Au Psy492 E Portfolio


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This ePortfolio provides a collection of my work from my undergraduate studies as well as a current resume and personal statement.

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Au Psy492 E Portfolio

  1. 1. 1<br />Undergraduate Studies ePortfolio<br />Caitlin Holm<br />BA Psychology, 2010<br />
  2. 2. Personal Statement<br /> When I was six years old, I broke my femur in an accident. I spent a month in the hospital and required two surgeries to repair the broken bone. After leaving the hospital, I required another year of physical therapy to regain the full use of my right leg. Even at such a young age and through such adversity, I developed a great admiration for the physician that fixed me. I had resolved to become an orthopedic surgeon just like my doctor. <br /> As a result of this deep rooted desire to repair broken bones, I decided to participate in the medical arts seminars provided at my high school. I put my music on hold, in order to take college level courses in anatomy, physiology, and biology. I was intrigued with the idea of learning about psychology when I saw it on my schedule during my junior year of high school. From day one, I was hooked on the subject. I became so immersed in the study of the human mind that I had completely abandoned my desire to become a surgeon. <br />
  3. 3. Personal Statement<br /> After this revelation, I dedicated my life as a student to learning about psychology. I found the school that I knew I wanted to attend, found the prerequisite classes I needed to take, and I began working on the ultimate educational achievement. I knew then, as I still know today, that one day I will have a doctorate in psychology. <br /> When I began working on my associates credits at Glendale Community college, I began to understand that being well educated was not enough for me. I needed to be experienced as well. I read up on the state laws for working in behavioral health, and discovered that I would need to be 21 years old, in order to work as a behavioral health technician. I bided my time working on my prerequisite courses and working as a mentor with a local school district, until I turned 21. With the help of one of my professors, I secured a position with a behavioral health provider in Arizona as a behavioral health technician trainee, just one day after my 21st birthday. <br />
  4. 4. Personal Statement<br /> As a result of working and attending school simultaneously, I admit my efforts to achieve my degree slowed a bit. Despite the fact that I still deeply desired to achieve higher education in psychology, I had come to realize that psychology is a field always on the move, and to better understand the theory, learning the practice would be greatly beneficial. I will never regret the decision to incorporate field experience into my education because this has taught me how to take what I have learned in the classroom and apply it to real world situations. <br /> As I moved on with my education and began attending classes at Argosy University, I also moved on with my field experience and was hired as a behavioral health technician at Southwest Behavioral Health. While working for Southwest, I implemented several social and counseling groups in an effort to help my clients improve their social skills and hone in on their coping skills as well. Ever the lover of art, one of my first contributions to the treatment program I worked for, was an art therapy group where I utilized what I had learned in my counseling theories classes to develop a successful program that incorporated therapy with art. Also while working for Southwest Behavioral Health, I received continuing education credits, provided by the company, which provided me with additional knowledge regarding psychopharmacology, crisis intervention techniques, as well as substance abuse and forensic issues in behavioral health. <br />
  5. 5. Personal Statement<br /> After nearly two years working for Southwest Behavioral Health, I decided to put my education first. I took a part time job teaching computer classes at a grade school, and found per diem employment with another behavioral health provider, so that I could continue to advance within the field of behavioral health. Now as I reach the end of my undergraduate education, I am excited to begin the next phase of my education, and I look forward to finishing my master’s degree as well as my doctoral degree, here at Argosy University. <br />
  6. 6. Resume<br />Caitlin Holm <br /> naz212002@yahoo.comWork Experience: <br /> <br />Assistant Teacher<br />02/2010-Present La Petite Academy Scottsdale, Arizona<br />Providing age appropriate education and activities to children ages 6 weeks to 12 years, maintaining a healthy and safe environment for children, teaching music for each class, and also directing art activities for each class. Behavioral Health Technician 01/2009-Present Concentric Healthcare Solutions Scottsdale, Arizona Per Diem behavioral health support for a range of different behavioral health providers throughout the city. Working with mentally ill and developmentally disabled adults providing support and education as well as providing maintenance of client records. <br /> <br />Teaching Assistant <br />09/2008- 02/2010 Alhambra School District Phoenix, Arizona <br />Instructed 1st through 3rd grade students in reading and reading comprehension. <br />
  7. 7. Resume<br />Behavioral Health Technician 4/2006-11/2007 Southwest Behavioral Health, Phoenix, Arizona Provided support services to mentally ill adults in a treatment program. Provided medication monitoring and education, living skills training, group and individual counseling, and treatment planning. <br />Behavioral Health Technician 2/2005 - 4/2006 Arizona Health Care CMS Inc., Phoenix, Arizona Provided support services to mentally ill adults in a treatment program. Provided medication monitoring, living skills training, and group and individual counseling. <br />Education:03/2007- Present Argosy University, National Bachelors in Psychology: pending 12/2010 8/2002 - 12/2006 Glendale Community College, Glendale, Arizona Associate of Arts in Psychology: 12/2006Skills:Microsoft Word, Microsoft Access, Microsoft Excel, and Microsoft PowerPoint. <br />WPM: 60 Certifications:CPR, First Aid, AZDPS fingerprint clearance, CIT Certified. <br />
  8. 8. Reflection<br />Personal Reflections on College Life<br /> Sometimes it feels as though I have been a college student forever. When I first began college I decided to take things slowly to make sure I knew what I was getting into. I was also working full time throughout most of my college education, so that slows things down even more. My undergraduate studies are finally coming to an end, and now I am looking back over the past few years and reviewing all of the things I have learned and what things I have yet to fully understand. <br />Student Self-Appraisal of Learning<br />Last week I needed to complete the student self-appraisal of learning (SSAL). As I was filling this out, I realized how much working while going to school helped me. Not only have I been a student, learning what there is to know about psychology, I have also been working in the field of behavioral health as well. I have always believed that learning concepts from a textbook was not enough to be successful in the field. Looking through the competencies outlined in the SSAL made me realize that there are certain things that I have mastered because of school and work, and other things that I have yet to have perfected. <br />
  9. 9. Reflection<br />Critical Thinking<br />Critical thinking is one area of competence that I know has been benefitted by both work and school. Bringing what I had learned from the classroom to my work as a behavioral health technician made a great deal of difference to my overall education. Because of being able to learn theories and immediately apply those to real life situations made me much more astute in analyzing the problems that came up at work, picking and choosing the best possible approaches based on the theoretical knowledge of psychological theories, and communicating with other professionals in the field. <br />Information Literacy<br />Information literacy is definitely a strong point for me. I am able to effectively obtain and arrange information from a wide selection of resources to answer question regarding any specific topic. I have been able to successfully produce well thought out and organized papers on a variety of different topics using scholarly sources of information. <br />Understanding Research Methods<br />I had the absolute best research methods instructor at Glendale Community College. She had a way of making this topic interesting. Despite having a wonderful instructor for this subject, it is not one of my strong suits. While I am able to identify the research design, statistical tools, and results within and article, I still tend to have trouble interpreting the statistical data and using the data to critically analyze the results. Statistics is not my best subject.<br />
  10. 10. Reflection<br />Communication Skills<br />I have always felt that communication skills, both oral and written, are my strong point. I have always enjoyed putting my ideas down on paper and I have always been an effective speaker. My time at Argosy University has helped me to hone in my writing skills. Although being an online learner does not provide me with much opportunity to practice my oral communication skills, working in a variety of behavioral health settings with both children and adults has helped me to perfect my communication skills.<br />Ethics & Diversity<br />Working in behavioral health has always included continuing education in ethics. It is important when working with the seriously mentally ill population, to know the ethical codes well and to utilize those codes for important decision making. I felt that I had almost an unfair advantage over some of my classmates in Ethics in Psychology, because my background working in behavioral health more than aptly prepared me for that course. Also my background in behavioral health prepared me well for working with a diverse population. By combining education with experience I am more aware of my own personal biases, and how best to work around those biases. I am also able to engage in practices that are sensitive to multi-cultural issues.<br />
  11. 11. Reflection<br />Interpersonal Effectiveness<br /> I believe that I have a strong grasp on the core values related to interpersonal effectiveness; however I do feel that my practice of these values may be a bit lacking. I feel certain that I am competent at reading and understanding body language and other non-verbal cues, and I am knowledgeable about the importance effective communication and interpersonal relationships within any type of social dynamic. What I most want for with regards to interpersonal effectiveness is developing rapports with others based on active listening and empathy. Developing social relationships is not one of my best skills; however I do fare well with developing working relationships.<br />Knowledge of Psychology<br />I feel that I have an exceptional grasp on both the core principles of psychology as well as the application of psychology in real world situations. I have dedicated my life to the study of psychology and I would be remiss if I were lacking in my knowledge of psychology at this point. I am more than certain that there is much more for me to learn regarding the foundations of psychological theory as well as the successful application of psychology, which I fully intend on learning as a graduate student. <br />
  12. 12. Table of Contents<br />Cognitive Abilities: Critical Thinking and Information Literacy<br />Research Skills<br />Communication Skills: Oral and Written<br />Ethics and Diversity Awareness<br />Foundations of Psychology<br />Applied Psychology<br />Interpersonal Effectiveness<br />**Include work samples and projects with a Title Page and organized accordingly to demonstrate each of the Program Outcomes above<br />
  13. 13. Critical Thinking<br />IQ Test<br />
  14. 14. Critical Thinking<br />The Caitlin Holm IQ Test<br />“Cognitive Abilities”<br /> <br />Now, it is time for you to report all that you have learned in the previous weeks about psychological testing. While doing so, describe the information that any test constructor should know before setting about creating items for a test. <br />Create a rough format for an intelligence test, keeping in mind the considerations listed in the previous assignments. Do not worry about anything but the items and how well they seem to measure intelligence. <br />State if you think the test you create should have only verbal items or also performance items. Differentiate between the two and provide reasons for your answer.<br />I believe that in order to accurately measure the multiple forms of intelligence that this test seeks to measure, the test should include both verbal and performance items. As in the case of testing social intelligence, I find that including performance tasks can help to accurately measure how high that individual social intelligence is (Cantor & Kihlstrom, 2009). Verbal items include a question and possible answers, either a “yes” or ‘no” response, or a multiple choice response (Argosy, 2009). Performance tests are slightly more subjective in nature but usually have a right or wrong answer (Argosy, 2009). In the case of measuring spatial intelligence, the individual may be given an obscure shape and asked to copy it exactly. In order to measure things like social and spatial intelligence I believe that it is important to include both performance and verbal questions in order to get the most accurate results. Sometimes a verbal question may not be the best option for answering a question like “copy the shape exactly as you see it”. Picking the same exact shape from a list is not the least bit challenging, nor does it really test spatial intelligence but more like visual acuity. <br />
  15. 15. Critical Thinking<br />Refer to any existing tests of intelligence, such as the Stanford Binet or the Wechsler tests, to get ideas. <br />I will mostly be using the Wechsler test as a basis for my own. Wechsler introduced the performance based scale of intelligence into the verbal scale and this is the format that I have chosen to use for my own test (Argosy, 2009). Wechsler’s idea that intelligence is the global capacity to act purposefully, is in my mind what should embody the whole idea of human intelligence (Argosy, 2009). To define intelligence so strictly to how good one is at math and language does not seem to measure how well they live in this world. To include different subtests can reveal much more about human intelligence and how they effectively relate to and live in this world (Argosy, 2009). Also another important feature of Wechsler’s intelligence test is that it includes reliability and validity which makes it a psychometrically sound and effective psychological test (Argosy, 2009).<br />List the aspects of the intelligence tests you have read about that you feel are most appropriate for measuring intelligence. What parts of those tests seem the weakest? <br />The largest issue I personally have with intelligence tests is how limited they are in their content. As Gardener discussed in his work, there are more forms of intelligence then just mathematical and linguistic intelligence (Argosy, 2009). While I completely believe that mathematical and linguistic ability are crucial in living successfully, I do not however feel that intelligence testing should end there. Sternberg asserted that intelligence was in the real world and not the classroom and that success in life defines how intelligent one is, and not success in school (Argosy, 2009). Wechsler defined intelligence as an individual’s ability to act purposefully in their environment as well as think rationally (Argosy, 2009). <br />
  16. 16. Critical Thinking<br />The parts of intelligence tests that seek only to measure how quickly an individual can do math or how fast they read seem to be the weakest parts of those tests because mathematical ability and linguistic ability do not, to me, necessarily equal a successful life. I believe the strongest parts of the intelligence test are the items that measure how well a person lives in this world. As I have mentioned, human beings are social creatures with many different beliefs and abilities which should be the measure of their intelligence. Test items that seek to measure all the different forms of intelligence seem to be the strongest items especially when measuring intelligence as Sternberg and Wechsler have defined it (Argosy, 2009). State the theory of intelligence that you would base this test on so that it measures all aspects of intelligence. Provide reasons for your answer. <br />Howard Gardener’s theory of multiple intelligences is the theory that I would base my test on. Gardener’s theory of how many different forms of intelligence make up our entire range of intelligence seems to me to be the soundest idea of what I believe intelligence really is. Gardener refers to intelligence as a host of different attributes that make people able to learn, use what they have learned, and effectively deal with their environment (Argosy, 2009). I believe that measuring all aspects of intelligence such as personal or social intelligence, spatial intelligence, and linguistic intelligence is the only way to find out how intelligent a person really is. As I have mentioned in the past, basing how intelligent one is solely on how fast they read or how well they can solve mathematical problems seems to me to be poor practice.<br />
  17. 17. Critical Thinking<br />Rough Draft<br />The Skarsgard-Schultheiße Standardized Substantiation of Intelligence<br />1. Find the answer that best completes the analogy<br />Fantasy : Reality :: Fiction :<br />A. Book<br />B. Library<br />C. Fact<br />D. Time<br />E. School<br />2. Which number should come next in this series?<br />25,24,22,19,15<br />A. 4<br />B. 5<br />C. 10<br />D. 14<br />3. Which diagram results from folding the diagram on the left?<br />4. The day before the day before yesterday is three days after Saturday. What day is it today?<br />A. Monday<br />B. Tuesday<br />C. Wednesday<br />D. Thursday<br />E. Friday<br />5. Draw a picture of a hexagon<br />
  18. 18. Critical Thinking<br />9. I notice that I have better physical balance then my friends.<br /> Strongly Agree<br /> Agree<br /> Disagree<br /> Strongly Disagree<br />10. Rearrange the following letters to make a word and choose the category in which it fits.<br />SRPAI<br />A. city<br />B. fruit<br />C. bird<br />D. vegetable<br />11. Which number should come next in this series?<br />3,5,8,13,21,<br />A. 4<br />B. 21<br />C. 31<br />6. What is this symbol?<br /> A. Treble Clef B. Rest C. Bass Clef D. Repeat <br />7. What pattern is this?<br />A. AAB<br />B. ABA<br />C. ABAB<br />D. ABB<br />8. When I am with my friends, I am more aware of how each person feels.<br />Strongly Agree<br />Agree<br />Disagree<br />Strongly Disagree<br />
  19. 19. Critical Thinking<br />12. How many four sided shapes does this diagram have?<br />A. 5-10<br />B. 11-15<br />C. 16-20<br />D. 21-25<br />E. 26-30<br />13. Look at the pictures, and then answer the questions.<br />
  20. 20. Critical Thinking<br />A B C D<br />Which picture shows someone who is angry?<br />A<br />B<br />C<br />D<br />Which picture shows someone who is sad?<br />A<br />B<br />C<br />D<br />Which picture shows someone who is surprised?<br />A<br />B<br />C<br />D<br />Which picture shows someone who is happy?<br />A<br />B<br />C<br />D<br />
  21. 21. Critical Thinking<br />14. What shape is this?<br />A. Pentagon<br />B. Triangle<br />C. Octagon<br />D. Heart<br />15. When I am upset, I can usually figure out exactly why I am upset. <br />Strongly Agree<br />Agree<br />Disagree<br />Strongly Disagree<br />16. When I listen to my favorite band, I notice the notes more than the words.<br /> Strongly Agree<br /> Agree<br /> Disagree<br /> Strongly Disagree<br />17. I have very good hand eye coordination.<br /> Strongly Agree<br /> Agree<br /> Disagree<br /> Strongly Disagree<br />
  22. 22. Critical Thinking<br />18. Find the answer that best completes the analogy<br />Books : Library :: School :<br />A. Grammar<br />B. Play<br />C. Biology<br />D. Students<br />E. Philosophy<br />19. If you count from 1 to 100 how many 8’s will you pass?<br />A. 11<br />B. 15<br />C. 8<br />D. 10<br />20. I generally like who I am. <br />Strongly Agree<br />Agree<br />Disagree<br />Strongly Disagree<br />21. I can tell when a singer is off key better than my friends.<br /> Strongly Agree<br /> Agree<br /> Disagree<br /> Strongly Disagree<br />22. Find two words, one from each group, that are closest in meaning.<br />A. hard and difficult<br />B. hard and roof<br />C. stairs and difficult<br />D. roof and stairs<br />E. floor and bedroom<br />
  23. 23. Critical Thinking<br />23. When I am involved in a confrontation, I become really nervous. <br />Strongly Agree<br />Agree<br />Disagree<br />Strongly Disagree<br />24. Which one of the sets of letters below can be arranged into a five letter English word.<br />A. a t r u n<br />B. p o d e b<br />C. r t e e n<br />D. m o h a t<br />E. e t l r n<br />25. I tend to get very upset about small problems. <br />Often<br />Sometimes<br />Rarely<br />Almost Never<br />
  24. 24. Critical Thinking<br />References<br />Argosy University Psychological Assessment [HTML Website]. Retrieved from Lecture Notes Online Website:<br />Cantor, N., and Kihlstrom, J.F. (2000) Social Psychology. Retrieved from<br />
  25. 25. Research Skills<br />Electroconvulsive Therapy and Schizophrenia<br />
  26. 26. Research Skills<br />Electroconvulsive Therapy and Schizophrenia<br />“Research Skills”<br /> Schizophrenia is a chronic and degenerative brain disorder that affects 1.1 percent of the United States population (NIHM, 2008). Its symptoms can be completely debilitating and include audio hallucinations, delusions, and altered affect. While the real cause of the disease remains a somewhat of a mystery, modern science has led to many effective treatments that can assist an individual with schizophrenia to lead a fulfilling and unhindered life (NIHM, 2008). Electroconvulsive therapy has been considered an effective treatment for schizophrenia in previous years, and it is being used more frequently. Yet, despite its popularity in previous years, and now growing in popularity in modern practice, electroconvulsive therapy has remained a controversial practice and therefore warrants further research to determine its efficacy with regards to the treatment of schizophrenia.<br /> Electroconvulsive therapy was first introduced to the world of psychiatry in 1938 and still is used as a treatment for schizophrenia. Many controversies have surrounded electroconvulsive therapy since it became common practice in the 1940s. Electroconvulsive therapy is a form of treatment that involves sedating a patient and then by use of electrodes placed on the sides of the patient’s head, inducing a seizure with the intention of “resetting” the brain (Jaffe, 2008). Jaffe explains that the seizure will last up to just over a minute after which the patient will wake up within 10 to 15 minutes. After the procedure the patient will typically experience light nausea, headache, and some short term memory loss all of which will typically disappear within a few hours (Jaffe, 2008).<br />
  27. 27. Research Skills<br /> Despite some of its benefits, electroconvulsive therapy has shown that it can cause debilitating and sometimes permanent side effects that could end up doing more damage to the patient than good. Electroconvulsive therapy is essentially a form of electrocution that induces a seizure which can result in further brain damage. A recent study shows that 347 patients who were treated with a “mild” form of electroconvulsive therapy suffered from permanent side effects (Breggin, 2007). Harold Sackeim’s study observed the long term side effects experienced by 347 patients treated with electroconvulsive therapy. The results of this test revealed significant reduction in cognitive ability. “This study provides the first evidence in a large, prospective sample that adverse cognitive effects can persist for an extended period, and that they characterize routine treatment with ECT in community settings.” (Breggin, 2007). Just some of the side effects of electroconvulsive therapy include and range from short term nausea, headache, and temporary lapse in memory to severe and permanent long term memory loss (NIMH, 2008). It is also known that schizophrenia is a degenerative disorder much like Alzheimer’s or congestive heart failure (NIHM, 2008). As more time passes the disease progresses and becomes worse and the longer the disease progresses the more treatment is necessary to obtain therapeutic effects (MHA, 2007).<br />
  28. 28. Research Skills<br />The most important aspect to consider when deciding to treat a schizophrenic patient with electroconvulsive therapy is how effective it may be for the patient. The idea of psychiatry is typically to improve a patient’s quality of life, and there is a question that arises as to what treatment will most improve a patient’s quality of life. As with typical anti-psychotic medications, electroconvulsive therapy must be increased over time to create the same benefits when used to treat schizophrenia which can lead to more severe and permanent side effects and in rare cases even death (Jaffe, 2008). Most commonly, psychiatrists will refrain from treating schizophrenia with electroconvulsive therapy unless the patient is unresponsive to typical anti-psychotic medications such as Haloperidol and Clozaril (NIHM, 2008). <br />
  29. 29. Research Skills<br /> Another important aspect to keep in mind is that current research has shown that electroconvulsive therapy may have only a temporary effect on schizophrenic symptoms. While electroconvulsive therapy may show immediate results for schizophrenic patients, how beneficial is the treatment in the long term? Some research has shown that the possible beneficial effects that electroconvulsive therapy may have on schizophrenic patients most typically do not last longer than six months after electroconvulsive therapy has been stopped (Tharyan, 2005). Tharyan’s research consisted compiling studies completed that compared results of electroconvulsive therapy with placebo or “sham ECT” (Tharyan, 2005). Tharyan’s research showed that multiple clinical trials had collectively revealed that the effects of electroconvulsive therapy alone in the treatment of schizophrenia were “transient” (Tharyan, 2005). Studies have shown time and again the possibility of permanent memory loss with electroconvulsive therapy. One such study aforementioned confirms “that routine clinical use of ECT causes permanent damage to the mental faculties” (Breggin, 2007). As the treatment is used more frequently which it would need to be to produce therapeutic effects, the possibility of the patient experiencing these long term side effects greatly increases which should be leading professionals to question whether or not electroconvulsive therapy would be a suitable option for treating schizophrenia.<br />
  30. 30. Research Skills<br /> Over the years electroconvulsive therapy has proven itself to be an effective treatment for many psychological disorders such as major depression and bipolar disorder. Also, many studies have been conducted which support the use of electroconvulsive therapy in treating schizophrenia. Several of the studies that Tharyan reviewed supported the use of electroconvulsive therapy as an effective treatment for schizophrenia stating that electroconvulsive therapy provided immediate relief from symptoms which would never be achieved with the use of typical anti-psychotic medications (Tharyan, 2005). It is also true that electroconvulsive therapy has proven effective at relieving some of the symptoms of schizophrenia such as depression. Repeated use of electroconvulsive therapy used to treat depression shows that 20 to 50 percent of individuals report significant beneficial results after treatment (Jaffe, 2008). Electroconvulsive therapy has been used to successfully treat depression, bipolar disorder, as well as other mental disorders. In these cases electroconvulsive therapy has often resulted in long term relief from these disorders.<br /> While no one is quite sure how electroconvulsive therapy works, it is believed that chemical imbalances within the brain cause clinical depression, and inducing a seizure can be effective in “resetting” the brain to better regulate the neurotransmitters responsible for mood regulation (MHA, 2007). As schizophrenia has some symptoms that are similar to that of depression and bipolar disorder, it does make sense that electroconvulsive therapy would be successful in relieving schizophrenic symptoms. <br />
  31. 31. Research Skills<br /> However, the degenerative nature of schizophrenia makes it a unique mental disorder that may require more tailored treatments to suit the progression of the disease which electroconvulsive therapy may not provide. While chemical imbalances in the brain may cause depression and bipolar disorder, the same cannot not be said for schizophrenia. “Microscopic studies of brain tissue after death have also revealed small changes in the distribution or characteristics of brain cells in people with schizophrenia” (NIHM, 2008). Therefore one of the most popular theories suggests that the true cause of schizophrenia might possibly be abnormal brain anatomy, not chemical imbalance (NIHM, 2008). This is most likely why electroconvulsive therapy proves to be effective at relieving symptoms of schizophrenia in the short term, but why the effects are highly transient. Because schizophrenia is a degenerative disease, as aforementioned, it can never be “cured” in the traditional sense of the word. Hence the reason that electroconvulsive therapy seems to improve symptoms initially, but then the improvement fades over time. <br /> The trick to helping a schizophrenic patient improve his or her quality of life is consistent treatment. As it appears that electroconvulsive therapy can be highly detrimental to a patient with continual long term use, there may be better options for schizophrenic patients. While it is not a quick fix, medication and behavioral therapy can provide significant relief from schizophrenic symptoms and can truly assist the patient improve his or her quality of life (NIHM, 2008). Behavioral therapy consisting of counseling which can assist a patient in identifying his or her symptom triggers and help them learn how to avoid these triggers, can be used for years without detrimental side effects, and medication monitoring of medications like Haloperidol and Clozaril which help mute symptoms such as auditory hallucinations, can ensure that any possible long term side effects that may be potentially caused by anti-psychotic medication are prevented (NIMH, 2008). With medication and therapy the symptoms of schizophrenia can be controlled very effectively. <br />
  32. 32. Research Skills<br />While the true cause of schizophrenia may remain a mystery in future years, the best course of treatment for the disease will be modified as more is understood about the disease itself. While electroconvulsive therapy does prove effective in treating some of the symptoms of schizophrenia in the short term, it does demand further research to determine whether or not it is the best course of treatment for schizophrenia. Perhaps with further research, electroconvulsive therapy can be modified to provide lasting relief from schizophrenic symptoms. However, in the present with what is known about electroconvulsive therapy and its effectiveness on schizophrenia, it is important that more research is completed before deeming electroconvulsive therapy an “effective” treatment for schizophrenia. <br />
  33. 33. Research Skills<br />References<br />Breggin, P. R. (2007). ECT damages the brain: Disturbing news for patients and shock doctors alike. Ethical Human Psychology & Psychiatry, 9(2). Retrieved August 1, 2008, from Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection database.<br />Jaffe, D. J (2008). All about ECT. National Alliance for the Mentally Ill. Retrieved July 7, 2008, from<br />Mental Health America. (2007). Factsheet: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Retrieved July 7, 2008, from info/treatment/electroconvulsive-therapy-ect<br />National Institute of Mental Health (2008). Schizophrenia. Retrieved July 7, 2008, from<br />Tharyan, P, & Adams, C. E. (2005). Electroconvulsive therapy for schizophrenia. Department of Psychiatry, Christian Medical College. Retrieved July 8, 2008, from<br />
  34. 34. Communication Skills<br />Psychology and Criminal Justice: Albert Fish<br />
  35. 35. Communication Skills<br />Psychology and Criminal Justice: Albert Fish<br />“Communication Skills”<br />Albert Fish: The Boogeyman<br />
  36. 36. Communication Skills<br />Overview:<br /> Albert Fish earned the name “The Boogeyman” in New York as a degenerate monster who preyed on small children (Everitt & Schechter, 1997). The crime that brought Albert Fish to justice occurred in 1928 with his brutal abduction, torture, and murder of the twelve year old girl Grace Budd. After these heinous acts, Fish then ate the girl’s remains in a “cannibal stew” (Everitt & Schechter, 1997). It wasn’t until 1934 after Fish had sent a disturbing letter to Mrs. Budd outlining is past atrocities’ and the murder of her daughter, that Detective William King of the New York City police tracked down and incarcerated the depraved killer (Everitt & Schechter, 1997). In 1936, the sixty-five-year-old Albert Fish was put to death by electric chair at the notorious prison, Sing Sing (Everitt & Schechter, 1997).<br />
  37. 37. Communication Skills<br />Background:<br /> Albert Fish was born Hamilton Fish in Washington D.C. in 1870 (Wikipedia, 2009). There had been a long history of mental illness that ran in the family including religious mania (Wikipedia, 2009). In 1875 Albert’s father, Randall Fish, died suddenly of a heart attack. Unable to care for her son, Albert’s mother put him in the city orphanage (Wikipedia, 2009). While in the orphanage, Albert was frequently beaten which lead him to realize that he enjoyed physical pain (Wikipedia, 2009). In 1880, Albert’s mother was able to find employment and she collected Albert from the orphanage and brought him home. After his time spent in the orphanage, Albert changed his name from Hamilton Fish to Albert Fish after a deceased brother (Wikipedia, 2009). In 1882 at the age of twelve, Albert developed a friendship with a telegraph boy who introduced Albert to urophagia and coporophagia, the ingesting of urine and feces. (Wikipedia, 2009). After that Albert began perusing the bath houses and watching young boys undress (Wikipedia, 2009). In 1898 Fish married and subsequently had six children, all the while he escalated from watching young boys undressing to molesting boys around the age of six (Wikipedia, 2009). Around 1917, Albert began purposely inflicting harm upon himself by inserting needles into his groin and performing self-flagellation with a wooden nail-studded paddle (Wikipedia, 2009). It wasn’t long until molestation and masochism became more.<br />
  38. 38. Communication Skills<br />Billy Gaffney:<br /> On February 11, 1927 a four year old boy named Billy Gaffney disappeared while playing with a friend in his New York apartment complex (Bardsley, 2008). Police originally suspected a man named Peter Kudzinowski, another serial killer from New Jersey (Wikipedia, 2009). When police questioned Billy’s three year old companion he stated that the boogeyman had taken Billy (Bardsley, 2008). Police dismissed the child’s accusation of the boogeyman, but later returned and asked the boy for a description of the so-called boogeyman (Bardsley, 2008). The boy then proceeded to give an uncanny description of a tall thin man with gray hair and a mustache (Bardsley, 2008). Police began a search for who they called “The Gray Man” however they were unsuccessful (Bardsley, 2008). <br />
  39. 39. Communication Skills<br />Francis McDonnell:<br /> In July of 1924 eight year old Francis McDonnell was playing on the front porch of his home while his mother watched (Bardsley, 2008). Mrs. McDonnell saw across the street a man she described as tall, gaunt, with gray hair and a mustache. She stated that the man tipped his hat and continued walking down the street (Bardsley, 2008). After Mrs. McDonnell had went inside, Francis played ball with several other boys (Bardsley, 2008). Francis never came home for dinner. When later asked, the boys, whom Francis was playing with, told authorities that Francis had left with an elderly gray haired man. Francis’ policeman father organized a search for the boy. They found Francis’ body in the woods badly beaten; he had been strangled with his own suspenders (Bardsley, 2008). Police suspected that “The Gray Man” had struck again.<br />
  40. 40. Communication Skills<br />The Murder of Grace Budd:<br />On May 28th 1928, Delia Budd answered a knock on the door from an elderly man stating his name as Frank Howard (Bardsley, 2008). Mr. Howard claimed that he had a job available for Edward Budd (Bardsley, 2008). In almost no time at all the Budd family had become good friends with Mr. Howard. They described the man as kindly, genteel, and polite (Bardsley, 2008). June 3rd 1928 was the day that Mr. Howard met Grace Budd, known as Gracie to her family. Like most people it seemed, Mr. Howard could not take his eyes off of the beautiful young girl (Bardsley, 2008). Coming up with a sneaky story Mr. Howard explained to young Gracie’s family that he had to leave to attend his niece’s birthday party, and asked whether Gracie could come along for the party (Bardsley, 2008). After little deliberation Gracie’s parents agreed that she could go with Mr. Howard to the birthday party but must be home before nine o clock that night (Bardsley, 2008). It was the last time the Budd family would ever see Gracie. She disappeared from their home with a practical stranger and never returned. <br />
  41. 41. Communication Skills<br />The next morning after a sleepless night, Edward Budd went to the police station to report Grace’s disappearance (Bardsley, 2008). After some investigation it was revealed that there was no such person as Frank Howard and that everything had been a farce (Bardsley, 2008). After six years of investigating the disappearance of Grace Budd and a phony story printed in the paper, a horribly disturbing letter arrived for Mrs. Budd (Bardsley, 2008). In the letter the killer revealed (Bardsley, 2008):<br /> “First I stripped her naked. How she did kick -- bite and scratch. I choked her to death, and then cut her in small pieces so I could take my meat to my rooms. Cook and eat it. How sweet and tender her little ass was roasted in the oven. It took me 9 days to eat her entire body. I did not fuck her tho I could of had I wished. She died a virgin.”<br /> Also in his twisted letter, the killer revealed that he had premeditated as Grace was sitting on his lap at the Budd home, that he would eat her (Bardsley, 2008). He described taking the little girl to an empty house, stripping naked to avoid getting blood on his clothes, stripping the girl naked, and strangling her to death (Bardsley, 2008). <br />
  42. 42. Communication Skills<br /> Shortly after the receipt of the horrifying letter, police tied the handwriting in the letter to a telegram that that been written by the supposed Mr. Howard (Bardsley, 2008). Detective King, who was leading the investigation, found a link in the letter to the New York Private Chauffeur's Benevolent Association (Bardsley, 2008). A janitor confessed to stealing stationary from the association and claimed that he had left the stolen items in his old boarding house (Bardsley, 2008). When given a description of “Mr. Howard”, the land lady stated that the description sounded a lot like the old man who had just checked out only a few days ago (Bardsley, 2008). The tenant’s name was Albert Fish. On December 13, 1934, Albert returned to his old boarding house to retrieve a letter that his land lady was supposed to hold for him (Bardsley, 2008). Detective King arrived at the boarding house and arrested Albert Fish. March 11, 1935, the trial of Albert Fish began (Wikipedia, 2009). Fish pleaded innocent claiming that he had heard the voice of God telling him to murder children, however a jury found Fish guilty of the murder of Grace Budd and Fish was sentenced to death (Wikipedia, 2009). On January 16, 1936 Fish was executed at Sing Sing by electrocution (Wikipedia, 2009). <br />
  43. 43. Communication Skills<br />Serial Killer Demographics:<br /> Many serial killers evolve from small time offenders. Individuals who participate in voyeurism at a young age may escalate to more serious offenses later on (Everitt & Schechter, 1997). Serial killers have an insatiable need to continue to commit murder. The mere fact that individuals in this subclass have killed in the past make is a near certainty that they will kill again (Everitt & Schechter, 1997). The same goes for other violent offenders. This trait is what makes serial offenders a particularly unique criminal. Killers develop a modus operandi over a period of time; they pick a target, stalk, and kill the same way every time, each time perfecting their methods (Everitt & Schechter, 1997). There is no specific rule about serial killers and who they are but there are predominant statistics used for profiling violent offenders. Some of these traits include (Aamodt, 2008):<br />* 88.3% to 96% of serial killers are male.<br />* 71.7% of all serial killers are white. <br />* 73% of all male serial killers are white.<br />* 87% of all female serial killers are white.<br />* The mean intelligence of all serial killers is around 103.<br />* Serial killers typically are usually in their mid to late twenties, and assuming they are not incarcerated can continue killing for the rest of their lives.<br />* Serial killers can often be well respected members of their community blending in well with everyone else.<br />* Serial killers are rarely seen in tight nit groups.<br />
  44. 44. Communication Skills<br />Ted Bundy Jeffery Dahmer David Berkowitz John W. Gacy Richard Speck Henry L. Lucas<br /> Serial killers will often choose one particular group to prey on. For the Son of Sam, David Berkowitz, it was brunette women, for Jeffery Dahmer it was young homosexual African American men (Everitt & Schechter, 1997). For Albert Fish the prey was young boys and girls. Serial killers will rarely stray from their particular group and usually follow the same pattern when they choose a victim and subsequently kill them (Everitt & Schechter, 1997). <br /> Albert Fish had an unnatural passion for torturing and murdering children. The most likely victims for a killer such as Fish might include (Everitt & Schechter, 1997):<br />* Children age four to eighteen.<br />* Impoverished families.<br />
  45. 45. Communication Skills<br />What to Look For In The Future:<br /> There are several characteristics that police may want to look for when investigating crimes of this nature. Nothing is ever certain when attempting to profile a serial killer but there are a few things that are more likely when investigating these crimes. Police may want to look for an individual who may exhibit these traits (Everitt, & Schechter, 1997):<br />* The individual would most likely be male<br />* They will most likely be white/Caucasian<br />* They will most likely be in their mid to late twenties and above. Do NOT disregard based on age.<br />* They may have a history of abuse or sexual abuse as a child.<br />* They are likely to have a history of mental illness in the family<br />* The individual may be someone that the family knows.<br /> Specific to the Albert Fish cases police may want to look for some of these specifics (Everitt, & Schechter, 1997):<br />* The victims were most likely beaten very badly and most likely strangulation would be the cause of death.<br />* If minimal remains of the victim are found, it is likely that the individual kept trophies, or ingested the victim.<br />* The individual may be susceptible to phony stories printed in periodicals, which may drive them to identify themselves.<br />* The family may have seen the individual “stalking” the victim or insinuating themselves into the home, as in the cases of Gaffney, McDonnell, and Budd.<br />* And most importantly, do NOT disregard a witness statement, even if that witness is three years old.<br />
  46. 46. Communication Skills<br />References<br />Aamodt, Mike PhD. (2008). Serial Killers. Retrieved 03/12/09 from 0Serial%20Killers.PDF<br />Bardsley, Marilyn (2008). Albert Fish: Real life Hannibal Lecter. The Crime Library. Retrieved 03/12/09 from<br />Everitt, David, and Schechter, Harold (1997). The A-Z Encyclopedia of Serial Killers. New York, NY: Pocket Books.<br />Wikipedia Encyclopedia (2009). Albert Fish. Retrieved 03/12/09 from<br />
  47. 47. Ethics and Diversity<br />Ethics in Psychology: Case Study<br />
  48. 48. Ethics and Diversity<br />Ethics in Psychology: Case Study<br />“Ethics and Diversity”<br />Read the case study and analyze the behavior of the counselor, as a professional, which you consider unethical or unprofessional.<br /> Joe seems to be in great danger of losing his ability to practice under the ACA or the APA. Based on this one client interaction, Joe has done many things that could result in him losing his license, and who knows how many of Joe’s other professional relationships look the same. <br /> First of all, Joe said that he was catholic and dismissed Jill's confusion about her sexuality saying that it was immoral and wrong which is goes against imposing personal values. According to the ACA, which would govern Joe’s ethical practices as a counselor, it is considered unethical to for a counselor to impose their personal beliefs on a client as it detracts from the goals of treatment (ACA, 2005). He is also ignoring a problem of Jill’s which could be greatly effecting her welfare, specifically because he feels uncomfortable talking about it. At his point it would have been considered reasonable for Joe to find a referral for Jill (ACA, 2005).<br /> Joe attempted a new technique on Jill after she had declined which goes against informed consent. Joe briefly explained to Jill that there was a new technique being used in Europe that essentially wipes one’s memory of one’s family through a process similar to hypnosis, and then he attempted the hypnosis on Jill after she verbally refused the treatment. According to the ACA, it is considered unethical to perform a type of treatment on a client without first obtaining clear consent from the individual in treatment (ACA, 2005). <br />
  49. 49. Ethics and Diversity<br /> Joe refused to learn anything about Jill's cultural background stating that because of his geographical location he was not required to do this. Section B.1.a of the ACA ethical code states that a counselor must be sensitive to cultural considerations (ACA, 2005). This means that despite the fact that Joe lives in an area that is primarily of European descent, Joe should be sensitive to his client’s cultural background and how it effects Jill’s treatment (Argosy, 2007). <br /> Joe admitted feeling sexually attracted to Jill after she admitted having feelings towards him and then initiated a sexual relationship with her while she was still a client of his. The ACA as well as the APA, strictly prohibits sexual relationships between counselors and clients (ACA, 2005). This is essentially non-negotiable, and is viewed as highly unethical. The damage that can be done from a sexual relationship between a counselor and a client can be devastating and result in doing more harm to the client (Argosy, 2007). In addition to developing a sexual relationship with his client Joe then never got around to finding a referral for Jill despite the fact that he knew she was still very depressed and anxious. According to the ACA, if a counselor can no longer provide a client with the assistance they need, they are obligated to refer said client to another professional that is able to provide that individual with the services they need (ACA, 2005). <br />
  50. 50. Ethics and Diversity<br />Joe then became sexually involved with his supervisor, which affected an important decision to refer to supervision when encountering professional difficulties. One of the number one ways for a counselor to seek help when dealing with an ethical conflict is to seek supervision (Argosy, 2010). However because Joe is sexually involved with his supervisor, he feels that he could do damage to his current relationship if he admits that he had a sexual relationship with a client. So instead of utilizing his supervisor for the professional help he needs, he is neglecting his client, which constitutes as abandonment under the ACA code of ethics (ACA, 2005).<br /> Joe then called Jill's place of employment and told her boss that he was counseling her for anxiety and depression which is a breach of confidentiality. Under the ACA code of ethics Joe is ethically bound to uphold his clients confidentiality unless it is has strong legal or ethical justification, which in this case it does not (ACA, 2005). Joe wants to know how Jill is doing, and this does not constitute ethical or legal justification for revealing to Jill’s supervisor that she was seeing Joe for therapy.<br />
  51. 51. Ethics and Diversity<br />Then to cap things off, Joe decides to go into marriage and family therapy without the proper training and education. Joe believes that because he has already received one degree that he does not need to receive any additional training in order to be a marriage and family counselor. Section C.2.b of the ACA ethical code specifically states that counselors must receive appropriate education, training, and supervised experience before practicing within a new area of specialty (ACA, 2005). If Joe wants to become a marriage and family therapist he is ethically bound to receive the proper education and training necessary to become a marriage and family therapist to ensure that he does not harm to his future clients (ACA, 2005). <br />
  52. 52. Ethics and Diversity<br />Write a brief summary of the unbecoming behavior. Substantiate the summary with reasons for your analysis.<br />I have found very little about Joe that would constitute anything but unbecoming behavior. He has breached no less than seven of the ethical guidelines for a counselor. He has breached confidentiality, engaged in a sexual relationship with a client, he has been culturally insensitive, he has imposed his own personal values and beliefs of a client, he has performed treatment on a client without the clients informed consent, he has terminated treatment without providing a referral, and now his is also considering going into marriage and family therapy without the proper education and training. Just as a person and not as a professional, Joe seems to be a lackluster counselor, with an utter disregard for the ethical implications of his actions as a behavioral health professional. Had Joe taken a different route, and followed the ethical guidelines outlined for him by his governing entity, Jill may not have ended up in a mental hospital receiving aggressive treatment for her depression and anxiety. He has caused his client undue harm through his actions, and if he continues to ignore the ethical guidelines he could continue to jeopardize the welfare of other clients as well.<br />
  53. 53. Ethics and Diversity<br />References<br />Argosy University Counseling Theories [HTML Website]. Retrieved from Lecture Notes Online Web site:<br />Argosy University Ethics in Psychology [HTML Website]. Retrieved from Lecture Notes Online Web site:<br />American Counseling Association (2005). ACA Code of Ethics [PDF]. Retrieved from<br />
  54. 54. Foundations of Psychology<br />Freudian Theory<br />
  55. 55. Foundations of Psychology<br />Freudian Theory<br />“Foundations of Psychology<br /> One of the most influential scientists of the 20th century is Sigmund Freud. His theories of psychoanalysis and the divisions of mind, amongst others, are almost common place in society today (Argosy, 2010). There things we say that Freud developed, such as referring to people as anal retentive, and making jokes about egomania. Freud is often times considered the founding father of modern psychology, or what we know psychology to be (Argosy, 2010). Despite the enormous contributions that Freud has made to the field of psychology, he and his theories often times come under fire. There is great debate over whether or not Freud’s theories are even valid as often times they are unobservable and not capable of being tested. Many people think of Freud as a misogynist who’s only concern was sex. However, by closer examination of Freud and his theories, we can see there is a great deal of misinformation that has developed over the years that needs to be cleared up. <br />Misconceptions of Freudian Theory<br /> I admit that earlier in my studies, I viewed Freud’s theories with misgivings. Everything basic that I had read about the man indicated that he was obsessed with sex, he hated women, and his theories were bogus. I remember the first time I heard about Freud’s theories of dreams, and the symbolism in dreams, and I thought it was completely ridiculous. However upon closer review of Freud’s theories I found out a lot of what I thought I knew about the man and his research was inaccurate. One such misconception about Freud is that he was sexist.<br />
  56. 56. Foundations of Psychology<br />Studies on Hysteria<br /> During the Victorian era, women who chose to live life in an unconventional manner, were often determined to be mentally unstable and would be sent to asylums. Because women deemed hysterical were considered to be loathsome and disgusting creatures, most doctors refused to work with these women (Brom, 1998). Freud was not one of these doctors. Freud spent a great deal of time working with women in asylums trying to understand the causes of their mental instability, something no other doctor would ever do. <br /> During his interactions with female patients he often took notes and referred to his female patients as having remarkable intellectual capacities, strong objectivity, and excellent analytical skills (Brom, 1998). One such patient he stated was “admirable…[and] no less than a man…” (Brom, 1998). Based on his interactions with these clients and others just like them, and also based on the sheer fact that he was eager to work with female patients, it becomes quite clear that Freud was no sexist. Freud had a strong admiration for women and their plights. Also, one must keep in mind that Freud lived and worked in Victorian Vienna; a place and time when women were hardly viewed as more than pets. Taking this into consideration, Freud’s theories about women were quite innovative and progressive for their time.<br />
  57. 57. Foundations of Psychology<br />Sex, Libido, Sex, Oedipus, and Sex<br />Freud has often been accused of talking way to much about sex. If you think about it from a purely literal angle, this seems quite true. However, despite the fact that Freud talked about sex more than anyone who had come before him, Freud often times meant sex in a more symbolic way (Argosy, 2010). Sex is one of the most natural behaviors known to the world, and it stands to reason that sex would be a driving force in many of our other human behaviors, however Freud did not necessarily mean to say that everything we think and do is related to getting busy between the sheets. <br /> The term libido was originally defined by Freud as instinctive energy (Hockenbury, 1998). Because the term over the years became synonymous with sex drive, Freud’s original meaning of the word was lost. Freud did not mean that the libido was all about trying find sex, but that it was an instinctive force that drove us to find the very basics that we need to survive; food, shelter, and yes, sex as well (Hockenbury, 1998). However this term came to mean only a drive to have sex, when in all actuality, in the beginning it meant something much more than just sexual congress. <br />
  58. 58. Foundations of Psychology<br />Unstoppable Force and an Immovable Freud<br />Another common misconception about Freud was that his theories were so rigid and that he was not the least bit open to changing his ideas (Argosy, 2010). This has often been illustrated in his interactions with students of his. Most notoriously was his interactions with Carl Jung. Jung was Freud’s heir apparent to psychoanalytic theory, right up until Jung disagreed with some of Freud’s theories, particularly regarding the concept of the unconscious mind and the religious aspects of the unconscious (Hockenbury, 1998). Jung was essentially disinherited by Freud after these disagreements over theories. <br /> This interaction and others similar, have lead people to believe that Freud refused to alter any of his theories, however this was not the case. Over the span of his career, Freud freely altered many of his theories (Argosy, 2010). Like any other good scientist, Freud knew that theories can be altered to suit the facts presented, and he often times would tweak his theories to match the facts (Hockenbury, 1998). A good example would be Freud’s Studies on Hysteria. Prior to developing a working knowledge of women diagnosed with hysteria, Freud had his own misgivings about females suffering from the disease, however after working with them for a time, he realized his mistakes and documented what he had discovered about the female gender after working with them (Brom, 1998). <br />
  59. 59. Foundations of Psychology<br />Many times we are reluctant to let go of our preconceived knowledge. Poor and incomplete education regarding Freud and psychoanalytic theory has created a generation of people who know Freud only as a sex crazed madman, who’s theories seem absurd and outdated. It’s because of this misconception that psychoanalysis has fallen somewhat out of favor over the years. I am the first one to say that Freud made mistakes in his research and in his writings, however Freud’s dedication to helping his patients and improving the field of psychology should not be overlooked because some of his theories are strange. Stranger things have come and gone in the field of psychology, and I think it is important to remember the invaluable contributions that Freud has made to psychology, and honor his struggle to turn psychology into a real science by learning the facts about the man and the theories. <br /> <br />
  60. 60. Foundations of Psychology<br />References<br />Argosy University History and Systems of Psychology [HTML Website]. Retrieved from Lecture Notes Online Web site:<br />Argosy University Psychology of Women [HTML Website]. Retrieved from Lecture Notes Online Web site:<br />Brom, Suzanne (1998). Freud, the Feminist? Duquesne University. Retrieved from<br />Hockenbury, Don H., and Hockenbury, Sandra E. (1998). Discovering Psychology. New York, NY: Worth Publishers, Inc.<br /> <br />
  61. 61. Applied Psychology<br />Maladaptive Behavior and Psychopathology: Case Study<br />
  62. 62. Applied Psychology<br />Maladaptive Behavior and Psychopathology: Case Study<br />“Applied Psychology”<br />In your third session with Katherine, she informs you that she often wishes she were dead. She discloses that she feels sad all day long and cries several times a day. She also experiences disturbed sleep and, as a result, feels fatigued all day long. She has absolutely no interest in sex or even spending time with friends. She finds it extremely difficult to concentrate at work and just does not want to be around people. <br /> <br />Does Katherine meet the criteria for a mood disorder? Explain.<br />I would say that Katherine meets the diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder, recurrent moderate type. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Disorder 4th Edition (DSM-IV), in order to be diagnosed with major depressive disorder the individual must have experienced a major depressive episode (DSM-IV, 2005). Based on what Katherine has stated she fits the criteria for a major depressive episode. In order to fit the criteria for a major depressive episode an individual must meet at least five of nine criteria and have at least expressed depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure (DSM-IV, 2005). Katherine has admitted to feeling sad and also has stated that she has lost interest in things that once made her happy such as spending time with friends or having sex. Katherine has also met six of the nine criterion for major depressive disorder. Katherine has reported feeling sad most of the day which meet criterion one, has recurrent thoughts of death which meets criterion nine, sleep disturbance which meets criterion four, fatigue which meets criterion six, inability to concentrate at work which meets criterion eight, and diminished interest in pleasurable activities like sex and social relationships which meets criterion two (DSM-IV, 2005). <br />
  63. 63. Applied Psychology<br /> Based on the information provided by Katherine I would say that she falls into the moderate type of major depressive disorder. Katherine’s symptoms affect her markedly enough to say that her symptoms are not mild but based on the evidence she has provided I can not justify calling her symptoms severe. In order to be classified as severe type major depressive disorder an individual must exhibit symptoms that are in excess of the diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder and also must exhibit severe interference with their occupation and relationships with others (DSM-IV, 2005). While Katherine admits she has no interest in spending time with her friends or people in general as well as admits to having trouble concentrating at work the information she has provided does not warrant a diagnosis of severe type major depressive disorder. Katherine has not been in trouble at work and also has not stated that she doesn’t spend time with her friends but only that she has no interest in it. If Katherine were to state that she has been written up several times at work because of behavior issues and that she refuses to spend time with friends, a severe type diagnosis may be made.<br />
  64. 64. Applied Psychology<br />What type of treatment options would you recommend at this point to prevent suicide?<br />In order to help prevent the actuality of Katherine committing suicide I would first treat her depression which a tricylic anti-depressant such as Doxepin. I would recommend tricylic anti-depressants for Katherine because of the risk of monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) pose to individuals. MAOIs can dangerously raise blood pressure when an individual ingests to much tyramine which is found in many common foods such as cheese and bananas (Comer, 2007). MAOIs also can rarely be taken with many other medications including anti-histamines, cold medicine, painkillers, and migraine medications just to name a few (Wikipedia, 2008). Tricyclics are far safer and can be easier for individuals to adjust to. If Katherine continues to take her medication regularly and as prescribed it is very likely that her symptoms will improve. I would also recommend that Katherine continue attending therapy sessions. I believe it is important to combine psychotherapy with medication therapy. With use of cognitive therapy Katherine would be able to identify her counterproductive behaviors and alter her thought processes to improve her mood (Comer, 2007). I would also provide Katherine with some resources such as a suicide hotline just in case she needed someone to talk to in between sessions. All of these measures can be used in conjunction to help make sure that Katherine remains safe and becomes a mentally healthy individual.<br /> <br /> <br />
  65. 65. Applied Psychology<br />References<br />Comer, Ronald J. (2007). Abnormal Psychology (6th ed). New York: Worth Publishers.<br />Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Disorders (2005). Mood Disorders: Major Depressive Disorder. (4th ed.) New Delhi: Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers<br />Wikipedia Online Encyclopedia (2008). Monoamine oxidase inhibitor. Retrieved 09/25/08 from<br /> <br />
  66. 66. Interpersonal Effectiveness<br />Reading the Mind from the Eyes<br />
  67. 67. Interpersonal Effectiveness<br />Reading the Mind from the Eyes<br />“Interpersonal Effectiveness”<br /> Seeing into someone’s mind through their eyes had never been something that I was very good at. Many people can see sadness, happiness, and sometimes dishonesty in other people’s eyes. I can usually tell when someone is sad or happy but I have never been very good at reading other emotions. I would say that I would score about 50% on this test. I sometimes tend to misread the eyes, for example mistaking thoughtfulness for discomfort or surprise for anger and so on. I hope this activity might reveal why I sometimes make these mistakes or at least help me hone in on my ability to read emotions.<br /> After taking this test I realized I did a little better than 50%. Out of 10 facial expressions I got 6 correct. The most difficult to read were anger, and disgust. I think that is because the eyes look similar for these emotions. If you look at someone who is angry and someone who is disgusted you can tell the difference mainly by looking at the rest of the face. Someone who is angry may press their lips together while someone who is disgusted usually will raise their upper lip (Argosy, 2009). The eyes tend to look very similar and without a visual of the whole face it can be easy to mistake disgust in the eyes for anger. The easiest emotion to determine from the eyes is surprise. The eyebrows are lifted, the eyes are wide, and the eyes are lacking a fearful quality that can be seen in the expression of fear (Argosy, 2009). <br />
  68. 68. Interpersonal Effectiveness<br />Happiness and sadness are fairly easy to distinguish as well. When someone is happy their eyes seem a little squinted and the eyebrows seem relaxed. Someone who is sad will generally raise the inside of their eyebrows and the eyes will have the look of despair as if they are heavy (Argosy, 2009). I did not notice any difference in my ability to discern emotions between males and females. Every person regardless of gender or culture displays the “universal emotions” of happiness, sadness, surprise, fear, disgust, and anger (Argosy, 2009). I could not decipher any significant difference between the men and the women.<br /> I think that I performed the way I did on this test because I can read the eyes just as well as any average person. I did not score significantly lower or higher than I believed I could. Working with children has given me a little more knowledge about reading facial expressions then I had in the past. People learn how to read emotions starting at a very young age. Children can tell when something is bothering others sometimes more easily than adults can. I have seen it time and again working with children. They are fairly new to extended verbal communication and have heavily relied on non-verbal communication and therefore seem more apt to read facial expressions. I believe that continuing to read up on non-verbal communication will help me to improve my ability to read facial expressions. Working with children I find has definitely helped. Sometimes they are unable to express what they are feeling because of their lack of verbal skills or sometimes because they are afraid to talk. I have become much better and distinguishing shyness from sadness and sadness from sickness after working with my students. Hopefully if I continue working on my abilities by watching others and determining their feelings from their eyes I will be able to score higher on future activities such as this.<br /> <br />
  69. 69. Interpersonal Effectiveness<br />References<br />Argosy University Interpersonal Communication [HTML Website]. Retrieved from Lecture Notes Online Web site:<br /> <br /> <br />
  70. 70. My Future in Learning<br />Having chosen psychology as my major, I have also chosen to be a life-long learner. The field of psychology is always growing, and adapting to changing times. Research will continue to yield new information regarding mental illness, therapy, medication, personality, and behavior. With this growing wealth of information comes the necessity to continue to be a student. It is important for professionals within the psychological field to remain current on new trends in therapy, medication, and diagnosis. I anticipate many, many more years as a student. Although one day I will be a Doctor of Clinical Psychology, that degree will not be the end all be all of my education. Learning through experiences in the field, and continuing to broaden my knowledge of the many different systems of psychology will always be a part of my life and my career. <br />
  71. 71. Contact Me<br />Thank you for viewing my ePortfolio.<br />For further information, please contact me at the e-mail address below. <br /> <br />
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