METHODS IN MEDIA




RICHARD ROGERS
WHERE ARE WE NOW?
FROM VIRTUAL TO DIGITAL METHODS

3 VIRTUALS, OR 3 WAYS OF SEEING THE WEB
1. Web as Cyberspace (1994-2000...
CLAIMS GROUNDED ONLINE

UNDERSTANDING SOCIETAL CONDITIONS WITH THE WEB AS THE BASELINE


quot;This newspaper made an inven...
CLAIMS GROUNDED ONLINE

UNDERSTANDING SOCIETAL CONDITIONS WITH THE WEB AS THE BASELINE


quot;Deze krant inventariseerde e...
DIGITIZED VS. DIGITAL
 METHODS
Digitized methods


Online surveys - Finding the list to mail them to.

Online interviews -...
DIGITIZED VS. DIGITAL
 METHODS
Distinction between methods that migrate to the medium and those ‘native’ to it


General D...
DIGITAL METHODS
OBJECTS &
APPROACHES


1.   The Link - As reputation marker and indicator of a politics of association


2...
DIGITAL METHODS
OBJECTS &
APPROACHES


6. Social Networking Sites - As friends' tastes for 'post-demographic' profiling


...
1. THE LINK

How is it often studied? Hypertext, small worlds, paths and social networks


Hypertext Theory - from reading...
1. THE LINK

How else to study the link? Follow and repurpose medium methods


Follow Google, which grants sites status fr...
LINKING AS POLITICS OF
ASSOCIATION




      .
GM Food Network - Highlighted Actor Inter-linkings,
Govcom.org, 1999.
LINKS AS STATUS MARKERS




GM Food Network, Actor Link Profiles, Govcom.org, 1999.
E-Culture in the Netherlands: Network and Actors
                                                    Ranked Actor Profile ...
DYNAMIC URL SAMPLING

A METHOD FOR THE DISCOVERY OF CENSORED WEBSITES


Using lists of sensitive sites for Iran, researche...
Method & Findings:
 A Censored Network: Iranian Social, Political and Religious Sites
                                    ...
A Censor’s Network - Iranian Political, Social and
Religious sites

A method for censored Website discovery


     Using l...
2. THE WEBSITE

How is it often studied? User and Eyeball Studies


Usability - quot;Don't make me think.quot; Also: The W...
2. THE WEBSITE

How else to study it? As an archived object, awaiting use.


Internet Archive literature review - articles...
A METHOD FOR DEMARCATING AND DIAGNOSING NATIONAL WEBS


1. Demarcate National Web
Domain name, language, IP range, Whois

...
3. THE ENGINE

How is it often studied? As a dark web-maker, as attention deficit, as 'googlization'


Engines include and...
3. THE ENGINE

How else to study it? As a (temporal) ordering device and epistemological machine


Capture and reinterpret...
ON TOP OF THE ENGINE:
THE LIPPMANNIAN DEVICE
How else to study it? As a data source to be built upon to study source parti...
Climate Change Sceptics on the Web (Sallie Baliunas)
  Research Question_To what extent are climate change 'skeptics' pres...
Climate Change Sceptics on the Web (Timothy Ball)
  Research Question_To what extent are climate change 'skeptics' present...
Climate Change Sceptics on the Web (Robert Balling)
  Research Question_To what extent are climate change 'skeptics' prese...
Climate Change Sceptics on the Web (Paul Driessen)
  Research Question_To what extent are climate change 'skeptics' presen...
Climate Change Sceptics on the Web (Sherwood Idso)
  Research Question_To what extent are climate change 'skeptics' presen...
Climate Change Sceptics on the Web (Richard Linzen)
  Research Question_To what extent are climate change 'skeptics' prese...
Climate Change Sceptics on the Web (Patrick Michaels)
  Research Question_To what extent are climate change 'skeptics' pre...
Climate Change Sceptics on the Web (Steven Milloy)
  Research Question_To what extent are climate change 'skeptics' presen...
Climate Change Sceptics on the Web (Frederick Seitz)
  Research Question_To what extent are climate change 'skeptics' pres...
Climate Change Sceptics on the Web (S. Fred Singer)
  Research Question_To what extent are climate change 'skeptics' prese...
Climate Change Sceptics on the Web (Willie Soon)
  Research Question_To what extent are climate change 'skeptics' present
...
4. THE SPHERES

How are they often studied? Blogs as new genre, as news and as empowering voice.


Blogs as 'genre' (recog...
4. THE SPHERES

How else to study them? As engine-demarcated spaces with qualities.


Capture engine results.

Approached ...
Issue Animals Hierarchy in the News (Google News)
  Research Question_For the issue of climate change, how prominent is
  ...
Issue Animals Hierarchy in the Blogosphere
  Research Question_For the issue of climate change, how prominent is
  each an...
Issue Animals Hierarchy on the Web (Google)
  Research Question_For the issue of climate change, how prominent is
  each a...
5. THE WEBS

How is the Web often studied? Without the plural.


In the singular.

As cyberspace, as a technical infrastru...
5. THE WEBS

How else may they be studied? As national Webs that are telling


Through a recognition of IP address locatio...
THE WEB IS GROUNDED

Content is served according to one's IP address
DIAGNOSING THE CONDITION
OF A NATIONAL WEB
METHODS FOR DEMARCATING NATIONAL WEBS


1. Demarcate national Web
By domain nam...
DIAGNOSING THE CONDITION
OF A NATIONAL WEB
METHODS FOR DIAGNOSING NATIONAL WEBS


2. Diagnose condition of a national Web
...
Query:     Number of results available per TLD served by Google Region Search
                                            ...
The World according to Google V
Richard Rogers - Methods in Media
Richard Rogers - Methods in Media
Richard Rogers - Methods in Media
Richard Rogers - Methods in Media
Richard Rogers - Methods in Media
Richard Rogers - Methods in Media
Richard Rogers - Methods in Media
Richard Rogers - Methods in Media
Richard Rogers - Methods in Media
Richard Rogers - Methods in Media
Richard Rogers - Methods in Media
Richard Rogers - Methods in Media
Richard Rogers - Methods in Media
Richard Rogers - Methods in Media
Richard Rogers - Methods in Media
Richard Rogers - Methods in Media
Richard Rogers - Methods in Media
Richard Rogers - Methods in Media
Richard Rogers - Methods in Media
Richard Rogers - Methods in Media
Richard Rogers - Methods in Media
Richard Rogers - Methods in Media
Richard Rogers - Methods in Media
Richard Rogers - Methods in Media
Richard Rogers - Methods in Media
Richard Rogers - Methods in Media
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Richard Rogers - Methods in Media

  1. 1. METHODS IN MEDIA RICHARD ROGERS
  2. 2. WHERE ARE WE NOW? FROM VIRTUAL TO DIGITAL METHODS 3 VIRTUALS, OR 3 WAYS OF SEEING THE WEB 1. Web as Cyberspace (1994-2000) Virtual as distinct from the real. Virtual studies 2. Web as Virtual Society? (2000-2007) Virtual is part of the real. Offline as baseline 3. Web as Virtual? Society (2007- ) 'Virtual' as indication of the real. Online as baseline Now: Use online data about society & culture, and make 'online grounded' claims
  3. 3. CLAIMS GROUNDED ONLINE UNDERSTANDING SOCIETAL CONDITIONS WITH THE WEB AS THE BASELINE quot;This newspaper made an inventory of right-wing and extreme right-wing sites.... The newspaper found 150 of such sites that came and went over the past 10 years. The internet archive's wayback machine was used. We found that the number of right-wing and extreme right-wing sites grew after 11 September 2001, the rise of Pim Fortuyn...The growth was explosive... The difference in language use became smaller.... The internet is revealing a hardening of the Netherlands.quot; - NRC Handelsblad, 25 August 2007 On 20 September 2007, it fell out of the top 1,000 results.
  4. 4. CLAIMS GROUNDED ONLINE UNDERSTANDING SOCIETAL CONDITIONS WITH THE WEB AS THE BASELINE quot;Deze krant inventariseerde en vergeleek rechtse en in taalgebruik radicalere extreemrechtse sites... De krant spoorde 150 sites op die de afgelopen tien jaar kwamen en gingen. Daarvoor werd het internetarchief gebruikt... De inventarisatie laat zien dat zowel het aantal rechtse als extreemrechtse sites groeide na de aanslagen van 11 september 2001, de opkomst van Pim Fortuyn... Het maakt ook duidelijk dat de verschillen tussen rechtse en extreemrechtse sites kleiner zijn geworden... Internet lijkt daarmee de weerslag van de maatschappelijke verharding in Nederland.quot; - NRC Handelsblad, 25 August 2007
  5. 5. DIGITIZED VS. DIGITAL METHODS Digitized methods Online surveys - Finding the list to mail them to. Online interviews - Become written exchanges by email. (Online) observation - Watching users over the shoulder. Online samples - Become difficult. Also issue of exhaustiveness. Online investigative reporting - Fact-checking by phoning/surfing?
  6. 6. DIGITIZED VS. DIGITAL METHODS Distinction between methods that migrate to the medium and those ‘native’ to it General Digital Methods Protocol - Follow the Medium Which objects are available? (Links, tags, threads, timestamp...) How do dominant devices and platforms handle them? How to learn from and repurpose medium methods? (Mash-up...) Are findings grounded in the online? Is the online the baseline?
  7. 7. DIGITAL METHODS OBJECTS & APPROACHES 1. The Link - As reputation marker and indicator of a politics of association 2. The Website - As an archived object, awaiting use 3. The Engines - As ordering devices, providing hierarchies of credibility 4. The Spheres - As bounded, engine-demarcations, with distinctive qualities 5. The Webs - As national Webs, with characteristics that may used for diagnoses
  8. 8. DIGITAL METHODS OBJECTS & APPROACHES 6. Social Networking Sites - As friends' tastes for 'post-demographic' profiling 7. Wikipedia - As networked content, held together and 'co-authored' by bots
  9. 9. 1. THE LINK How is it often studied? Hypertext, small worlds, paths and social networks Hypertext Theory - from reading texts to authoring stories by clicking links. Small Worlds and Path Theory - concerned with distance between people, and the route to take to reach someone. Social Network Analysis - people's positioning in a network, e.g., centrality and betweenness.
  10. 10. 1. THE LINK How else to study the link? Follow and repurpose medium methods Follow Google, which grants sites status from their links. Capture inlinks and outlinks from sites, using link ripper, Yahoo inlink ripper, or Issue Crawler and actor profiler. Profile actors. Show politics of association, and reputation.
  11. 11. LINKING AS POLITICS OF ASSOCIATION . GM Food Network - Highlighted Actor Inter-linkings, Govcom.org, 1999.
  12. 12. LINKS AS STATUS MARKERS GM Food Network, Actor Link Profiles, Govcom.org, 1999.
  13. 13. E-Culture in the Netherlands: Network and Actors Ranked Actor Profile 1 of 10 9 Ranked Actor Profile 1 of 10 Ranked Actor Profile 1 of 22-Nov-2006 25-Aug-2008 25-Aug-2008 Ranked Actor Profile 2 of of 9 Ranked Actor Profile 2 10 22-Nov-2006 25-Aug-2008 Ranked Actor Profile 3 of 10 9 Ranked Actor Profile 3 of 22-Nov-2006 25-Aug-2008 Ranked Actor Profile 4 of of 9 Ranked Actor Profile 4 10 22-Nov-2006 25-Aug-2008 Criminal Justice Reform e-cultuur e-cultuur Criminal Justice Reform e-cultuur Criminal Justice Reform e-cultuur Criminal Justice Reform e-cultuur thomas.loc.gov picnicnetwork.org usdoj.gov vsbfonds.nl ncjrs.org minocw.nl aclu.org mondriaanfoundation.nl (14) inlinks and (0) (8) outlinks (10) inlinks and outlinks (8)(10) inlinks andoutlinks inlinks and (4) (0) outlinks (7) (9) inlinks and (10) outlinks inlinks and (1) outlinks (8) (9) inlinks and (3) outlinks inlinks and (1) outlinks Google actor pagerank for issue Google actor pagerank for issue Google actor pagerank for issue Google actor pagerank for issue Google actor pagerank for issue Google actor pagerank for issue Google actor pagerank for issue Google actor pagerank for issue thomas.loc.gov is not returned in E cultuur , beeld, fotografie, vsbfonds.nlis not returned in the usdoj.gov is not returned in ncjrs.org is not returned in the Speech van Staatssecretaris Van eCultuur Denot returned in the aclu.org is Mondriaan Stichting the top 1000 results for educatie. Ronnie Stevens, top 1000 results for quot;Criminal the top 1000 results for der Laan Symposiumquot;Criminal in top 1000 results for eCultuur hecht groot belang aan top 1000 results for quot;Criminal - 134 -- - 31 41 - Oleksandr Justice Reformquot;. quot;Criminal Demchenko, Eileen e-cultuurReformquot;. Justice Justice Reformquot;. Beweging, ... Van mijn korte cultuureducatie, zowel voor Justice Reformquot;. Bell, Erik Driessen, Hanneke aanwezigheid moet de volgende jongeren als voor volwassenen. Vos, Frans Nauta ... boodschap uitgaan: eCultuur ... Uit onderzoeken van Ineke ... Ranked Actor Profile 5 of 9 25-Aug-2008 Ranked Actor Profile 7 of 9 25-Aug-2008 Ranked Actor Profile 8 of 9 25-Aug-2008 Ranked Actor Profile 5 of 10 22-Nov-2006 Ranked Actor Profile 6 of 10 9 Ranked Actor Profile 6 of 25-Aug-2008 22-Nov-2006 Ranked Actor Profile 7 of 10 22-Nov-2006 Ranked Actor Profile 8 of 10 22-Nov-2006 e-cultuur e-cultuur e-cultuur e-cultuur Criminal Justice Reform Criminal Justice Reform Criminal Justice Reform Criminal Justice Reform doen.nl fondsbkvb.nl creativecommons.org waag.org sentencingproject.org ojp.usdoj.gov ojjdp.ncjrs.org state.ny.us (8) inlinks and (2) outlinks (7) inlinks and (11) outlinks (7) inlinks and (7) outlinks (7) inlinks and (12) outlinks (5) inlinks and (0) outlinks (7) inlinks and (5) outlinks (7) inlinks and (2) outlinks (6) inlinks and (0) outlinks Google actor pagerank for issue Google actor pagerank for issue Google actor pagerank for issue Google actor pagerank for issue Google actor pagerank for issue Google actor pagerank for issue Google actor pagerank for issue Google actor pagerank for issue creativecommons.org is not waag.org is not returned in the doen.nl is not returned in the File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat - Information about crime, courts, Now let's look at the ojjdp.ncjrs.org is not returned returned in the top 1000 results Governor Pataki Introduces top 1000 results for e-cultuur top 1000 results for e-cultuur View as HTML Het Virtueel - - sentencing, criminal justice 159 imprisonment movement, the second for the top 1000 results for in e-cultuur - Criminal Justice Reform 10 358 Platform, sectorinstituut voor - 73 policy analysis, punishment, great criminal justice reform of quot;Criminal Justice Reformquot;. Initatives. Police and Public e-cultuur , stelt zich als. doel alternatives to incarceration and the past two decades. The Protection Act, Criminal om e-cultuur in Nederland te ... reform. expanded use of prison ... Procedural Law Reform to ... Ranked Actor Profile 9 of 9 25-Aug-2008 Issue Crawler-discovered actors, Ranked Actor Profile 9 of 10 22-Nov-2006 Ranked Actor Profile 10 of 10 22-Nov-2006 signi cant to the e-culture sector e-cultuur Criminal Justice Reform Criminal Justice Reform in the Netherlands.* flickr.com afk.nl Legend followthemoney.org albany.edu aimsterdam.nl (6) inlinks and (2) outlinks amsterdam.nl (5) inlinks and (3) outlinks (5) inlinks and (3) outlinks anymeta.net beeldengeluid.nl creativecommons.nl creativecommons.org cultuurfonds.nl del.icio.us doen.nl emaf.de Google actor pagerank for issue Google actor pagerank for issue Google actor pagerank for issue fabchannel.com feedreader.com Method Flickr is almost certainly the followthemoney.org is not bestis the author of Explaining and He online photo management lmfestivalrotterdam.com returned in the top 1000 results 18 Criminal Justice: Community Insert the organisations in the Virtual Platform database - 592 sharing application in the world. lmfund.nl for quot;Criminal Justice Reformquot;. Show offand Criminal photos and Theory your favorite Justice as the starting points for an Issue Crawler map. lmmuseum.nl videos to.the view Dr. Duffee's Reform To world, ... ickr.com Perform this over time and make a ranked list of persistent actors. Vitae - click here. [Photo ... fondsbkvb.nl Rank and profile actors in the shown issue network (August 08), frankwatching.com and show their ranking according to Google PageRank per issue. hku.nl hollandfestival.nl hyves.nl idfa.nl kunstenaarsenco.nl last.fm marketingfacts.nl mediamatic.nl E-Culture in the Netherlands: Network and Actors _______________________ - minocw.nl mondriaanfoundation.nl mondriaanstichting.nl 08 prinsbernhardcultuurfonds.nl September November Analysis_ Richard Rogers and Sabine Niederer. syntens.nl transartists.nl Design _Marieke van Dijk. uva.nl vsbfonds.nl Data_from Virtual Platform. Analysis and visualization from issuecrawler.net youtube.com and tools.issuecrawler.net by govcom.org. *Each actor was present in the e-culture networks in April, June and August 2008. © 2008 Govcom.org
  14. 14. DYNAMIC URL SAMPLING A METHOD FOR THE DISCOVERY OF CENSORED WEBSITES Using lists of sensitive sites for Iran, researchers, using the Issue Crawler, perform hyperlink analysis, discovering further URLs, and run them through a proxy in Iran for code 403’s (forbidden). On 20 September 2007, it fell out of the top 1,000 results.
  15. 15. Method & Findings: A Censored Network: Iranian Social, Political and Religious Sites Using Issuecrawler.net, crawl URLs (on 30 March A hyperlink analysis method for censored Website discovery. 2006) from the OpenNet Initiative's list of Iranian social, political and religious sites. Find network of sites through one iteration of co-link analysis (pictured). Fetch each site through a proxy in Iran (on 18 May 2006). Discover sites previously rdki.com unknown to be blocked. Compare newly discovered voanews.com blocked sites with entire list of Iranian Websites sh-shafa.com checked by the OpenNet Initiative. The finding is i-w-o.org the discovery of 30 blocked sites in Iran. medusa2000.com rowzane.com iranazad.com tehrantimes.com zagros.info marzeporgohar.org womeniniran.com siasate-kargari.com shamlou.org kasravi.info avairan.com radio-international.org Newly discovered blocked sites: didgah.com sharareha.com ihrwg.org sarbedaran.org bbc.co.uk/persian jebhemelli.net http://home.bip.net/radiohambastegi/ jebhe.org http://ir.mondediplo.com/ azadi-iran.org peykeiran.com nashrieh-nameh.com http://www.alahwaz.com/ radiokomaleh.com wpiran.org etehadchap.com http://www.ashoob.com/ fadaian.org http://www.asre-nou.net/ irandokht.com jebhemelli.org komalah.org http://www.bbc.co.uk/persian/ iran-emrooz.de alahwaz.com un.org iran.mojahedin.org radiofarda.com http://www.channelonetv.com/ golshan.com home.bip.net/radiohambastegi http://www.didgah.com/ peiknet.com http://www.didgah.net/ hayateno.org kargar.org payvand.com/news panahjoo.com roshangari.com http://www.fadaee.org/ zan.org jonge-khabar.com mani-poesie.de http://www.fedayi.org/ etehadefedaian.org radis.org iran-e-sabz.org cpiran.org http://www.fwhi.org/ rahekargar.net fadaee.org fedayi.org http://www.geocities.com/~fedaian/ hamshahri.net ranjbaran.org komala.org http://www.gozareshgar.com/ kanoon-zendanian.org http://www.iran-jommelli.com/ amnesty.org gooya.com radiobarabari.net http://www.iranazad.com/ baztab.com shahrvand.com http://www.irandokht.com/ forughfarrokhzad.org isnagency.com fadai.org negah1.com siahkal.com http://www.komalah.org/ asre-nou.net ashoob.com http://www.kvinnonet.org/ ettelaat.com iran-newspaper.com tudehpartyiran.org mihan.net http://www.mani-poesie.de/ news.gooya.com avayeashena.com fwhi.org http://www.medusa2000.com/ nehzateazadi.org pdk-iran.org http://www.mihan.net/ rfi.fr/fichiers/Langues/rfi_persan_main.asp http://www.negah1.com/ golshirifoundation.org gozareshgar.com irna.com http://www.peykeiran.com/ ilna.ir wsu-iran.org channelonetv.com iran-chabar.de http://www.radio-international.org/ iran-jommelli.com http://www.radiobarabari.net/ shamlu.com kvinnonet.org toufan.org avayezan.com marxists.org A co-production between the Govcom.org Foundation, Amsterdam, and the http://www.rdki.com/ geocities.com/~fedaian OpenNet Initiative, a partnership between the Citizen Lab at the Munk http://www.roozonline.com/ sharghnewspaper.com hadisara.com ir.mondediplo.com Centre for International Studies, University of Toronto, the Berkman Center http://www.shahrvand.com/ for Internet & Society at Harvard Law School, the Advanced Network http://www.zagros.info/ Research Group at the Cambridge Security Programme at Cambridge University, and the Oxford Internet Institute, Oxford University. iransocialforum.org rooydad.com Legend didgah.net Internet Censorship Visualizations________________________2006 A Censored Network: Iranian Social, Political and Religious Sites Blocked sites roozonline.com Newly discovered blocked sites 06 Accessible sites Data_by OpenNet Initiative and map by Issuecrawler.net. alefbe.com Analysis_by Richard Rogers, Nart Villeneuve and Erik IRAN Inaccessible site (owing to DNS issue) Borra, and design_by Marieke van Dijk. Size of node indicates inlink count from network. © 2006 Govcom.org and ONI
  16. 16. A Censor’s Network - Iranian Political, Social and Religious sites A method for censored Website discovery Using lists of sensitive sites for Iran, researchers, using the Issue Crawler, perform hyperlink analysis, discovering further URLs, and run them through a proxy in Iran for code 403’s (forbidden).
  17. 17. 2. THE WEBSITE How is it often studied? User and Eyeball Studies Usability - quot;Don't make me think.quot; Also: The Web is blue. Eye-tracking - Heat maps tell stories, and help redesign sites. Site optimization - quot;Grabbing more eyeballsquot; Site features - types of interactivity ergo participation
  18. 18. 2. THE WEBSITE How else to study it? As an archived object, awaiting use. Internet Archive literature review - articles about it, but not how it's used. (Exception: Wayback machine articles.) Follow Wayback Machine's interface. It privileges single-site histories. Capture a site's history. What does it tell?
  19. 19. A METHOD FOR DEMARCATING AND DIAGNOSING NATIONAL WEBS 1. Demarcate National Web Domain name, language, IP range, Whois 2. Diagnose Condition of National Web a. 'Youthfulness' (freshness through datestamps) b. 'Brokenness' (link validators) c. 'Cohesiveness' (linking to other national sites - example) d. 'Datedness' (software versions running) e. 'Dated users' (browser versions of users) On 20 September 2007, it fell out of the top 1,000 results.
  20. 20. 3. THE ENGINE How is it often studied? As a dark web-maker, as attention deficit, as 'googlization' Engines include and exclude by not indexing orphans; by burying sites. Engines encourage attention deficits. Users rarely look past result 10. 'Contemplative man' replaced by 'flickering man.' Googlization turns the engine into an object of mass media critique. Google as monolith. Surveillance studies. One’s search history becomes new databody.
  21. 21. 3. THE ENGINE How else to study it? As a (temporal) ordering device and epistemological machine Capture and reinterpret the engine's results. Inquire into the new orders of things, and hierarchies of credibility. Inquire into stability / volatility of site rankings with the Issue Dramaturg. Query individual sites for partisanship and commitments with the Lippmannian Device.
  22. 22. ON TOP OF THE ENGINE: THE LIPPMANNIAN DEVICE How else to study it? As a data source to be built upon to study source partisanship Capture engine's results. Query each of the first hundred result for terms. How far are terms from the 'top of the Web'? (Source distance.) Inquire also into sources' partisanship and commitments.
  23. 23. Climate Change Sceptics on the Web (Sallie Baliunas) Research Question_To what extent are climate change 'skeptics' present in the climate change spaces on the Web? Findings_There is distance between the skeptics and the top of the search engine returns. epa.gov (0) bbc.co.uk (0) defra.gov.uk (0) unep.org (0) bom.gov.au (0) ipcc.ch (0) pewclimate.org (0) davidsuzuki.org (0) panda.org (0) mfe.govt.nz (0) ec.gc.ca (0) exploratorium.edu (0) climatechange.com.au (0) greenpeace.org (0) climatechallenge.gov.uk (0) guardian.co.uk (0) iisd.org (0) g8.gov.uk (0) campaigncc.org (0) foe.co.uk (0) state.gov (0) scidev.net (0) eea.europa.eu (0) whoi.edu (0) cbc.ca (0) energy.gov (0) marshall.org (6) climateark.org (2) un.org (0) dar.csiro.au (0) theglobeandmail.com (0) acfonline.org.au (0) gcrio.org (0) nature.com (0) grida.no (0) nature.org (0) ecokids.ca (0) royalsoc.ac.uk (0) climatechangecentral.com (0) iea.org (0) ecn.ac.uk (0) ecy.wa.gov (0) worldwildlife.org (0) realclimate.org (55) faqs.org (0) metoffice.gov.uk (0) open2.net (0) scienceagogo.com (0) eldis.org (0) ft.com (0) who.int (0) climatecrisis.net (0) ltscotland.org.uk (0) abc.net.au (0) climatechange.ca.gov (0) envirolink.org (0) mofa.go.jp (0) sourcewatch.org (0) iucn.org (0) dfat.gov.au (0) ncdc.noaa.gov (0) climatescience.gov (0) climatechangecollege.org (0) ciel.org (0) ucar.edu (0) Source_google.com Product_of the Digital Methods Initiative, Query_“Sallie Baliunas” dmi.mediastudies.nl. Analysis_by Bram Method_Search for query “Sallie Baliunas” in top 100. Organized in order. Nijhof, Richard Rogers and Laura van der Tools_Google Scraper and Tag Cloud Generator Vlies. Design_Anne Helmond. Date_30 July 2007 CLIMATE CHANGE SCEPTICS CC_BY:NC:SA
  24. 24. Climate Change Sceptics on the Web (Timothy Ball) Research Question_To what extent are climate change 'skeptics' present in the climate change spaces on the Web? Findings_There is distance between the skeptics and the top of the search engine returns. epa.gov (0) bbc.co.uk (0) defra.gov.uk (0) unep.org (0) bom.gov.au (0) ipcc.ch (0) pewclimate.org (0) davidsuzuki.org (0) panda.org (0) mfe.govt.nz (0) ec.gc.ca (0) exploratorium.edu (0) climatechange.com.au (0) greenpeace.org (0) climatechallenge.gov.uk (0) guardian.co.uk (0) iisd.org (0) g8.gov.uk (0) campaigncc.org (6) foe.co.uk (0) state.gov (0) scidev.net (0) eea.europa.eu (0) whoi.edu (0) cbc.ca (0) energy.gov (0) marshall.org (2) climateark.org (0) un.org (0) dar.csiro.au (0) theglobeandmail.com (0) acfonline.org.au (0) gcrio.org (0) nature.com (0) grida.no (0) nature.org (0) ecokids.ca (0) royalsoc.ac.uk (0) climatechangecentral.com (0) iea.org (0) ecn.ac.uk (0) ecy.wa.gov (0) worldwildlife.org (0) realclimate.org (0) faqs.org (0) metoffice.gov.uk (0) open2.net (0) scienceagogo.com (0) eldis.org (0) ft.com (0) who.int (0) climatecrisis.net (0) ltscotland.org.uk (0) abc.net.au (0) climatechange.ca.gov (0) envirolink.org (0) mofa.go.jp (0) sourcewatch.org (0) iucn.org (0) dfat.gov.au (0) ncdc.noaa.gov (0) climatescience.gov (0) climatechangecollege.org (0) ciel.org (0) ucar.edu (0) Source_google.com Product_of the Digital Methods Initiative, Query_“Timothy Ball” dmi.mediastudies.nl. Analysis_by Bram Method_Search for query “Timothy Ball” in top 100. Organized in order. Nijhof, Richard Rogers and Laura van der Tools_Google Scraper and Tag Cloud Generator Vlies. Design_Anne Helmond. Date_30 July 2007 CLIMATE CHANGE SCEPTICS CC_BY:NC:SA
  25. 25. Climate Change Sceptics on the Web (Robert Balling) Research Question_To what extent are climate change 'skeptics' present in the climate change spaces on the Web? Findings_There is distance between the skeptics and the top of the search engine returns. epa.gov (0) bbc.co.uk (0) defra.gov.uk (0) unep.org (0) bom.gov.au (0) ipcc.ch (0) pewclimate.org (0) davidsuzuki.org (0) panda.org (0) mfe.govt.nz (0) ec.gc.ca (0) exploratorium.edu (0) climatechange.com.au (0) greenpeace.org (0) climatechallenge.gov.uk (0) guardian.co.uk (0) iisd.org (0) g8.gov.uk (0) campaigncc.org (2) foe.co.uk (0) state.gov (0) scidev.net (0) eea.europa.eu (0) whoi.edu (0) cbc.ca (0) energy.gov (0) marshall.org (2) climateark.org (2) un.org (0) dar.csiro.au (0) theglobeandmail.com (0) acfonline.org.au (0) gcrio.org (0) nature.com (0) grida.no (0) nature.org (0) ecokids.ca (0) royalsoc.ac.uk (0) climatechangecentral.com (0) iea.org (0) ecn.ac.uk (0) ecy.wa.gov (0) worldwildlife.org (0) realclimate.org (11) faqs.org (0) metoffice.gov.uk (0) open2.net (0) scienceagogo.com (0) eldis.org (0) ft.com (0) who.int (0) climatecrisis.net (0) ltscotland.org.uk (0) abc.net.au (0) climatechange.ca.gov (0) envirolink.org (0) mofa.go.jp (0) sourcewatch.org (4) iucn.org (0) dfat.gov.au (0) ncdc.noaa.gov (0) climatescience.gov (11) climatechangecollege.org (0) ciel.org (0) ucar.edu (0) Source_google.com Product_of the Digital Methods Initiative, Query_“Robert Balling” dmi.mediastudies.nl. Analysis_by Bram Method_Search for query “Robert Balling” in top 100. Organized in order. Nijhof, Richard Rogers and Laura van der Tools_Google Scraper and Tag Cloud Generator Vlies. Design_Anne Helmond. Date_30 July 2007 CLIMATE CHANGE SCEPTICS CC_BY:NC:SA
  26. 26. Climate Change Sceptics on the Web (Paul Driessen) Research Question_To what extent are climate change 'skeptics' present in the climate change spaces on the Web? Findings_There is distance between the skeptics and the top of the search engine returns. epa.gov (0) bbc.co.uk (0) defra.gov.uk (0) unep.org (0) bom.gov.au (0) ipcc.ch (0) pewclimate.org (0) davidsuzuki.org (0) panda.org (0) mfe.govt.nz (0) ec.gc.ca (0) exploratorium.edu (0) climatechange.com.au (0) greenpeace.org (0) climatechallenge.gov.uk (0) guardian.co.uk (0) iisd.org (0) g8.gov.uk (0) campaigncc.org (1) foe.co.uk (0) state.gov (0) scidev.net (0) eea.europa.eu (0) whoi.edu (0) cbc.ca (0) energy.gov (0) marshall.org (0) climateark.org (0) un.org (0) dar.csiro.au (0) theglobeandmail.com (0) acfonline.org.au (0) gcrio.org (0) nature.com (0) grida.no (0) nature.org (0) ecokids.ca (0) royalsoc.ac.uk (0) climatechangecentral.com (0) iea.org (0) ecn.ac.uk (0) ecy.wa.gov (0) worldwildlife.org (0) realclimate.org (0) faqs.org (0) metoffice.gov.uk (0) open2.net (0) scienceagogo.com (0) eldis.org (0) ft.com (0) who.int (0) climatecrisis.net (0) ltscotland.org.uk (0) abc.net.au (0) climatechange.ca.gov (0) envirolink.org (0) mofa.go.jp (0) sourcewatch.org (28) iucn.org (0) dfat.gov.au (0) ncdc.noaa.gov (0) climatescience.gov (0) climatechangecollege.org (0) ciel.org (0) ucar.edu (0) Source_google.com Product_of the Digital Methods Initiative, Query_“Paul Driessen” dmi.mediastudies.nl. Analysis_by Bram Method_Search for query “Paul Driessen” in top 100. Organized in order. Nijhof, Richard Rogers and Laura van der Tools_Google Scraper and Tag Cloud Generator Vlies. Design_Anne Helmond. Date_30 July 2007 CLIMATE CHANGE SCEPTICS CC_BY:NC:SA
  27. 27. Climate Change Sceptics on the Web (Sherwood Idso) Research Question_To what extent are climate change 'skeptics' present in the climate change spaces on the Web? Findings_There is distance between the skeptics and the top of the search engine returns. epa.gov (0) bbc.co.uk (0) defra.gov.uk (0) unep.org (0) bom.gov.au (0) ipcc.ch (0) pewclimate.org (0) davidsuzuki.org (0) panda.org (0) mfe.govt.nz (0) ec.gc.ca (0) exploratorium.edu (0) climatechange.com.au (0) greenpeace.org (0) climatechallenge.gov.uk (0) guardian.co.uk (0) iisd.org (0) g8.gov.uk (0) campaigncc.org (1) foe.co.uk (0) state.gov (0) scidev.net (0) eea.europa.eu (0) whoi.edu (0) cbc.ca (0) energy.gov (0) marshall.org (0) climateark.org (1) un.org (0) dar.csiro.au (0) theglobeandmail.com (0) acfonline.org.au (0) gcrio.org (0) nature.com (0) grida.no (0) nature.org (0) ecokids.ca (0) royalsoc.ac.uk (0) climatechangecentral.com (0) iea.org (0) ecn.ac.uk (0) ecy.wa.gov (0) worldwildlife.org (0) realclimate.org (42) faqs.org (0) metoffice.gov.uk (0) open2.net (0) scienceagogo.com (0) eldis.org (0) ft.com (0) who.int (0) climatecrisis.net (0) ltscotland.org.uk (0) abc.net.au (0) climatechange.ca.gov (0) envirolink.org (0) mofa.go.jp (0) sourcewatch.org (14) iucn.org (0) dfat.gov.au (0) ncdc.noaa.gov (0) climatescience.gov (0) climatechangecollege.org (0) ciel.org (0) ucar.edu (0) Source_google.com Product_of the Digital Methods Initiative, Query_“Sherwood Idso” dmi.mediastudies.nl. Analysis_by Bram Method_Search for query “Sherwood Idso” in top 100. Organized in order. Nijhof, Richard Rogers and Laura van der Tools_Google Scraper and Tag Cloud Generator Vlies. Design_Anne Helmond. Date_30 July 2007 CLIMATE CHANGE SCEPTICS CC_BY:NC:SA
  28. 28. Climate Change Sceptics on the Web (Richard Linzen) Research Question_To what extent are climate change 'skeptics' present in the climate change spaces on the Web? Findings_There is distance between the skeptics and the top of the search engine returns. epa.gov (0) bbc.co.uk (0) defra.gov.uk (0) unep.org (0) bom.gov.au (0) ipcc.ch (0) pewclimate.org (0) davidsuzuki.org (0) panda.org (0) mfe.govt.nz (0) ec.gc.ca (0) exploratorium.edu (0) climatechange.com.au (0) greenpeace.org (0) climatechallenge.gov.uk (0) guardian.co.uk (0) iisd.org (0) g8.gov.uk (0) campaigncc.org (0) foe.co.uk (0) state.gov (0) scidev.net (0) eea.europa.eu (0) whoi.edu (0) cbc.ca (0) energy.gov (0) marshall.org (0) climateark.org (0) un.org (0) dar.csiro.au (0) theglobeandmail.com (0) acfonline.org.au (0) gcrio.org (0) nature.com (0) grida.no (0) nature.org (0) ecokids.ca (0) royalsoc.ac.uk (0) climatechangecentral.com (0) iea.org (0) ecn.ac.uk (0) ecy.wa.gov (0) worldwildlife.org (0) realclimate.org (13) faqs.org (0) metoffice.gov.uk (0) open2.net (0) scienceagogo.com (0) eldis.org (0) ft.com (0) who.int (0) climatecrisis.net (0) ltscotland.org.uk (0) abc.net.au (0) climatechange.ca.gov (0) envirolink.org (0) mofa.go.jp (0) sourcewatch.org (0) iucn.org (0) dfat.gov.au (0) ncdc.noaa.gov (0) climatescience.gov (0) climatechangecollege.org (0) ciel.org (0) ucar.edu (0) Source_google.com Product_of the Digital Methods Initiative, Query_“Richard Linzen” dmi.mediastudies.nl. Analysis_by Bram Method_Search for query “Richard Linzen” in top 100. Organized in order. Nijhof, Richard Rogers and Laura van der Tools_Google Scraper and Tag Cloud Generator Vlies. Design_Anne Helmond. Date_30 July 2007 CLIMATE CHANGE SCEPTICS CC_BY:NC:SA
  29. 29. Climate Change Sceptics on the Web (Patrick Michaels) Research Question_To what extent are climate change 'skeptics' present in the climate change spaces on the Web? Findings_There is distance between the skeptics and the top of the search engine returns. epa.gov (0) bbc.co.uk (0) defra.gov.uk (0) bom.gov.au (0) ipcc.ch (4) pewclimate.org (2) davidsuzuki.org (0) panda.org (0) mfe.govt.nz (0) ec.gc.ca (0) exploratorium.edu (0) climatechange.com.au (0) greenpeace.org (0) climatechallenge.gov.uk (0) guardian.co.uk (0) iisd.org (0) g8.gov.uk (0) campaigncc.org (3) foe.co.uk (0) eea.europa.eu (0) cbc.ca (0) energy.gov (0) marshall.org (2) climateark.org (1) dar.csiro.au (0) acfonline.org.au (0) gcrio.org (0) nature.com (0) grida.no (0) nature.org (0) ecokids.ca (0) climatechangecentral.com (0) iea.org (0) ecn.ac.uk (0) ecy.wa.gov (0) realclimate.org (45) metoffice.gov.uk (0) open2.net (0) eldis.org (0) ft.com (0) faqs.org (0) climatecrisis.net (1) ltscotland.org.uk (0) abc.net.au (0) climatechange.ca.gov (0) envirolink.org (0) mofa.go.jp (0) iucn.org (0) dfat.gov.au (0) ncdc.noaa.gov (0) climatescience.gov (7) climatechangecollege.org (0) ciel.org (0) Source_google.com Product_of the Digital Methods Initiative, Query_“Patrick Michaels” dmi.mediastudies.nl. Analysis_by Bram Method_Search for query “Patrick Michaels” in top 100. Organized in order. Nijhof, Richard Rogers and Laura van der Tools_Google Scraper and Tag Cloud Generator Vlies. Design_Anne Helmond. Date_30 July 2007 CLIMATE CHANGE SCEPTICS CC_BY:NC:SA
  30. 30. Climate Change Sceptics on the Web (Steven Milloy) Research Question_To what extent are climate change 'skeptics' present in the climate change spaces on the Web? Findings_There is distance between the skeptics and the top of the search engine returns. epa.gov (1) bbc.co.uk (0) defra.gov.uk (1) unep.org (1) bom.gov.au (0) ipcc.ch (1) pewclimate.org (1) davidsuzuki.org (0) panda.org (0) mfe.govt.nz (0) ec.gc.ca (0) exploratorium.edu (0) climatechange.com.au (0) greenpeace.org (1) climatechallenge.gov.uk (1) guardian.co.uk (0) iisd.org (0) g8.gov.uk (0) campaigncc.org (0) foe.co.uk (0) state.gov (1) eea.europa.eu (1) whoi.edu (1) cbc.ca (0) energy.gov (1) marshall.org (0) climateark.org (2) un.org (0) dar.csiro.au (1) theglobeandmail.com (0) acfonline.org.au (0) gcrio.org (0) nature.com (0) grida.no (0) nature.org (1) ecokids.ca (0) climatechangecentral.com (0) iea.org (0) ecn.ac.uk (1) ecy.wa.gov (1) worldwildlife.org (0) realclimate.org (33) open2.net (0) eldis.org (0) ft.com (0) who.int (1) climatecrisis.net (1) faqs.org (0) metoffice.gov.uk (1) ltscotland.org.uk (1) abc.net.au (0) climatechange.ca.gov (1) envirolink.org (1) mofa.go.jp (1) sourcewatch.org (27) iucn.org (0) dfat.gov.au (0) ncdc.noaa.gov (1) climatescience.gov (0) climatechangecollege.org (1) ciel.org (0) ucar.edu (0) Source_google.com Product_of the Digital Methods Initiative, Query_“Stephen Milloy” dmi.mediastudies.nl. Analysis_by Bram Method_Search for query “Stephen Milloy” in top 100. Organized in order. Nijhof, Richard Rogers and Laura van der Tools_Google Scraper and Tag Cloud Generator Vlies. Design_Anne Helmond. Date_30 July 2007 CLIMATE CHANGE SCEPTICS CC_BY:NC:SA
  31. 31. Climate Change Sceptics on the Web (Frederick Seitz) Research Question_To what extent are climate change 'skeptics' present in the climate change spaces on the Web? Findings_There is distance between the skeptics and the top of the search engine returns. epa.gov (0) bbc.co.uk (0) defra.gov.uk (0) unep.org (0) bom.gov.au (0) ipcc.ch (0) pewclimate.org (0) davidsuzuki.org (0) panda.org (0) mfe.govt.nz (0) ec.gc.ca (0) exploratorium.edu (0) climatechange.com.au (0) greenpeace.org (0) climatechallenge.gov.uk (0) guardian.co.uk (0) iisd.org (0) g8.gov.uk (0) campaigncc.org (1) foe.co.uk (0) state.gov (0) scidev.net (0) eea.europa.eu (0) whoi.edu (0) cbc.ca (0) energy.gov (0) marshall.org (8) climateark.org (4) un.org (0) dar.csiro.au (0) theglobeandmail.com (0) acfonline.org.au (0) gcrio.org (0) nature.com (0) grida.no (0) nature.org (0) ecokids.ca (0) royalsoc.ac.uk (0) climatechangecentral.com (0) iea.org (0) ecn.ac.uk (0) ecy.wa.gov (0) worldwildlife.org (0) realclimate.org (35) metoffice.gov.uk (0) open2.net (0) scienceagogo.com (0) eldis.org (0) ft.com (0) who.int (0) climatecrisis.net (0) faqs.org (0) ltscotland.org.uk (0) abc.net.au (0) climatechange.ca.gov (0) envirolink.org (0) mofa.go.jp (0) sourcewatch.org (21) iucn.org (0) dfat.gov.au (0) ncdc.noaa.gov (0) climatescience.gov (0) climatechangecollege.org (0) ciel.org (0) ucar.edu (0) Source_google.com Product_of the Digital Methods Initiative, Query_“Frederick Seitz” dmi.mediastudies.nl. Analysis_by Bram Method_Search for query “Frederick Seitz” in top 100. Organized in order. Nijhof, Richard Rogers and Laura van der Tools_Google Scraper and Tag Cloud Generator Vlies. Design_Anne Helmond. Date_30 July 2007 CLIMATE CHANGE SCEPTICS CC_BY:NC:SA
  32. 32. Climate Change Sceptics on the Web (S. Fred Singer) Research Question_To what extent are climate change 'skeptics' present in the climate change spaces on the Web? Findings_There is distance between the skeptics and the top of the search engine returns. epa.gov (0) bbc.co.uk (0) defra.gov.uk (0) unep.org (0) bom.gov.au (0) ipcc.ch (0) pewclimate.org (0) davidsuzuki.org (0) panda.org (0) mfe.govt.nz (0) ec.gc.ca (0) exploratorium.edu (0) climatechange.com.au (0) greenpeace.org (1) climatechallenge.gov.uk (0) guardian.co.uk (0) iisd.org (0) g8.gov.uk (0) campaigncc.org (1) foe.co.uk (0) state.gov (0) scidev.net (0) eea.europa.eu (0) whoi.edu (0) cbc.ca (0) energy.gov (0) marshall.org (0) climateark.org (1) un.org (0) dar.csiro.au (0) theglobeandmail.com (0) acfonline.org.au (0) gcrio.org (0) nature.com (0) grida.no (0) nature.org (0) ecokids.ca (0) royalsoc.ac.uk (0) climatechangecentral.com (0) iea.org (0) ecn.ac.uk (0) ecy.wa.gov (0) worldwildlife.org (0) realclimate.org (14) faqs.org (0) metoffice.gov.uk (0) open2.net (0) scienceagogo.com (0) eldis.org (0) ft.com (0) who.int (0) climatecrisis.net (0) ltscotland.org.uk (0) abc.net.au (0) climatechange.ca.gov (0) sourcewatch.org (64) envirolink.org (0) mofa.go.jp (0) iucn.org (0) dfat.gov.au (0) ncdc.noaa.gov (0) climatescience.gov (11) climatechangecollege.org (0) ciel.org (0) ucar.edu (0) Source_google.com Product_of the Digital Methods Initiative, Query_“Fred Singer” dmi.mediastudies.nl. Analysis_by Bram Method_Search for query “Fred Singer” in top 100. Organized in order. Nijhof, Richard Rogers and Laura van der Tools_Google Scraper and Tag Cloud Generator Vlies. Design_Anne Helmond. Date_30 July 2007 CLIMATE CHANGE SCEPTICS CC_BY:NC:SA
  33. 33. Climate Change Sceptics on the Web (Willie Soon) Research Question_To what extent are climate change 'skeptics' present in the climate change spaces on the Web? Findings_There is distance between the skeptics and the top of the search engine returns. epa.gov (0) bbc.co.uk (0) defra.gov.uk (0) unep.org (0) bom.gov.au (0) ipcc.ch (0) pewclimate.org (0) davidsuzuki.org (0) panda.org (0) mfe.govt.nz (0) ec.gc.ca (0) exploratorium.edu (0) climatechange.com.au (0) greenpeace.org (0) climatechallenge.gov.uk (0) guardian.co.uk (0) iisd.org (0) g8.gov.uk (0) campaigncc.org (2) foe.co.uk (0) state.gov (0) scidev.net (0) eea.europa.eu (0) whoi.edu (0) cbc.ca (0) energy.gov (0) marshall.org (4) climateark.org (1) un.org (0) dar.csiro.au (0) theglobeandmail.com (0) acfonline.org.au (0) gcrio.org (0) nature.com (0) grida.no (0) nature.org (0) ecokids.ca (0) royalsoc.ac.uk (0) climatechangecentral.com (0) iea.org (0) ecn.ac.uk (0) ecy.wa.gov (0) worldwildlife.org (0) realclimate.org (27) faqs.org (0) metoffice.gov.uk (0) open2.net (0) scienceagogo.com (0) eldis.org (0) ft.com (0) who.int (0) climatecrisis.net (0) ltscotland.org.uk (0) abc.net.au (0) climatechange.ca.gov (0) envirolink.org (0) mofa.go.jp (0) sourcewatch.org (0) iucn.org (0) dfat.gov.au (0) ncdc.noaa.gov (0) climatescience.gov (0) climatechangecollege.org (0) ciel.org (0) ucar.edu (0) Source_google.com Product_of the Digital Methods Initiative, Query_“Willie Soon” dmi.mediastudies.nl. Analysis_by Bram Method_Search for query “Willie Soon” in top 100. Organized in order. Nijhof, Richard Rogers and Laura van der Tools_Google Scraper and Tag Cloud Generator Vlies. Design_Anne Helmond. Date_30 July 2007 CLIMATE CHANGE SCEPTICS CC_BY:NC:SA
  34. 34. 4. THE SPHERES How are they often studied? Blogs as new genre, as news and as empowering voice. Blogs as 'genre' (recognizable with reverse chronology), and constructed / reified as genre by software. Blogosphere as parasitic on news, and obsessed with MSM. Blogs and blogosphere as organizers of voice (Sony DRM) and authenticator of voice (Iraqi bloggers). 'Web sphere' as a 'special collection' of archived sites made by editors around events, e.g. 9/11 collection, Tsunami collection.
  35. 35. 4. THE SPHERES How else to study them? As engine-demarcated spaces with qualities. Capture engine results. Approached in terms of comparative media studies, or cross-spherical analysis. Compare engine results across spheres. Inquire into qualities of the results per sphere: blogosphere, Websphere, newssphere, tagosphere, etc.
  36. 36. Issue Animals Hierarchy in the News (Google News) Research Question_For the issue of climate change, how prominent is each animal (in text and image)? Are there significant differences per 'sphere' (web, news, blogosphere) in the frequency with which each animal is referenced? Findings_In the news, for a text query, the polar bear is the animal most associated with climate change, followed by the cow. puffin pika sea turtle eagle cow whale crane dolphin polar bear frog walrus tiger elephant panda penguin orangutan marmot red fox Source_news.google.com Product_of the Digital Methods Initiative, Query_“climate change” + “animal x” dmi.mediastudies.nl. Analysis_by Esther Tools_Google News Scraper and Tag Cloud Generator Weltevrede and Sabine Niederer. Design_by Date_15 July 2007 Esther Weltevrede, Sabine Niederer and Anne Helmond. ISSUE ANIMALS CC_BY:NC:SA
  37. 37. Issue Animals Hierarchy in the Blogosphere Research Question_For the issue of climate change, how prominent is each animal (in text and image)? Are there significant differences per 'sphere' (web, news, blogosphere) in the frequency with which each animal is referenced? Findings_In the blogosphere, for a text query, the polar bear is the animal most associated with climate change, followed by the cow. cow puffin pika sea turtle eagle whale crane dolphin polar bear walrus tiger elephant panda frog penguin orangutan marmot red fox Source_search.technorati.com Product_of the Digital Methods Initiative, Query_“climate change” + “animal x” dmi.mediastudies.nl. Analysis_by Esther Authority_a little Weltevrede and Sabine Niederer. Design_by Tools_Technorati Scraper and Tag Cloud Generator Esther Weltevrede, Sabine Niederer and Anne Date_17 July 2007 Helmond. ISSUE ANIMALS CC_BY:NC:SA
  38. 38. Issue Animals Hierarchy on the Web (Google) Research Question_For the issue of climate change, how prominent is each animal (in text and image)? Are there significant differences per 'sphere' (web, news, blogosphere) in the frequency with which each animal is referenced? Findings_On the web, for a text query, results are distributed across all the animals not particularly favoring one issue animal. puffin pika sea turtle eagle cow whale crane dolphin polar bear frog walrus tiger elephant panda penguin orangutan marmot red fox Source_www.google.com Product_of the Digital Methods Initiative, Query_“climate change” + scrape top 100 results for “animal x” dmi.mediastudies.nl. Analysis_by Esther Tools_Google Scraper, Compare Lists and Tag Cloud Generator Weltevrede and Sabine Niederer. Design_by Date_15 July 2007 Esther Weltevrede, Sabine Niederer and Anne Helmond. ISSUE ANIMALS CC_BY:NC:SA
  39. 39. 5. THE WEBS How is the Web often studied? Without the plural. In the singular. As cyberspace, as a technical infrastructure which gives rise to place-less-ness. As a separate space.
  40. 40. 5. THE WEBS How else may they be studied? As national Webs that are telling Through a recognition of IP address location technology. The emergence of national Webs, also being archived as such. Diagnose the condition of a country through its Web.
  41. 41. THE WEB IS GROUNDED Content is served according to one's IP address
  42. 42. DIAGNOSING THE CONDITION OF A NATIONAL WEB METHODS FOR DEMARCATING NATIONAL WEBS 1. Demarcate national Web By domain name, language, IP range, Whois For domain-level demarcation of a national web, see http://generatenational.net
  43. 43. DIAGNOSING THE CONDITION OF A NATIONAL WEB METHODS FOR DIAGNOSING NATIONAL WEBS 2. Diagnose condition of a national Web a. 'Youthfulness' (freshness through datestamps) b. 'Brokenness' (link validators) c. 'Cohesiveness' (linking to other national sites) d. 'Datedness' (software versions running) e. 'Dated users' (browser versions of users)
  44. 44. Query: Number of results available per TLD served by Google Region Search Method: Query all quot;site:ccTLDquot; and all quot;site:gTLDquot; in United States Google The World according to Google III Region search with GoogleScraper United States Domain Topology Digital Methods Initiative 09 August 08 Map generated by tools.digitalmethods.net .COM (6730000000) .ORG (1630000000) .NET (1330000000) .EDU (270000000) .GOV (171000000) .US (166000000) .INFO (93500000) .BIZ (37700000) .TV (36100000) .WS (20300000) .CC (19400000) .NU (7310000) .MIL (4530000) .EU (3010000) .FM (2800000) .INT (2760000) .TRAVEL (1750000) .MOBI (1750000) .LA (1730000) .TK (1390000) .NAME (1310000) .CAT (1030000) .BZ (804000) .SU (528000) .MS (425000) .CD (415000) .COOP (334000) .AD (284000) .PRO (261000) .ASIA (214000) .SC (214000) .AS (188000) .IM (167000) .AERO (129000) .AC (114000) .JE (59600) .DJ (48400) .MUSEUM (47300) .GG (42900) .SR (42600) .JOBS (20800) .TP (7180) .AX (4950) .TEL (5) .CA (3) .HU (2) .UK (2) .ID (1) .NL (1) .IN (1) .BR (1) .DE (1) .TO (1)
  45. 45. The World according to Google V
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