Password War Games Webinar
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Password War Games Webinar

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nCircle Webinar Speaker John Alexander

nCircle Webinar Speaker John Alexander

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Password War Games Webinar Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Password War Games © 2012 nCircle. All Rights Reserved.
  • 2. Password Basics – How Passwords are Stored ENCRYPTEDPASSWORD: PASSWORD: One way Encryption bone33 6d19f07b3849a96156fe5b18733c07bb Algorithm md5 NT Hash Example: SHA-1 Account Algorithm used (1=md5 in this case) SHA-256 Salt (“R4mDH”) Blowfish jalex:$1$R4mDH$aOcFaA9.Dq6Ww2u3XmCfK/: SHA-512 14641:0:99999:7::: SHA-crypt bcrypt scrypt encrypted password © 2012 nCircle. All Rights Reserved.
  • 3. Basic Password MathCharacter Complexity and Length Number of password• Numbers only = 10n combinations = cn• Lower case only = 26n• Mixed case = (26+26)n• Mixed case + numbers = (26+26+10)n• Mixed case + num + special = (26+26+10+30)n• All ASCII = (256)n c = number of characters in the character set, e.g. numbers = 10 n = the length of the password Special characters include the “space” character © 2012 nCircle. All Rights Reserved.
  • 4. Basic Password MathExamples:141 = 103 = 1000cat = 263 = 17,576Cat = (26+26)3 = 140,608C2t = (26+26+10)3 = 238,828#2t = (26+26+10+20)3 = 551,368…..thecatjumpedoutofthecup = 2623 =3,500,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000Character complexity is important but Length is King!! © 2012 nCircle. All Rights Reserved.
  • 5. Password Games Hackers PlayPassword cracking techniques: – Guessing • Lists of common passwords, personal information, default passwords – Dictionary • One or more dictionaries to include foreign dictionaries – Hybrid • One or more dictionaries (plus word lists, personal information, and rules) – Brute Force • Random passwords © 2012 nCircle. All Rights Reserved.
  • 6. Quiz Question #1What is the correct ordering of password cracking techniques from most powerful to least? a. Hybrid, Brute-Force, Guessing, Dictionary b. Dictionary, Brute-Force, Dictionary, Guessing c. Brute-Force, Dictionary, Hybrid, Guessing d. Brute-Force, Hybrid, Dictionary, Guessing © 2012 nCircle. All Rights Reserved.
  • 7. Guessing Attacks © 2012 nCircle. All Rights Reserved.
  • 8. Most Common Passwords• These are some standard common passwords. Common passwords are the weakest of all password types. Avoid them like the plague: Common Passwords password letmein sunshine 123456 trustno1 opensesame 12345678 dragon ashley qwerty baseball passw0rd abc123 111111 shadow monkey iloveyou 123123 1234567 master 654321 Source: Splashdata annual list of worst Internet passwords © 2012 nCircle. All Rights Reserved.
  • 9. Default and Blank Passwords• Many networking devices come preconfigured with “default” passwords• Many users don’t change this default password• Example: 2Wire Router – Default login user name: admin – Default password: 2Wire © 2012 nCircle. All Rights Reserved.
  • 10. Background Checks• Do Not Use Personal Information — Steer clear of personal information. If the attacker knows who you are, they will have an easier time figuring out your password if it includes information such as: – Names: Your name, Pet Names, Names of family members and friends (e.g. Joshua) – Numbers: Phone numbers, addresses, social security numbers, license plate numbers, zip codes – Dates: Birth dates / anniversary dates – Favorites: Hobbies, sports teams, movie stars, colors, wine, books, cars, … © 2012 nCircle. All Rights Reserved.
  • 11. The Dictionary Attack © 2012 nCircle. All Rights Reserved.
  • 12. Word Games• Do Not Use Dictionary or Recognizable Words — Words such as proper names, dictionary words, or even terms from television shows or novels – guest – quartet – hogwarts – ds-9 – obiwan – spiderman © 2012 nCircle. All Rights Reserved.
  • 13. Foreign Language Words• Do Not Use Words in Foreign Languages — Password cracking programs often check against word lists that encompass dictionaries of many languages. Relying on foreign languages for secure passwords is not a good practice. This includes Klingon ;-) – betenoir – bienvenido – gutenmorgen © 2012 nCircle. All Rights Reserved.
  • 14. Word Lists• Dictionary attacks can be augmented by pre-built and custom word lists: – Slang – Jargon – Dirty words – Klingon, Romulan, Elvish word lists, … – Custom lists: SF 49-ers, Star Trek, Jane Austen, Marilyn Monroe word lists, rock climbing terms… © 2012 nCircle. All Rights Reserved.
  • 15. Double Jeopardy• Don’t combine two words: – cathycathy – springale – realginger – elegantpresentation – scissorsauto – brokenmouse © 2012 nCircle. All Rights Reserved.
  • 16. Hybrid Attacks(Augmenting the dictionary with rules) © 2012 nCircle. All Rights Reserved.
  • 17. Prefixes and Postfixes• Do Not add numbers or special characters to a simple words – superman7 – nevada999 – 34phonebook – desayuno!@ – %%stockmarket © 2012 nCircle. All Rights Reserved.
  • 18. Inversion/Reversal• Do Not Invert or Reverse Words — Good password checkers check for reversed words, so inverting/reversing a bad password does not make it any more secure: – etamitigel – ardnassac – nauj – 9-SD © 2012 nCircle. All Rights Reserved.
  • 19. Keyboard Patterns (sequences)• Don’t use simple keyboard patterns: – 123 – 123123 – 1234567890 – qwerty – qwertyuiop – asdfghj – zaqwsx – !@#$%^&*() © 2012 nCircle. All Rights Reserved.
  • 20. Character Substitutions & Leetspeak(elite speak = l33tspeak = leetspeak)Common Character Substitutions:$=S, @=A, 4=A, 1=L, 1=I, !=I, 3=E, 0=O, #=H• Examples: – PASWORD = P@$$w0rd – livefish = l!v3f1S# – ELITE = ELEET = 3L33T – n00b = newbie – Iamsurprised:-o © 2012 nCircle. All Rights Reserved.
  • 21. Leetspeak Table (source: Wikipedia) © 2012 nCircle. All Rights Reserved.
  • 22. Don’t Make it Up• Good password cracking programs can check many made up words using something called frequency tables.• Idea is that certain letters follow others more frequently than others in a given language• There are frequency tables for each language• Examples: – markap – yunk – quirp © 2012 nCircle. All Rights Reserved.
  • 23. Quiz Question #2What is the problem with the following password: minulauck? a. Susceptible to a dictionary cracking b. Susceptible to hybrid cracking (two words) c. Susceptible to hybrid cracking (made up word) d. Susceptible to guessing (a common word) © 2012 nCircle. All Rights Reserved.
  • 24. Quiz Question #3Which of these two passwords is weaker? a. superman56 b. Y&f2*e © 2012 nCircle. All Rights Reserved.
  • 25. Brute-Force Attack © 2012 nCircle. All Rights Reserved.
  • 26. Brute Force Attacks• When all else fails the cracking software will try every possible combination• Brute-force is intelligent in its search it will go in a certain order (that can be configured)• Example: – Single character, 2 character passwords, 3 character passwords, 4 digit numbers, 4 character lowercase, 4 character all character, …. © 2012 nCircle. All Rights Reserved.
  • 27. Letters or Numbers Only• Do NOT use only letters or numbers: – 8675309 – miwhdd – prwlkjLength is key, but character complexityis also important in defending againstBrute force attacks © 2012 nCircle. All Rights Reserved.
  • 28. Loose Lips SinkShipsPassword Best Practices © 2012 nCircle. All Rights Reserved.
  • 29. Hide & Seek• Do Not Write Down Your Password — Never store your password on paper. Come up with a good memory scheme. © 2012 nCircle. All Rights Reserved.
  • 30. The Golden Password• Do Not Use the Same Password For All Machines — i.e. This is called a gold or golden password. Crackers love them. It is important that you make separate passwords for each account. This way if one system is compromised, all of your machines/accounts/data will not be immediately at risk. © 2012 nCircle. All Rights Reserved.
  • 31. Password Length• Make the Password At Least Eight Characters Long• The longer the password, the better• Most firms have a minimal acceptable length that they consider strong• Use longer passwords for more sensitive data © 2012 nCircle. All Rights Reserved.
  • 32. Alphanumerics• Mix Letters and Numbers — Adding numbers to passwords, especially when added to the middle (not just at the beginning or the end), can enhance password strength. Where n = length of password Lower case alphabet = 26n combinations Alphabet + numbers = (26+10)n combinations © 2012 nCircle. All Rights Reserved.
  • 33. Mixed Case• Mix Upper and Lower Case Letters — By mixing cases, you will enhance the strength of the password. Where n = length of password 26n versus (26+26)n 26 combinations of lowercase , 52 combinations of mixed case © 2012 nCircle. All Rights Reserved.
  • 34. Special Sauce• Including Special characters such as &, $, #, >, … can greatly improve the strength of a password Where n = length of password Lower case only = 26n Mixed case = (26+26)n Mixed case + numbers = (26+26+10)n Mixed case + numbers + special char = (26+26+10+20)n © 2012 nCircle. All Rights Reserved.
  • 35. Password Pragmatism• Pick a Password You Can Remember — The best password in the world does you little good if you cannot remember it or feel you have to write it down.• Use acronyms or other mnemonic devices to aid in memorizing passwords or use a “Password Manager” program © 2012 nCircle. All Rights Reserved.
  • 36. Password Checkers vs. Password Cracking• Most password strength checkers will not discover certain types of bad passwords.• Organizations should use password cracking software as part of their audit procedures• Most password are not as sophisticated as actual password cracking programs.• Example: Procr4$tin4te i.e., a password checker might accept this password, while a good cracking program will easily break this. © 2012 nCircle. All Rights Reserved.
  • 37. Quiz Question #4How many times should you reuse a password? a. Never b. Twice c. Everywhere but your financial accounts d. Everywhere but your medical and financial accounts © 2012 nCircle. All Rights Reserved.
  • 38. PasswordSubterfugeSnooping and SocialEngineering © 2012 nCircle. All Rights Reserved.
  • 39. Password Acquisition Methods (1 of 3)• Theft• Search - Passwords written down: under keyboard, on monitor, on wall, in desk drawer, under leaf of plant, under plant pot• Bribery• Coercion/Extortion/Subversion/Blackmail• Social Engineering (phishing, impersonation,…) © 2012 nCircle. All Rights Reserved.
  • 40. Password Acquisition Methods (2 of 3)• Insider (admin, users, someone has access to password database)• Sniffer (to include wiretapping, rogue devices, wireless sniffing, could be insider assisted.)• Keylogger (hardware or software)• Logon spoofing (to include ATM spoofing) © 2012 nCircle. All Rights Reserved.
  • 41. Password Acquisition Methods (3 of 3)• Shoulder surfing (to include hidden cameras)• Keyboard “Audio” detection• Dumpster diving• Access to password databases (safe, admin access,…) © 2012 nCircle. All Rights Reserved.
  • 42. Quiz Question #5What is the one of the most common methods that hackers use to steal passwords? a. phishing b. dumpster diving c. spamming d. breaking into your house and looking for passwords © 2012 nCircle. All Rights Reserved.
  • 43. PasswordCounterIntelligence © 2012 nCircle. All Rights Reserved.
  • 44. Policies• Password Policies – Password Use Policies • Don’t give your password to anyone • Don’t use the same password on multiple accounts • Password strength (length and character complexity) • Required use of password manager software – Logon, Aging, and Lockout Policies • Logon process should not indicate if you typed in a valid username • Delay of login response should be the same for correct and incorrect logins • Lockout policies (time and tries) • Password age • Password history © 2012 nCircle. All Rights Reserved.
  • 45. Checking and Auditing• Password Checkers – Password Policy Tester – Password Defender• Password Auditing – Auditing for weak passwords using password crackers, e.g. ophcrack, John the Ripper, … – Sniffing – Physical security audits and Pen Testing © 2012 nCircle. All Rights Reserved.
  • 46. Multi-Factor and Non-text Input Methods• Multiple factor authentication: – RSA tokens – Knowledge based redundancy – Smartcards – Biometrics – Location-based• Graphical passwords• Virtual keyboards © 2012 nCircle. All Rights Reserved.
  • 47. Defenses• Education• Do not store or transmit passwords in the clear• Logging (login failure attempts)• Slower encryption methods (password hashing, e.g. SHA-crypt, bcrypt)• Password salts – Response to use of rainbow tables (i.e. pre-computation attacks)• Use of local parameterization• Use of password stretching (configurable iteration counts) © 2012 nCircle. All Rights Reserved.
  • 48. Password Manager Example: KeePass• Easy to Use • Drag-n-drop• Hard to Get Into • Composite Master Key • Key Transformation (Stretching)• Random password Generator © 2012 nCircle. All Rights Reserved.
  • 49. Personal Identifiable Information Reference• Names: (first, last, middle, maiden, hyphenated, ranks, titles), Names of relatives, friends, pets (to a lesser extent acquaintances), Nicknames• Addresses (home, addresses of relatives and friends, offices, current, old addresses, numbers, street names, city names, state names, country names)• License plate (all vehicles owned by victim to include previous vehicles)• Drivers license number (to include numbers of acquaintances)• Schools: Name of schools (elementary, middle, HS, college, fraternities, clubs)• Telephone numbers (home, cell, work, relatives, friends, office, contacts)• Social security number, account numbers, identification numbers, …• Dates: Birthday (victim, relatives, friends, pets), anniversaries (wedding, engagement, special occasion, graduation), astrological signs• Room numbers, office numbers• Clubs and military: Unit names and designations• Favorites: Colors, music groups, songs, actors/actresses, auto models, movies, books, food, wine, hobbies, sport teams,…• Web: urls of favorite sites © 2012 nCircle. All Rights Reserved.
  • 50. Cloud-based network security services platform designed for small to medium enterprises nCircle PureCloud Twice the Security at Half the Cost • Enterprise-class security scanning • State-of-the-art cloud delivery • Easy to use • No hardware or software to deploy or manage © 2012 nCircle. All Rights Reserved.
  • 51. Questions?Continue the conversation at http://connect.ncircle.com © 2012 nCircle. All Rights Reserved.