Changing Behavior Through Persuasive Design - SXSW 2014

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Presented during SXSW 2014 on Saturday, March 8th, 2014, 12:30-1:30pm, Austin Convention Center, Ballroom A.
http://schedule.sxsw.com/2014/events/event_IAP20745

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SESSION DESCRIPTION:

Whether it's Nike+ reminding you to be more active, Mint judging you for not saving enough money, or Gmail telling you which emails are important, everyday we're interacting with products and services that attempt to modify our behavior. For the most part, we consciously choose to use these products because of their ability to motivate or incentivize change. However, there are an increasing number of websites, apps, and devices that are not behavior changing technologies, but they have begun employing tactics on a micro-level to influence us, generally without our awareness or intent. Through persuasive design, businesses are crafting interfaces to meet their goals – goals that may be at odds with your personal interests as a user.

A practical presentation for designers, product managers, marketers, and researchers who want to leverage the power of user persuasion in their products, as well as consumers who want to better understand how their attitudes and usage behaviors are being manipulated though persuasive design.

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Changing Behavior Through Persuasive Design - SXSW 2014

  1. Matt Danna @mattdanna
  2. • Macro and micro persuasion • Become more persuasive literate • Touch on ethics • Learn how to apply persuasive design Going Beyond the Carrot & Stick
  3. Disclaimer! I will be discussing a lot of products, apps, and services throughout the course of this talk. I love all of them...well, most of them. Also, my views are their own, and do not necessarily reflect those of my employer. kthx <3
  4. Behavior Design aka Designing for Behavior Change Design with intent to incite a new behavior or modify existing behavior(s).
  5. Drivers ignore posted speed limits Problematic behavior:
  6. Speed bumps Solution:
  7. People mix up trash and recyclables Problematic behavior:
  8. Customize receptacles with different openings Solution:
  9. Customers forget to return bathroom keys Problematic behavior:
  10. Images courtesy Bathroom Key Chronicles Attach bathroom key to something ridiculous Solution:
  11. Behavior Design + Technology = Persuasive Technology
  12. “Technology that is designed to change attitudes or behaviors of the users through persuasion and social influence, but not through coercion.” –B.J. Fogg, 2002 Persuasive Technology Image courtesy Kris Krug
  13. Macrosuasion Microsuasion Two levels of persuasion:
  14. Macrosuasion Microsuasion Two levels of persuasion: VALUE PROPOSITION Overall product is intended to be persuasive Components (features) of product are meant to persuade CONVERSION
  15. Macrosuasion Microsuasion Two levels of persuasion: VALUE PROPOSITION Overall product is intended to be persuasive Components (features) of product are meant to persuade CONVERSION
  16. Email Opt-in Defaults Case Study:
  17. ➜ Option 3: Forced opt-in (field is disabled) “You are going to receive our emails but can opt-out later” ➜ Option 1: Unchecked “Would you like to receive our emails?” ➜ Option 2: Pre-checked “We think you should receive our emails.” ➜ Option 4: No UI “Ha! You don’t even know this, but you’re going to get our emails.”
  18. Honest Deceptive ➜ Option 3: Forced opt-in (field is disabled) “You are going to receive our emails but can opt-out later” ➜ Option 1: Unchecked “Would you like to receive our emails?” ➜ Option 2: Pre-checked “We think you should receive our emails.” ➜ Option 4: No UI “Ha! You don’t even know this, but you’re going to get our emails.”
  19. Sample size: 8.5MM Users ‘s Email Opt-in Rate at Sign-up ➜ Before (unchecked) “Email me about the latest deviantART news, contests, and special offers.” Language (stays the same): 1.6% opt-in
  20. Sample size: 8.5MM Users ‘s Email Opt-in Rate at Sign-up ➜ Before (unchecked) “Email me about the latest deviantART news, contests, and special offers.” ➜ After (pre-checked) 48.4% opt-in Language (stays the same): 1.6% opt-in
  21. Design Patterns for Microsuasion
  22. Completion Meter Guidance:
  23. Stepped Process Guidance:
  24. Ongoing Education Guidance:
  25. Good Defaults Guidance:
  26. Reduction Attention:
  27. Tunneling Attention:
  28. Blocking Attention:
  29. Social Proof Biases:
  30. Testimonials Biases:
  31. Kairos (καιρός) Timing: “Opportune Moment”
  32. Kairos (καιρός) Timing: “Opportune Moment”
  33. Feedback Loop Timing:
  34. Smart Settings Error Proofing:
  35. Conditional Warnings Error Proofing:
  36. Time Limitations Scarcity:
  37. Availability Scarcity:
  38. Exclusivity Scarcity:
  39. Color Theory Visual Design:
  40. Credibility Visual Design:
  41. Calls-to-Action (CTAs) Wordsmithing: "Start your free 30 day trial" vs. "Start my free 30 day trial" "Order Information" vs. "Get Information" "Create Account" vs. "Join Now" etc.
  42. Reaffirmation Recognition:
  43. Badges Recognition:
  44. Fixed Rewards:
  45. Variable Rewards:
  46. Dark Design Patterns for Microsuasion
  47. Presumptuous Greed:
  48. Friction Greed:
  49. Guilt Emotions:
  50. Unexpected Results Inconsistency:
  51. Unexpected Results Inconsistency:
  52. Unexpected Results Inconsistency:
  53. Easy In, Difficult Out Friction:
  54. Easy In, Difficult Out Friction:
  55. All or Nothing Throffer: “Throffer” = Threat + Offer
  56. “Privacy Zuckering” Cognitive Load: Jones, Tim. “Facebook’s “Evil Interfaces””. Electronic Frontier Foundation. 29 April 2010
  57. Ethics of Persuasive Technology
  58. “Societies eventually develop antibodies to addictive new things... ...Unless we want to be canaries in the coal mine of each new addiction—the people whose sad example becomes a lesson to future generations—we’ll have to figure out for ourselves what to avoid and how.” –Paul Graham, 2010 The Acceleration of Addictiveness Graham, Paul. paulgraham.com. July 2010
  59. White Hat Black Hat Persuasion Transparent Upfront about intent “Nudging” Manipulation / Coercion Deceptive Disregards user interest “Shoving” Behavior Design
  60. • Your intent, methods of persuasion, and outcomes determine the ethics of your decisions. • You will get the behavior you incent • Be especially careful when it comes to user privacy, online identity, personal identifying information, commerce, and publishing Design with Care
  61. How would you feel if your design decisions were published on the front page of the Wall Street Journal? Gut check:
  62. Getting Started with Applying Persuasive Design
  63. Know your users Step 1:
  64. Know your product Step 2:
  65. Functional Usable Persuasive
  66. Determine the behavior you want to drive Step 3:
  67. Put the user in control Step 4:
  68. Make desired outcome align with the user’s interest Step 5:
  69. Market that behavior through education, stories, social norms, gains, surprises, etc. Step 6:
  70. Identify potential losses or negative results to discourage behavior Step 7:
  71. Build the path to the desired outcome and help users through it Step 8:
  72. Keep it simple Step 9:
  73. Experiment, measure, learn, & iterate Step 10:
  74. THX! <3 Discussion / Q&A Matt Danna @mattdanna

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