hans Holbein, the Younger (1497-1543) <ul><li>One of the great German artists who did most of his work in England. </li></ul><ul><li>While in Basel, he befriended Erasmus. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Erasmus Writing , 1523  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Henry VIII was his patron from 1536. </li></ul><ul><li>Great portraitist noted for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Objectivity & detachment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Doesn’t conceal the weaknesses of his subjects. </li></ul></ul>
  93. 93. Artist to the Tudors Henry VIII (left), 1540 and the future Edward VI (above), 1543.
  94. 94. The English Were More Interested in Architecture than Painting Hardwick Hall, designed by Robert Smythson in the 1590s, for the Duchess of Shrewsbury [more medieval in style].
  95. 95. Burghley House for William Cecil The largest & grandest house of the early Elizabethan era.
  96. 96. Mentmore Tower, Buckinhamshire This was built in 1855 but is modeled after the Renaissance style of architecture you’ve just seen
  97. 97. Spain
  98. 98. Domenikos Theotokopoulos (El Greco) <ul><li>The most important Spanish artist of this period was Greek. </li></ul><ul><li>1541 – 1614. </li></ul><ul><li>He deliberately distorts & elongates his figures, and seats them in a lurid, unearthly atmosphere. </li></ul><ul><li>He uses an agitated, flickering light. </li></ul><ul><li>He ignores the rules of perspective, and heightens the effect by areas of brilliant color. </li></ul><ul><li>His works were a fitting expression of the Spanish Counter-Reformation. </li></ul>
  99. 99. El Greco – The Disrobing of Christ, 1577-1579