Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

The Web and its Publics (by Tommaso Venturini & Jean-Philippe Cointet)

2,498 views

Published on

Presentation given by Tommaso Venturini and Jean-Philippe Cointet at the seminar of the research group "Ethique, Technologies, Organisations, Société (ETOS)" of the Institut TELECOM / TEM Research and the Centre de recherche Sens, Ethique, Société (CERSES), and the New York University / NYU in France.

  • DOWNLOAD THAT BOOKS INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT (2019 Update) ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... Download Full PDF EBOOK here { http://bit.ly/2m6jJ5M } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full EPUB Ebook here { http://bit.ly/2m6jJ5M } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full doc Ebook here { http://bit.ly/2m6jJ5M } ......................................................................................................................... Download PDF EBOOK here { http://bit.ly/2m6jJ5M } ......................................................................................................................... Download EPUB Ebook here { http://bit.ly/2m6jJ5M } ......................................................................................................................... Download doc Ebook here { http://bit.ly/2m6jJ5M } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... eBook is an electronic version of a traditional print book that can be read by using a personal computer or by using an eBook reader. (An eBook reader can be a software application for use on a computer such as Microsoft's free Reader application, or a book-sized computer that is used solely as a reading device such as Nuvomedia's Rocket eBook.) Users can purchase an eBook on diskette or CD, but the most popular method of getting an eBook is to purchase a downloadable file of the eBook (or other reading material) from a Web site (such as Barnes and Noble) to be read from the user's computer or reading device. Generally, an eBook can be downloaded in five minutes or less ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks .............................................................................................................................. Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, Cookbooks, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult, Crime, Ebooks, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .....BEST SELLER FOR EBOOK RECOMMEND............................................................. ......................................................................................................................... Blowout: Corrupted Democracy, Rogue State Russia, and the Richest, Most Destructive Industry on Earth,-- The Ride of a Lifetime: Lessons Learned from 15 Years as CEO of the Walt Disney Company,-- Call Sign Chaos: Learning to Lead,-- StrengthsFinder 2.0,-- Stillness Is the Key,-- She Said: Breaking the Sexual Harassment Story That Helped Ignite a Movement,-- Atomic Habits: An Easy & Proven Way to Build Good Habits & Break Bad Ones,-- Everything Is Figureoutable,-- What It Takes: Lessons in the Pursuit of Excellence,-- Rich Dad Poor Dad: What the Rich Teach Their Kids About Money That the Poor and Middle Class Do Not!,-- The Total Money Makeover: Classic Edition: A Proven Plan for Financial Fitness,-- Shut Up and Listen!: Hard Business Truths that Will Help You Succeed, ......................................................................................................................... .........................................................................................................................
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Problems ith sharing. Very interesting presentation printed with uncomfortable garnituree
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here

The Web and its Publics (by Tommaso Venturini & Jean-Philippe Cointet)

  1. 1. The Web and its Publics Tommaso Venturini & Jean-Philippe Cointet .
  2. 2. The Internet Imaginaire Patrice Flichy 2007, MIT Press The founding utopias of computer communication not only guided the initial Arpanet project but also constantly interacted with its technical realization. As the technical project took shape and developed, new utopias appeared (the idea of communication and interaction replaced that of distance calculation), feeding on early experiments and orienting future technical options and their uses (p. 65). The hacker culture clearly had certain points in common with the hippie counterculture and with Arpanauts’ representations. The main difference between the two cultures lay in hackers’ far broader view of the use and future of IT. For them it was not only an intellectual tool for academics but also a device to put into everyone’s hands, capable of building not only new invisible colleges but also a new society (p. 67)
  3. 3. all watched over by machines of loving grace Richard Brautigan 1967 I like to think (and the sooner the better!) of a cybernetic meadow where mammals and computers live together in mutually programming harmony like pure water touching clear sky I like to think (right now, please!) of a cybernetic forest filled with pines and electronics where deer stroll peacefully past computers as if they were flowers with spinning blossoms I like to think (it has to be!) of a cybernetic ecology where we are free of our labors and join back to nature, returned to our mammal brothers and sisters, and all watched over by machines of loving grace
  4. 4. World Earth Catalogue Fred Turner From Counterculture to Cyberculture University Of Chicago Press (2006)
  5. 5. The spirit of Internet Dominique Cardon La démocratie Internet Seuil (2010) On a beaucoup souligné les origines militaires d'Internet… Mais la chose est désormais établie: Internet est surtout né de la rencontre entre la contre-culture américaine et l'esprit méritocratie du monde de la recherche (p. 1). Chercheurs, artistes, militants, passionnés et freaks de toutes espèces, les premier publics de l'Internet, y ont fait proliférer des utopies futuristes, des expérimentations esthétiques, des provocations et des gestes politiques d'un nouveau genre (p. 2). [Les hippies] explorent aussi la manière dont l'information fait système … c'est au sein de cette mouvance communautaire, écologiste et autarcique, que la culture des pionniers de l'internet plonge ses racines (p. 22)
  6. 6. A new Athens Albert Gore Remarks at International Telecom Union Buenos Aires, 21 March 1994 “ In a sense, the Global Information Infrastructure will be a metaphor for democracy itself… it will in fact promote the functioning of democracy by greatly enhancing the participation of citizens in decision-making. And it will greatly promote the ability of nations to cooperate with each other. I see a new Athenian Age of democracy forged in the fora the Global Information Infrastructure will create.”
  7. 7. Digital divide International Telecommunication Union 2010 Report
  8. 8. Infrastructure ownership Ben Worthen (CIO) & Bill Cheswick (Lumeta)
  9. 9. Internet censorship OpenNet Initiative Global Internet Filtering Map
  10. 10. client/server asymmetry Facebook Terms of service
  11. 11. client/server asymmetry Wikipedia 2010 Fundraising campaign
  12. 12. An empirical question Does technical symmetry guarantees communication equality ? Irving Kristol (1920-2009): “ Democracy does not guarantee equality of conditions it only guarantees equality of opportunities”
  13. 13. Web Audience Alexa.com
  14. 14. Web Audience Compete.com
  15. 15. Web Audience Quantcast.com
  16. 16. Web Audience Google Analytics
  17. 17. From audience to links Because citations, or links, are ways of directing attention, the important documents correspond to those documents to which the most attention is directed. Thus, a high rank indicates that a document is considered valuable by many people or by important people. Most likely, these are the pages to which someone performing a search would like to direct his or her attention. Looked at another way, the importance of a page is directly related to the steady-state probability that a random web surfer ends up at the page after following a large number of links. Because there is a larger probability that a surfer will end up at an important page than at an unimportant page, this method of ranking pages assigns higher ranks to the more important pages.
  18. 18. From audience to links Lawrence Page Pagerank Patent (6285999)
  19. 19. Visible not (necessarily) influent <ul><li>Being influent requires being viewed ex. Bit.ly </li></ul><ul><li>Being influent requires showing content ex. Get Acrobat Reader </li></ul><ul><li>Being influent requires producing content ex. Google Search </li></ul>
  20. 20. The Web as a scale-free network Barabasi, A, Albert, R., & Jeong, H. (2000). Scale-free characteristics of random networks: the topology of the world-wide web. Physica A:, 281(1-4), 69-77. The probability of finding very popular addresses, to which a large number of other documents point, is non-negligible, an indication of the flocking sociology of the www (p. 72)
  21. 21. Preferential connectivity Barabasi, A, Albert, R., & Jeong, H. (2000). Scale-free characteristics of random networks: the topology of the world-wide web. Physica A:, 281(1-4), 69-77. Real networks exhibit preferential connectivity. For example, a newly created webpage will more likely include links to well known, popular documents with already high connectivity (p. 73)
  22. 22. The law of power Similar mechanisms could explain the origin of the social and economic disparities governing competitive systems, since the scale-free inhomogeneities are the inevitable consequence of self-organization due to the local decisions made by the individual vertices, based on information that is biased towards the more visible (richer) vertices, irrespective of the nature and the origin of this visibility (p. 77) Barabasi, A, Albert, R., & Jeong, H. (2000). Scale-free characteristics of random networks: the topology of the world-wide web. Physica A:, 281(1-4), 69-77.
  23. 23. The Matthew effect Robert Merton (1968) Science, 159(3810): 56-63 For unto every one that have shall be given, and he shall have abundance: but from him that have not shall be taken away even that which he have» (p. 59) A scientific contribution will have greater visibility in the community of scientists when it is introduced by a scientist of high rank (p. 60) Confronted with the growing task of identifying significant work published in their field, scientists search for cues to what they should attend to. One such clue is the professional reputation of the authors (p. 60)
  24. 24. The law of power
  25. 25. The Daily Me Nicholas Negroponte Being Digital Knopf (2005)
  26. 26. The long tail Chris Anderson Wired (October 2004)
  27. 27. The Web as a narrowcasting medium Cass Sunstein (2001) Republic.com Princeton University Press When the power to filter is unlimited, people can decide, in advance and with perfect accuracy, what they will and will not encounter. They can design something very much like a communications universe of their own choosing (p. 5) I will emphasize the risks posed by any situation in which thousands or perhaps millions or even tens of millions of people are mainly listening to louder echoes of their own voices. A situation of this kind is likely to produce far worse than mere fragmentation (p. 16)
  28. 28. The Web as a broadcasting medium Matthiew Hindman The Myth of Digital Democracy Princeton University Press (2008)
  29. 29. The Web as a broadcasting medium Matthiew Hindman The Myth of Digital Democracy Princeton University Press (2008)
  30. 30. The Web concentration Matthiew Hindman The Myth of Digital Democracy Princeton University Press (2008)
  31. 31. First, Googlearchy suggests that the number of links pointing to a site is the most important determinant of site visibility. Second, Googlearchy indicates that niche dominance should be a general rule of online life. For every clearly defined group of Web sites, a small portion of the group should receive most of the links and most of the traffic. Third, Googlearchy suggests that this dependence on links should make niche dominance self-perpetuating (p. 55). Googlearchy Matthiew Hindman The Myth of Digital Democracy Princeton University Press (2008)
  32. 32. The impossibility of online democracy
  33. 33. A binary model of communication
  34. 34. The citizens give but little of his time to public affairs, has but the casual interest in facts and but a poor appetite for theory (p. 14) I think it is a false ideal. I do not mean an undesirable ideal. I mean an unattainable ideal, bad only in the sense that it is bad for a fat man to try to be a ballet dancer… The ideal of the omnicompetent, sovereign citizen is, in my opinion, such a false ideal. It is unattainable (p. 15) The public will arrive in the middle of the third act and will leave before the last curtain, having stayed just long enough perhaps to decide who is the hero and who is the villain of the piece (p. 55). The work of the world goes on continually without conscious direction from public opinion. At certain junctures problem arise. It is only with the crises of some of these problems that public opinion is concerned. And it subject in dealing with a crisis is to help allay that crisis (p. 56). The public is intermittent Walter Lippmann The Phantom Public The Macmillan Company (1927)
  35. 35. Online communication is intermittent
  36. 36. Politics is marginal p. 61 Matthiew Hindman The Myth of Digital Democracy Princeton University Press (2008)
  37. 37. The public is plural John Dewey The public and its problems Gateway Books (1946) It is a matter of necessity for him [the citizens], as a rule, to limit his attention and foresight to matters which, as we say, are distinctively his own business (p. 52). The public consists of all those who are affected by the indirect consequences of transactions to such an extent that it is deemed necessary to have those consequences systematically catered for (pp. 16-17). In no two ages or places is there the same public. Conditions male the consequences of the associated action and the knowledge of them different (p. 33). It is not that there is no public... There is too much public, a public too diffused and scattered and too intricate in composition. And there are too many publics (p. 137)
  38. 38. Online communication is plural
  39. 39. The public is layered Lazarsfeld, Berelson and Gaudet The People's Choice Columbia University Press (1948) Katz, E. (1957). The Two-Step Flow of Communication: Up-To-Date Report on an Hypothesis. Public Opinion Quarterly, 21 Influences stemming from the mass media first reach “opinion leaders” who, in turn, pass on what they read and hear to those of their every-day associates for whom they are influential. This hypothesis was called “the two-step flow of communication” (p. 61). The image of the audience as a mass of disconnected individuals hooked up to the media but not to each other could not be reconciled with the idea of a two-step flow of communication implying… networks of interconnected individuals (p. 61). it seemed quite apparent that the opinion leader is influential at certain times and with respect to certain substantive areas by virtue of the fact that he is &quot;empowered&quot; to be so by other members of his group (p. 68).
  40. 40. Online communication is layered Linkscape by Linkfluence
  41. 41. A cluster of clusters Linkscape by Linkfluence
  42. 42. A pragmatic model of communication
  43. 43. Democracy lies in the middle
  44. 44. The missing middle ?
  45. 45. The missing middle ? Matthiew Hindman The Myth of Digital Democracy Princeton University Press (2008)
  46. 46. The Web is fractal, so it is everywhere the same Second, Googlearchy indicates that niche dominance should be a general rule of online life. For every clearly defined group of Web sites, a small portion of the group should receive most of the links and most of the traffic. In the Web, nothing happens where it matters Third, Googlearchy suggests that this dependence on links should make niche dominance self-perpetuating What Hindman assumes
  47. 47. A cluster of clusters Linkscape by Linkfluence
  48. 48. Nothing happens at the top
  49. 49. Nothing happens at the top? May 2007: traffic among the top 50 website sites according to Hitwise (Hindman, 2008) p. 62
  50. 50. Nothing matters at the bottom
  51. 51. Nothing matters at the bottom? Yochai Benkler - médialab Sciences Po inauguration (29 May 2009)
  52. 52. Where the action is
  53. 53. Where the action is
  54. 54. 1. at a microlevel, sites cluster—in particular, topically and interest-related sites link much more heavily to each other than to other sites. 2. at a macrolevel, the Web and the blogosphere have giant, strongly connected cores—“areas” where 20–30 percent of all sites are highly and redundantly interlinked… That pattern repeats in smaller subclusters as well. 3. as the clusters get small enough, the obscurity of sites participating in the cluster diminishes, while the visibility of the superstars remains high, forming a filtering and transmission backbone for universal intake and local filtering. 4. the Web exhibits “small-world” phenomena, making most Web sites reachable through shallow paths from most other Web sites (p. 247, 248). 4 features Yochai Benkler The Wealth of Networks Yale University Press (2006)
  55. 55. Things change Yochai Benkler - médialab Sciences Po inauguration (29 May 2009)
  56. 56. It turns out that we are not intellectual lemmings. We do not use the freedom that the network has made possible to plunge into the abyss of incoherent babble. Instead, through iterative processes of cooperative filtering and “transmission” through the high visibility nodes, the low-end thin tail turns out to be a peer-produced filter and transmission medium for a vastly larger number of speakers than was imaginable in the mass-media model (p. 255) “ We are not intellectual lemmings” Yochai Benkler The Wealth of Networks Yale University Press (2006)
  57. 57. Stable distribution, unstable composition Spinning top model Lazega, 2006
  58. 58. Stable distribution, unstable composition Social and Semantic co-evolution in knowledge networks Roth et al 2010 Degree distribution evolution
  59. 59. Stable distribution, unstable composition p. 62
  60. 60. Preferential behaviors: Degree is not everything Social and semantic co-evolution in knowledge networks Roth et al 2010 Preferential attachment Community structure
  61. 61. Stable distribution, unstable composition Paths of Glory Cardon, Fouetillou, Roth, 2011 Linking typology Positions change
  62. 62. Social and Semantic co-evolution in knowledge networks Roth et al 2010 Topological distance Semantic distance Preferential behaviors: Degree is not everything
  63. 63. Influence from the node neighboorhood Influent neighbours Local networks, local topics: structural and semantic proximity in blogspace Cointet et al 2010 Dyadic influence
  64. 64. Degree & topological distance Complex interaction between dimensions Local networks, local topics Cointet et al 2010 Semantic & topological distance
  65. 65. Issues & public duality, a pragmatic answer Monitoring web dynamics Chavalarias et al. http://veilledynamique.com/veille/mesr/cluster.php?id_cluster=4&periode=347-360&nav=soc
  66. 66. Conclusion Divided they Blog Adamic & Glance, 2004

×