1<br />Undergraduate Studies  ePortfolio<br />Angela M. Hill<br />Psychology, 2010<br />
Personal Statement<br />My love for learning has been lifelong – instilled in me by my parents. This is also something my ...
Resume<br />
Reflection on My Academic Tenure at Argosy<br />These years studying at Argosy have gone by so fast and have been quite a ...
Table of Contents<br />Cognitive Abilities: Critical Thinking and Information Literacy<br />	Cognition and Learning<br />R...
Cognitive Abilities: Critical Thinking and Information Literacy<br />	Cognition and Learning<br />Cognition and Learning<b...
Research Skills<br />Horticultural Therapy: Using Plants to Improve Psychological Health<br />Research Methods: Horticultu...
Communication Skills: Oral and Written<br />	Family Therapy FAQ<br />The purpose of this FAQ is two-fold. First you can us...
Ethics and Diversity Awareness	Reducing Intergroup Conflict	Situational Ethics<br />Reducing Intergroup Conflict<br />Ange...
Foundations of Psychology	Freud vs. Skinner<br />Comparison of Freudian and Skinnerian Theories<br />Argosy University<br ...
Applied Psychology	Counseling Theories: An Integrative Perspective<br />Counseling Theories an Integrative Perspective<br ...
Applied Psychology	Socio-Psychological Analysis of Durkheim’s Notion of Anomie & Suicide<br />Socio-Psychological Analysis...
Interpersonal Effectiveness	Elements of Effective Treatment	Treatment Plan to Motivate Michael<br />Elements of Effective ...
Critical Thinking Skills<br />The Application of psychology with social media.<br /> <br />The growth and popularity of in...
Critical Thinking SkillsHemispheric lateralization<br /> Hemispheric lateralization is the processes whereby some function...
Critical Thinking SkillsBehaviorism<br />Pavlov, Watson, and Skinner, as researchers, studied the effects of the environme...
Critical Thinking SkillsPiaget’s Model of Cognitive Development and Kohlberg’s Model of Moral Development <br />Children g...
Critical Thinking SkillsThe Bystander Effect<br /> <br />Social psychologists, Bibb Latane and John Darley, conducted a se...
Critical Thinking SkillsThe Effect of Interviewing Techniques and the Accuracy of What Children Say When Questioned<br /> ...
Critical Thinking SkillsHow might culture contribute to the definition of pathology and mental illness? <br />Mental illne...
My Future in Learning<br />Learning is a lifelong process. How do I envision my future as a lifelong learner? <br />I see ...
Contact Me<br />Thank you for viewing my ePortfolio.<br />For further information, please contact me at the e-mail address...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Au Psy492 M7 A3 E Portf Hill A

8,730 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
8,730
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
5
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
13
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Au Psy492 M7 A3 E Portf Hill A

  1. 1. 1<br />Undergraduate Studies ePortfolio<br />Angela M. Hill<br />Psychology, 2010<br />
  2. 2. Personal Statement<br />My love for learning has been lifelong – instilled in me by my parents. This is also something my husband and I have passed on to our kids. In the past I had neither the time nor financial means to fulfill my dream to get my education, because raising my family had to come first. My time, focus, devotion and resources went to my immediate and extended family. Two of my children just graduated from the University of Michigan on May 1st of this year. My youngest will graduate from Eastern Michigan University next year. My husband already has his degree. And now I feel it is my time to shine. My entire family agrees on how important an education is, which has helped each of us want to strive to do our best. Graduate school will allow me to continue on this journey to fulfill my dream. Having majored in Psychology and minored in Criminal Justice, I would now like to go on to graduate school at Argosy University and pursue a Masters degree in Forensic Psychology. I am applying to graduate school because I want to continue my education in psychology and eventually become a therapist. I love going to school and the learning process and feel there is so much more I have to learn. As an older student I feel, what I lack in the speed and quickness of my youthful counterparts, I make up for in steadfast diligence and time I spend devoted to my studies. This is reflected in my GPA.<br />
  3. 3. Resume<br />
  4. 4. Reflection on My Academic Tenure at Argosy<br />These years studying at Argosy have gone by so fast and have been quite a wonderful learning experience. Success early on in my classes gave me the confidence to know I was quite capable of handling the math, science, and psychology courses with aplomb. I have successfully maintained my high levels of commitment to my studies throughout my time at Argosy University. The online learning format allowed me to study, learn and interact with my professors and classmates in a way that was most practical for my lifestyle. I have learned quite a lot over these two-and-a-half years. <br />I believe that through my studies at AU I have developed and enhanced my critical thinking skills, cognitive abilities and now feel quite capable of evaluating a given topic from multiple perspectives . Over these years, I have received significant exposure in psychological research and understanding research methods but this is an area I feel I still need additional experience. Written communication skills, identifying ethical issues and challenges, best practices, constructing alternative analyses and choices of behaviors to promote ethical activity and decision-making are some of the many talents I have be able to acquire under the tutelage of AU. One of my favorite and most fascinating class was Forensic Psychology.<br />I cannot say enough about the faculty at AU. They were behind me all the way with encouragement and help in making sure I understanding all the material thoroughly. The time seems to have gone by so fast because I was kept busy with my studies and meeting requirements and deadlines. But the journey was well worth the all out effort I gave. A heartfelt thanks to all for their help. <br />
  5. 5. Table of Contents<br />Cognitive Abilities: Critical Thinking and Information Literacy<br /> Cognition and Learning<br />Research Skills<br /> Horticultural Therapy: Using Plants to Improve Psychological Health<br />Communication Skills: Oral and Written<br /> Family Therapy FAQ<br /> Health Beat: Depression and Alcohol<br />Ethics and Diversity Awareness<br /> Reducing Intergroup Conflict<br /> Situational Ethics<br /> Gender and Cultural Bias<br />Foundations of Psychology<br /> Freud vs. Skinner<br />Applied Psychology<br /> Counseling Theories: An Integrative Perspective<br /> Socio-Psychological Analysis of Durkheim’s Notion of Anomie & Suicide<br />Interpersonal Effectiveness<br /> Elements of Effective Treatment<br /> Treatment Plan to Motivate Michael<br />NOTE: All of the above documents can be found in their entirety on my Linkedin site! <br />
  6. 6. Cognitive Abilities: Critical Thinking and Information Literacy<br /> Cognition and Learning<br />Cognition and Learning<br />Course Project: Connecting Cognition and Learning Theory through Application<br />HillA_PSY360XA_M8A2<br />December 19, 2009<br />
  7. 7. Research Skills<br />Horticultural Therapy: Using Plants to Improve Psychological Health<br />Research Methods: Horticultural TherapyHillA_PSY302_M8A2April 23, 2010<br />
  8. 8. Communication Skills: Oral and Written<br /> Family Therapy FAQ<br />The purpose of this FAQ is two-fold. First you can use it to address family fear and reluctance to participate in family therapy. Secondly, it can be used to explain why family member participation is important in substance abuse recovery.  What is family therapy? A family's patterns of behavior influences the individual and therefore may need to be a part of the treatment plan. In marriage and family therapy, the unit of treatment isn't just the person - even if only a single person is interviewed - it is the set of relationships in which the person is imbedded. Who are family therapists? Family Therapists are mental health professionals trained in psychotherapy and family systems, and licensed to diagnose and treat mental and emotional disorders within the context of family systems. They evaluate and treat mental and emotional disorders, other health and behavioral problems, and address relationship issues within the context of the family system. Why use a family therapist? Research studies repeatedly demonstrate the effectiveness of family therapy in treating a full range of mental and emotional disorders and health problems such as drug abuse, depression, alcoholism, obesity and dementia in the elderly -- as well as marital distress and conflict (AAMFT, 2002). Improvements in family relationships, partner relationships, work productivity, co-worker relationships, emotional health, overall health, social life, and community involvement can take place. How is family therapy different from the other approaches to psychotherapy? Family therapists are trained in various models of therapy in order to prepare them for work with families, couples, individuals, and larger human systems so they differ from the other approaches to mental health by thinking about people as being part of a larger system, i.e. their family. The focus is on working with the relationships between members of a system.  What are the benefits of family therapy, over the other approaches to mental health available? More than any other approach to mental health, family therapy looks at people in the context of their relationships and helps to change that context. They focus on understanding their clients' symptoms and the interaction patterns with family and friends that may contribute to the problem. Roles, patterns, rules, goals, beliefs and stages of development are explored. The family therapist then works with the individual, couple and family to change interaction patterns so that the problem can be resolved. How long does family therapy usually take? The length of time someone is in therapy depends upon various factors, including the seriousness of the problem. Family therapy tends to be short term. Research shows that the median length is 12 sessions, with 65% of cases being completed within 20 sessions (AAMFT, 2002). Although length of therapy differs from case to case, marriage and family therapy tends to be briefer than many other types of therapy. The lengths of sessions are usually 45 to 50 minutes in length, but they can sometimes be shorter or longer. What if my whole family won't participate? Not all family members have to take part in family therapy for it to be effective. When people decide to see a therapist for a problem, there is usually someone who is the most interested in seeking help and who initiates contact with a therapist. If there is a least one motivated person going to therapy, then family members who aren't initially interested may get involved later. ReferenceAAMFT. (2002). American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy. Retrieved February 12, 2010 from http://www.aamft.org/index.asp<br />
  9. 9. Ethics and Diversity Awareness Reducing Intergroup Conflict Situational Ethics<br />Reducing Intergroup Conflict<br />Angela Hill<br />Social Psychology<br />12/14/2009<br />HillA_PSY310XC_M7A3<br />
  10. 10. Foundations of Psychology Freud vs. Skinner<br />Comparison of Freudian and Skinnerian Theories<br />Argosy University<br />PSY 493 Crime and Causes M3A2<br />Angela Hill<br />09-26-2009<br />
  11. 11. Applied Psychology Counseling Theories: An Integrative Perspective<br />Counseling Theories an Integrative Perspective<br />Case Scenario: Client name - Sabina<br />Psychology 400 M8A2<br />Angela Hill<br />March 02, 2009<br />
  12. 12. Applied Psychology Socio-Psychological Analysis of Durkheim’s Notion of Anomie & Suicide<br />Socio-Psychological Analysis of Durkheim’s Notions of Anomie and Suicide<br />Argosy University<br />PSY 493 Crime and Causes M5A2<br />Angela Hill<br />10/10/2009<br />
  13. 13. Interpersonal Effectiveness Elements of Effective Treatment Treatment Plan to Motivate Michael<br />Elements of Effective Treatment:<br />Proposed Treatment Plan for Michael<br />Argosy University<br />HillA_PSY494_M6A4<br />02/19/2010<br />
  14. 14. Critical Thinking Skills<br />The Application of psychology with social media.<br /> <br />The growth and popularity of information technology tools in the past decade has had quite an impact on the field of psychology as it has in every area of our lives. Today’s internet contains a variety of psychological resources and services ranging from self-help guides to real-time counseling through chat, web telephony, and videoconferencing (Barak, 1999). Various researchers have pointed out both the potential dangers and the benefits of therapy on the Internet. The internet does have some advantages applicable through linking psychology with social media by providing unique opportunities for therapists and their clients. For example, the relative anonymity of this form of therapy allows clients to reveal their most pressing problems with less embarrassment; individuals may be more honest when they don’t have to worry about their therapist’s overt reactions to their difficult confessions (Gerrig and Zimbardo, 2009).<br />The Internet’s growing availability, social acceptability and multi-use makes it a ready source and outlet for fun and pleasure anonymity, escapism, as well as perceived privacy, and solitude. Broad adoption of the internet allows us to interact with a more diverse group of people in many more ways, leading to a dramatic increase in the number of human activities that have moved from physical, face-to-face meetings to contacts enabled by online, distant communication (Barak and Suler, 2008). This can pose problems offering some disadvantages for both those seeking psychological assistance and those dispensing it over the internet. There is the real possibility that without the extra scrutiny of face to face interaction, patients may be misdiagnosed, especially if they present limited or distorted information (Gerrig and Zimbardo, 2009). Another problem is that in cyberspace anyone can claim to be an expert, so how does a person to verify the credentials of on-line therapists and determine if that particular therapist is right for them. <br />The ten types of psychological Internet applications, mentioned by Barak (1999), include psychological and social research, information resources on psychological concepts and issues, information about specific psychological services, help in deciding to undergo therapy, counseling and therapy, support groups, discussion groups, and psychological testing and assessment. Ethical issues that might apply to the application of psychology with social media are those that are applicable in other settings such as fidelity and responsibility, integrity, beneficence and nonmaleficence. As a science, psychology seeks to understand and predict behavior patterns and mental processes through systematic observation and measurement (Argosy University Online, 2010). Therapists practice in many settings: hospitals, clinics, schools, and private offices, so why not over the internet too. It is important that psychological research and application is involved in all aspects of our lives in order to contribute fully to the well-being of society as a whole. The pervasiveness and popularity of the internet has had a profound effect upon shaping the individual, the family, the community, and our society. We have to constantly evolve and adapt to change so that the practice of psychology can adequately help meet the needs and responsibilities of today’s society.<br /> <br />Reference<br />Argosy University Online (2010). PSY492: Advance general psychology – module 1. Retrieved May 12, 2010 from http://myeclassonline.com/<br />Gerrig, R. J. & Zimbardo, P. G. (2009). Psychology and life. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon<br />Barak, A. (1999). Psychological applications on the Internet: A discipline on the threshold of a new millennium. Applied & Preventive Psychology 8, 231-245.<br />Barak, A. & Suler, J. (2008) Reflections on the psychology and social science of cyberspace. Retrieved May 11, 2010 from http://construct.haifa.ac.il/~azy/azy.htm<br />
  15. 15. Critical Thinking SkillsHemispheric lateralization<br /> Hemispheric lateralization is the processes whereby some functions such as language, memory, dreams, etc., are controlled or influenced more by one cerebral hemisphere than by the other (VandenBos, 2007). Each hemisphere is specialized for particular ways of working. The right and left hemispheres of the brain are connected by an area known as the corpus callosum. This area allows for the sharing of information between the two halves of the brain. Under normal circumstances, information arriving from both hemispheres is shared very quickly across the corpus callosum. In split-brain patients, these pathways have been severed (commissurotomy), so information presented to the right or left visual field is registered only in the left or right hemisphere (Gerrig and Zimbardo, 2009). Neuroscientists, Sperry and Gazzaniga conducted a series of tests in split-brain individuals to determine the extent to which the right and left hemispheres of the brain function independently. In the Visual Ability test, a split-brain patient was shown an image in the left visual field but could not name the object because for most people, speech is controlled in the left hemisphere so damage to the left side of most people’s brains can cause speech disorders and so can severing the ability of information to get to that area of the brain. We use our senses (especially our visual sense) to help us recognize and decode stimuli in ways that give them meaning and we react to that meaning. Distortions in perception can affect how we synthesize information.<br />The specialized functions, with regard to hemispheric lateralization, that were discovered and identified were several. Language is in the left hemisphere, but although the right hemisphere of the brain is nonverbal –not being able to communicate to observers what stimuli it had been presented with –it does have some verbal comprehension (Gazzaniga, Eliasse, Nisenson, Wessinger, Fendrich and Baynes, 1996). The right hemisphere is distinctly superior in spatial tasks. The left side of the brain is more rational and logical while the right side of the brain is more intuitive and artistic. Attempts of the left hemisphere to compensate for its lack of information, as well as attempts by the right hemisphere to get its knowledge conveyed are types of compensatory measures (Gazzaniga, 2000). Some of the difficulties the split-brain patient may experience would be with their memory, spatial attention, aphasia, and eye-hand coordination. These difficulties can result in anger, frustration and depression. Because of their hemispheric differences and specializations, split-brain patients are less likely to talk about their feelings, as if they're unavailable for discussion (Macalester, n. d.). For almost all split brain patients, the thoughts and perceptions of the right hemisphere are locked away from expression (Macalester, n. d.). The strategies I would recommend to help a patient manage them would be physical and educational therapy to retrain the brain and body and psychological therapy to deal with the mental and emotional issues. Was it ethical to do this study? Yes I believe it was because I think cerebral commissurotomy or the split-brain procedure is useful for the control of extremes in epileptic seizures that cannot be relieved by anticonvulsants or other standard methods. Of course full disclosure of patient risk and benefits as well as guidelines and procedures proscribed by the scientific community and oversight should be in place. Hopefully every effort was made to minimize the discomfort or suffering experienced by participants. These research experiments on split-brain patients, pioneered by Gazzaniga and Sperry, provided insight into the functioning of the brain and led to an even greater knowledge understanding of functional laterality<br />Reference<br />Gazzaniga, M. S. (2000).Cerebral specialization and interhemisphericcommunication. Brain, 123 (7), 1293-1326.<br />Gazzaniga, M. S., Eliasse, J. C., Nisenson, L., Wessinger, C. M., Fendrich, R., & Baynes, K. (1996). Collaboration between the hemispheres of a callosotomy patient: Emerging right hemisphere speech and the left hemisphere interpreter. Brain 119, 1255-1262.<br />Gerrig, R. J. & Zimbardo, P. G. (2009). Psychology and life. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon<br />Macalester,edu (n. d.). Behavior of split brain patients. Retrieved May 19, 2010 from http://www.macalester.edu/ps<br />VandenBos, G. R. (Ed.), (2007). APA Dictionary of Psychology. Washington D.C: American Psychological Association<br />
  16. 16. Critical Thinking SkillsBehaviorism<br />Pavlov, Watson, and Skinner, as researchers, studied the effects of the environment on learning and behavior. Learning is the process that results in a relatively consistent change in behavior based upon experience (Gerrig and Zimbardo, 2009). Pavlov introduced society to the process known as classical conditioning which is a type of learning where one stimulus or event predicts the occurrence of another stimulus or event (Hothersall, 1990). Pavlov took a primary stimulus behavior and paired it with other secondary stimuli so that an existing behavior is shaped by associating it with a new stimulus.In his physiological experiments the organism learns a new association between two stimuli—a stimulus that did not previously elicit the response and one that naturally elicited the response (Gerrig and Zimbardo, 2009). Applying his laws to human psychoses and language function Pavlov drew an analogy between the functional disorders in animals with those observed in humans. His ability to reduce a complex situation to a simple experiment and his pioneering studies relating human behavior to the nervous system laid the basis for the scientific analysis of behavior (Wright, 1970). In considering the use of behaviorism when teaching a new subject to an adult and to a child,Pavlov’s position would be that as the principal mechanism of adaptation to the environment by the living organism, conditioned reflexes play a significant role in words, thoughts, abstractions, and generalizations. B. F. Skinner's work was influenced by Ivan Pavlov’s experiments and the ideas of John Watson (Wright, 1970). Skinner gave us operant conditioning which rewards acts that approaches a new desired behavior. For Skinner, behavior could be predicted and controlled with precision so specified operations lead to predictable outcomes. Skinner succeeded in specifying and measuring a functionalunit of behavior, the operant, which was for skinner a class of behavior having an orderly relationship to environmental effects (Hothersall, 1990). Skinner’s work served as the original philosophical cornerstone of behavior analysis involving the environmental determinants of learning and behavior (Gerrig and Zimbardo, 2009). The behaviorism techniques Skinner would use when teaching a new subject to an adult and to a child would be behavior conditioning, schedules of reinforcement, shaping, reconditioning and extinction of unwanted behavior. <br />Watson founded the school of psychology known as behaviorism. Watson also published many books and articles on psychology for the general public. In Watson’s model of behavior, specific stimuli elicit specific responses in a reliable and predictable manner. Watson theorized that fears are acquired through conditioning and over time, conditioned fear can be generalized in response to a variety of stimuli. He demonstrated that the most effective method for overcoming fear is by direct conditioning. Variations of these deconditioning or desensitization procedures are widely used today in behavioral treatments of fears and phobias (Hotersall, 1990). Watson accurately predicted that the behaviorist’s ability to predict and control behavior would allow important contributions to science, business and industry (Wright, 1970). The use of behaviorism when teaching a new subject to an adult and to a child would happen sequentially under appropriate stimulation according to Watson. This learned behavior also has the capability of being transferred from one situation to another. Watson thought all behavior is the result of our responses to our environment so all people can be conditioned to behave in acceptable ways. Behavior techniques are applied through learning and conditioning. For him, all behavior, including many actions formerly thought to be instinctive, are in fact learned. All three (Pavlov, Skinner, and Watson) through their fundamental theories and experiments, have greatly contributed to the foundations of modern psychology. All three behaviorists offer compelling arguments for the use of behaviorism when teaching a new subject to an adult and to a child. But having to choose one, I give the edge to Watson because his applications more directly addressed our human behavior. <br />Reference<br />Gerrig, R. J. & Zimbardo, P. G. (2009). Psychology and life. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon<br />Hothersall, D. (1990). History of psychology (2nd ed.). NY: McGraw-Hill.<br />Wright, George D. A further note on ranking the important psychologists.American Psychologist. Vol 25(7), Jul 1970, 650-651. doi: 10.1037/h0037874<br />
  17. 17. Critical Thinking SkillsPiaget’s Model of Cognitive Development and Kohlberg’s Model of Moral Development <br />Children grow and learn about the world around them, and then learn to interact with others in the world by moving through several distinct phases. Piaget’s and Kohlberg’s models of development describe cognitive and moral stages, with one stage building off of the previous stage. Each stage represents a key aspect of a child’s mental or cognitive developmental processes. During this time, they master certain skills gradually, rather than all at once or in some cases, not at all. In Piaget’s theory of cognitive development there are the four stages: sensorimotor (object permanence), preoperational (centration), concrete operational (conservation, reversibility), formal operational (abstract thinking). The most important aspects to know about Piaget’s model of cognitive development are that assimilation and accommodation modify and restructure existing and new information. This is because inconsistencies between already held ideas and new experiences force change and adaption of alternatives that foster more appropriate actions (Argosy, 2010).In the sensory-motor stage, imitation is an essential behavior that leads to mental symbolism. In the preoperational stage, skill acquisition and symbolic functioning are developed. The concrete operational stage is where the child develops concepts of fairness, sharing, empathy, and compassion for another person’s troubles (Lifescript, n. d.). The formal operational stage, Piaget’s fourth and last stage of cognitive development, begins at about age 11 and continues into adulthood. This is the phase where children entering puberty begin to think abstractly and create meaning from available data (Lifescript, n. d.). Piaget’s theory that cognitive development occurs in stages and the growth of intelligence cannot be rushed by skipping stages before they are fully completed. <br />Kohlberg expanded Piaget’s view to define stages of moral development, where each stage is characterized by a different basis for making moral judgments (Gerrig and Zimbardo, 2009). Kohlberg has seven stages contained within three ascending levels of moral reasoning: preconventional morality (pleasure/pain, cost/benefit, reciprocity), conventional morality (good-child, law and order) and principled morality (social, ethical and cosmic orientation). The most important aspects to know about Kohlberg’s model of moral development is that movement through these stages is not a natural progression in that one does not automatically move from one stage to the next as they mature. In stage development, movement is effected when cognitive dissonance occurs, which is when a person notices inadequacies in his or her present way of coping with a given moral dilemma (Duska and Whelan, 1975). As a parent, each stage of a child’s development is just as important as the next. From the parents perspective we try to foster success during each stage and ease our children into transitioning to the next level. As a teacher, I would think the most important stage may be Piaget’ preoperational and Kohlberg’s preconventional where a child can get a good start on life which can later be reflected through their school work in class. Examining the Kohlberg stage of moral development, a juvenile delinquency judge would be most concerned with a child’slaw and order orientation in level 2, stage 4. In this stage, right behavior consists of doing one's duty, showing respect for authority and maintaining the given social order. A person in this stage orients to society as a system of fixed rule, law and authority with the prospect of any deviation from rules as leading to social chaos (Duska and Whelan, 1975). Unfortunately, since a child’s cognitive competence might lack the ability to grasp the concepts of social chaos the judge may have to reference Piaget’s stages of development. <br /> <br />Reference<br />Argosy University Online (2010). PSY492: Advance general psychology – module 4. Retrieved June 02, 2010 from http://myeclassonline.com/ <br />Duska, R. and Whelen, M. (1975). Moral development: A guide to Piaget and Kohlberg. New York: Paulist Press.<br />Gerrig, R. J. & Zimbardo, P. G. (2009). Psychology and life. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon<br />Lifescript (n. d.). Piaget's theory for parents. Retrieved June 02, 2010 from http://www.lifescript.com/Soul/Self/Growth/Piagets_Theory_For_Parents.aspx?p=1<br />
  18. 18. Critical Thinking SkillsThe Bystander Effect<br /> <br />Social psychologists, Bibb Latane and John Darley, conducted a series of experiments on helping behavior in emergencies showing the more bystanders present, the more likely it is that we will assume someone else will help. The higher the number of bystanders, the less obligated each individual is likely to feel any responsibility towards intervening. <br /> <br />In my opinion the primary psychological principle involved in nonintervention is group size leading to a diffusion of responsibility that results in the bystander effect. This diffusion process acts as a mediator making all onlookers less likely to help someone in need, because in groups, the obligation to intervene is shared by all onlookers rather than focused on any one specific individual. <br /> <br />We can explain their inaction in terms of situational forces. People’s willingness to help strangers in distress is very sensitive to precise characteristics of the situation (Gerrig, and Zimbardo, 2009). The interaction of group size, social categorization of in-group or out-group, gender identity, location of the incident, and level of possible personal danger can all act as mediating factors. In an experiment that explored the interaction of group size, social categorization, and bystander behavior it was found women were more likely to intervene when in the (physical) presence of a group of women and men were more likely to intervene when they were the only male in a group of women (Levine and Crowther, 2008).<br /> <br />There are other, psychological principles that can explain bystander behavior. Whether or not the bystander identifies with the victim as an in-group or out-group member can also affect willingness to get involved. Also, as a bystander, one must notice the emergency, evaluate and label the event as an emergency, feel some sense of responsibility towards other people, overcome any fear or doubts, mentally choose what action they should take, commit oneself to action, and then act. This is a process that could break down at any point along the continuum, causing a person to take no action at all. <br /> <br />One particular program I like to watch when it comes on TV is “What would you do?” John Quiñones of ABC's Primetime – ‘What would you do’ series uses hidden cameras to capture how people react when they’re thrust in real-life ethical scenarios. Will they step in or mind their own business? How would you respond? See the scenarios and take the quiz at: http://abcnews.go.com/WhatWouldYouDo/page?id=10614513<br /> <br />Reference:<br />Gerrig, R. J. & Zimbardo, P. G. (2009). Psychology and life. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon<br />Levine, M. & Crowther, S. (2008). The Responsive bystander: How social group membership and size can encourage as well as inhibit bystander intervention. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 95, No. 6, 1429–1439. <br /> <br />
  19. 19. Critical Thinking SkillsThe Effect of Interviewing Techniques and the Accuracy of What Children Say When Questioned<br /> Several factors may negatively influence the accuracy of children’s reports of an offense. The social incentive techniques used in the McMartin Preschool case was shown to elicit substantially more false allegations from children than did simple suggestive questions (Gaven, Wood, Malpass, and Shaw, 1998). This was also shown to be the case in their own research experiment in the use of social incentives to draw out information from children. Techniques which involve suggestive questions, social influence and reinforcement have a strong, immediate impact on children's reports, increasing the likelihood that children will reply "yes" to misleading questions (Gaven et al, 1998). <br /> <br />There are some things an interviewer can do to increase the accuracy of what children say in retelling an event and when questioned. Proper setting, rapport building to put the child at ease, asking questions about the child’s interests, beginning the interview with the most open, least leading question can get things off on the right footing. Some specific things an interviewer can do are: give the child permission to correct you or even decline to answer uncomfortable questions “right now” (Child Interview Guide). You can revisit the issue at a reasonable time that is more comfortable to the child Explain to the child that a repeated question does not mean the child was wrong or was not believed, but that maybe the interviewer forgot, got confused, or needs help understanding (Cronch, Viljoen and Hansen, 2006). If possible, you want to encourage the child to give an unprompted, free narrative account of the event under investigation, before moving into more specific questioning. Utilize a continuum or hierarchy of questions, proceeding from general to specific, open-ended to close-ended questions.<br /> <br />Much research has been done since the debacle of the McMartin Preschool case to improve the effectiveness in interviewing children. Some of the many forensic interviewing models in use today include the Child Cognitive interview, Step-Wise interview, and Narrative Elaboration, all shown to be more effective at helping children recall information than standard interviewing techniques (Faller, 2002). Basic elements common to most forensic interviews include introduction, rapport building, developmental assessment, guidelines for the interview, competency assessment, narrative description, follow-up questions, clarification, and closure. These are all necessary elements that work well along with adequate training and experience in interviewing children. <br /> <br />Reference<br />Child interview guide. Retrieved June 15, 2010 from http://centerforchildwelfare.fmhi.usf.edu/kb/trpi/Child%20Interview%20Guide.pdf <br />Cronch, L. E., Viljoen, J. L. & Hansen, D. J. (2006). Forensic interviewing in child sexual abuse cases: Current techniques and future directions. Retrieved June 14, 2010 from http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1005&context=psychfacpub<br />Faller, K. C. (2002). Conducting forensic interviews. Retrieved June 14, 2010 from http://www.practicenotes.org/vol8_no1/conducting.htm<br />Gaven, S., Wood, J. M., Malpass, R. S., & Shaw, J. S. (1998). More Than Suggestion: The Effect of Interviewing Techniques from the McMartin Preschool Case. Journal of Applied Psychology 83(3), 247-359.<br />
  20. 20. Critical Thinking SkillsHow might culture contribute to the definition of pathology and mental illness? <br />Mental illness affects every group in America, without regards to culture or status. Culture contributes to the definition of pathology and mental illness through how mental illness is perceived, viewed and treated. Mental symptoms, presentations and meanings can be colored by our mores and traditions, way of life, culture of the patient and clinician, communication difficulties, family stability, coping styles, service settings, and mistrust,Mistrust was identified by the surgeon general as a major barrier to the receipt of mental health treatment by racial and ethnic minorities (DHHS, 2001). Cultural differences in therapy expectations can influence the treatment outcome. In some cultures, suppressing one's emotions is an adaptive strategy for getting along in society (Price, 2008). This is counterproductive to psychotherapy’s goal to get people to open up and emote more. Steps need to be taken to help bridge the cultural gap and empower clients in the treatment process so that minorities may feel thoroughly and personally engaged in their own treatment. Disparities exist in access, utilization and quality of mental health services for racial and ethnic minorities (Daw, 2001). Many ethnic groups share similar social and economic inequities, and in particular exposure to racism, violence and poverty. Financial factors such the costs of mental health care, and the fact that a disproportionate number in these groups are uninsured and live in poverty presents an obstacle. Also, for many in these groups, there are no community-based mental health services in their neighborhoods. American Indians and Alaskan Natives have a suicide rate that is 1.5 times the national average. Such despair indicates a critical need for culturally competent community mental health services. <br />Racial and ethnic minorities in the United States are less likely than whites to seek mental health treatment, which largely accounts for their under-representation in most mental health services (DHHS, 2001). This can be due to factors such as a culture of mistrust, bad experiences, and even religious beliefs that discourage mental health treatment. As the fastest-growing minority group and with approximately 40 percent having limited English-language proficiency, the Hispanic and Latino population have very limited access to ethnically or linguistically similar providers (Daw, 2001). Inability to adequately communicate ones needs can frustrate attempts to get mental health treatment. Specific coping aspects of a client's culture can affect treatment results. Stigma and shame play a major role across some cultures, affecting their willingness to seek help for mental illness. For example, “face loss” is a major source of stress for many Chinese and Chinese Americans. Avoiding "face loss," the loss of respect and social credibility in front of one's peers, is an important component of Chinese social interaction (Price, 2008). This is important because, if a therapist realizes how “face loss” influences a client's motivations, they are in a position to be better prepared to interpret that person's behavior and better able to zero in on the best culturally informed treatment options. <br />A sociocultural perspective on psychopathology emphasizes the role culture plays in both the diagnosis and etiology of abnormal behavior (Gerrig and Zimbardo, 2009). Society and culture are immensely important to our mental health, influencing how mental illness is perceived and diagnosed. Multicultural competence is an extremely important part of therapist training, necessary to correctly diagnose and treat diverse clientele. An example of the need for this competence is that there is a longstanding pattern that cannot yet be fully explained where African Americans are more likely to be incorrectly diagnosed than white Americans, are more likely to be diagnosed as suffering from schizophrenia and less likely to be diagnosed as suffering from an affective disorder (DHHS, 2001). A final factor that we need to be aware of is clinician bias and stereotyping. Misdiagnosis can arise from clinician bias and stereotyping of ethnic and racial minorities. Clinicians often reflect the attitudes and discriminatory practices of their society (DHHS, 2001). Every society influences mental health treatment by how it organizes, delivers, and pays for mental health services. To date, we have not successfully addressed the problem that people with the most complex needs and the fewest financial resources often find it the most difficult to use. This problem is magnified for minority groups.<br />Reference<br />Daw, J. (2001). Culture counts in mental health services. Monitor 32(110), 16. Retrieved June 22, 2010 from http://www.apa.org/monitor/dec01/culture.aspx<br />DHHS (2001). Mental health: Culture, race and ethnicity. A Supplement to mental health: A Report of the Surgeon General. Retrieved June 21, 2010 from http://mentalhealth.samhsa.gov/cre/ch1_scope.asp<br />Gerrig, R. J. & Zimbardo, P. G. (2009). Psychology and life. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon<br />Price, M. (2008). Culture matters: Accounting for clients’ backgrounds and values makes for better treatment. Monitor 39(7), 52. Retrieved June 23, 2010 from http://www.apa.org/monitor/2008/07-08/culture.aspx<br />
  21. 21. My Future in Learning<br />Learning is a lifelong process. How do I envision my future as a lifelong learner? <br />I see my life as a journey with peaks and valleys. It is those peaks and valleys that have molded me into the person I am today. I have always loved learning new things and keeping my brain active. I and determined to continue to do so, for the rest of my life, God willing. <br />My ultimate career objective is to become a therapist. A graduate degree will help me advance toward my career goal. The opportunity to attend graduate school will allow me to continue my studies in the areas of maladaptive behavior, psychopathology, research, evaluation and the treatment of offenders. I have an enthusiastic desire to continue learning. Graduate school will give me the knowledge, skills and tools necessary to meet my goals.<br />I am so please in this second half of my life to be able to continue on my quest. Someday I hope to fully reflect back on my progress and accomplishments in the field of psychological science through work such as publications, presentations at conferences, leadership positions, and outreach to the young and old. <br />
  22. 22. Contact Me<br />Thank you for viewing my ePortfolio.<br />For further information, please contact me at the e-mail address below. <br />hill.angela@comcast.net<br />

×