Ra rides the boat across the waters of Nun(chaos), where he is confronted by Apep. In this depiction, Set kills Apep.
Egyptian Religion by Nick Hypki
By Nick Hypki
Ra (Re)• Ra is the god of the sun• Although there are many aspects of the sun that are represented by different deities and their composites, Ra is the primary sun-god• Thought to be the King of the Gods
The Great Ennead of Heliopolis Atum Shu Tefnut Geb Nut Osiris Nephthys Isis Set
Atum• Atum was the • After creating primeval sun god himself from who created Nun, he spat out himself from the Shu and Tefnut waters of Nun (primordial waters of chaos), and then created all else
Shu• Shu was the god • Shu and Tefnut of air gave birth to• Consort of Tefnut Geb and Nut.• The feather in his However, Geb headdress and Nut were symbolized truth inseparable, so Atum ordered Shu to separate them
Tefnut• Tefnut was the goddess of moisture• Tefnut was the mother of Geb and Nut• Consort of Shu
Nut • Nut was the goddess of the sky • Consort of Geb• Together, Geb and Nut had four children: Osiris, Set, Isis, Nephthys
Geb (Geib)• Geb was the god of earth• Consort of Nut• Geb gave Nut four children before they were separated by Shu
Osiris• Osiris was the king of the underworld• Associated with the Ma’at, or the weighing of the soul• Osiris was also the god of agriculture and rebirth• Brother and husband of Isis• Father of Horus
Isis• Isis had many roles; She was considered to be a goddess of fertility, and protector of the dead• Sister and wife of Osiris• Mother of Horus – After Set had killed Osiris, Isis had to hide in the swamps of the Nile River to raise their son, Horus.
Set (Seth) • Set was the god of chaos and the desert, which also entailed infertility • Brother and husband of Nephthys • Enemy of both Osiris (for infidelity), and Horus (his opponent in the battle for the sky and all of Egypt) • Set was not always depicted as evil, in other variants he helped the sun-god defeat Apep every night
Nephthys • Nephthys was a goddess of death and mourning, but was also considered to be the female counterpart of Set • Nephthys also helped represent the air • Sister and wife of Set • It was Nephthys’ infidelity with Osiris that caused Set to chop Osiris into pieces and scatter him across the Nile River
Apep (Apophis)• Apep was the spirit of evil, darkness, and destruction; He was diametrically opposed to the sun-god, Ra• Every night, as the sun-god Ra traversed the underworld, he would be assaulted by the great serpent, Apep.
Ma’at (Maat)• Ma’at was more of an aspect, than a deity. What the Egyptians called Ma’at, was morality, or the weight of one’s soul• But, Ma’at the deity, was the goddess of harmony, justice, and truth
Horus• Horus is the son of Osiris and Isis, and one of the many aspects of the sun• After Set chopped Osiris to pieces for sleeping with his wife (Nephthys), Isis gathered the pieces of Osiris and used them to create Horus – Horus later battled with Set to try and avenge his father, Osiris.
Deities are Personifications• "[Man] understands his gods as personifications of the principles of Nature; life and death, generation and production, all these forces become the deities who rule the universe. And, as we have seen, the gods of Egypt were no exception to the rule, but provide ample demonstration of it." (Shorter 127)
Struggle Between Sun-God and Osiris• “*T+he whole history of the Egyptian religion may be summarised as a struggle for supremacy between two great elements of Nature, the Sun (Ra, Atum, Horus, [Amun]) and the god of the soil, vegetation, and the Nile (Osiris)." (Shorter 127)
Fixation on the Afterlife• "[T]he majority of an ancient Egyptians aspirations were directed not to this life but to the world beyond the grave. It is true that the Egyptians wished for the usual amenities of life, the pleasure, freedom from care, and length of days which all mankind desire, but the bulk of their religious activities were expended on preparation for the day of burial, and for eternity after that." (Shorter 128)
Book of the Dead• According to the Egyptians, after death, the dead had to travel through the underworld to reach Osiris and be judged• This journey could not be completed without a set of powerful spells to help them travel through the gates, and defeat the monsters. This book was known as the Book of the Dead, or as the Book of Gates• These spells were often written on the walls of the tombs of the dead
Post-Mortem Process• When a pharaoh, or other important person died, they would be mummified.• The process of mummification meant: – Removing the organs(livers, stomach, lungs, and intestines), and placing them in their proper canopic jars – The body was embalmed, and then wrapped. – The mummy was finally placed inside the casket, and put in its proper burial location.
• The Four Sons of Horus were: Ismety, Hapy, Duamutef, and Qebehsenuef. These sons guarded the canopic jars of the deceased – Ismety was the human-headed protector of the liver – Duamutef was the jackal-headed protector of the stomach – Hapy was the baboon-headed protector of the lungs – Qebehsenuef was the falcon-headed protector of the intestines
Anubis• God of Embalming• It was also thought that Anubis was one of the gods that helped protect the dead• Along with Osiris, he was associated with the weighing of the Ma’at in the underworld• Anubis is the offspring of the infidelity between Osiris and Nephthys that caused Set to murder Osiris
Ammit (Amemet)• Ammit was the beast that devoured the souls of the unworthy• Depicted as a beast with the head of crocodile, the mane and upper body of lion, and the lower body of a hippo
Weighing of the SoulThe soul was weighed against the Feather of Truth on the Scale of Ma’at by Anubis
Thoth• God of writing, magic, and medicine• Recorded all results of the trials in the Hall of Ma’at, where the dead were judged in front of Osiris• Restored Horus’ left eye after it was lost in the battle with Set
Ptah• Patron of sculptors, carpenters, masons, an d other craftsmen• Thought to have invented masonry• In other stories of creation, it is said that Ptah was the one who created the world and all of the other gods
• Bes was the guardian of the household and children• He was depicted as a dwarfed and disfigured man
The Eye of Ra• The Eye of Ra was thought to be many different goddesses, including Hathor, Bast, and Sekhmet – Hathor was also thought to have been transformed into a leonine form (such as Bast or Sekhmet,) by Ra• Ra punished humanity for their sins by sending his daughter to slaughter them all – When Ra finally realized what he had done, he called for his leonine daughter to stop, but she was in a bloodlust rage – In order to make her stop, he flooded the fields with 7,000 jugs of beer and pomegranate juice. The Eye of Ra feasted upon this “blood” until she passed out, saving humanity
Hathor• Hathor was the goddess of music, dance, joy, children, chil dbirth, and fertility• Hathor was typically displayed as a cow-head woman• Thought to have been transformed into the “Eye of Ra”
Bast (Bastet)• Bast was the goddess of cats• She was also considered to be a protector god, as cats often ate disease-carrying vermin• A possible form of the “Eye of Ra”
Sekhmet• Sekhmet was the lion-headed goddess of destruction, pestilence and war• Was a fierce protector of the pharaoh• A more conceivable aspect of the “Eye of Ra”
Eye of Horus• During the battle with • Thoth restored the Eye of Set, Horus lost his left Horus, thus giving Thoth eye an association with the• His left eye represented moon the moon, and his right • The Eye of Horus later represented the sun became a symbol for life, healing, and
AnkhThe Ankh was a This object is symbol of commonly life, and thus carried bywas called the Egyptian gods “Key of Life” and goddesses
Djed (Ded)• The Djed Pillar was a symbol of stability and durability• May have represented the four pillars that help Shu support the sky
Was Scepter• The Was Scepter was a symbol of power and dominion • It was often wielded by the pharaohs and the gods of Egypt
Crook and Flail• Ceremonial symbols of power wielded by pharaohs and gods• Crook (Heqa or Heka Scepter) • Flail (Nekhakha or Nekhata)