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  • 1. Amhara Livelihood Zone Reports Goncha Siso Enese Woreda East Gojam Administrative Zone Abay Beshilo Basin (ABB) Livelihood Zone This zone suffers from chronic food insecurity due to erratic rains, small landholdings, degraded farmlands, infertile soil, pest infestation, livestock disease and malaria. Trade across the river valleys is minimal in the dry season and impossible in the rainy season. The middle and better-off barely produce more than their annual food needs. The poor /very poor are dependent on local labor, PSNP and firewood sales to meet their food needs.South East Woina Dega Central Highland Barley &Teff (SWT) Livelihood Potato (CBP) LivelihoodZone ZoneThis is a surplus producing Degradation and high soil acidityarea. Own crop production undermine agricultural productioncovers the highest proportion in this dega zone. Poor marketof the annual food access and the significantrequirement for all wealth contribution of food purchases togroups. In a typical year, household consumptionmiddle and better-off wealth increases household vulnerabilitygroups rely heavily upon to food market shocks. The Contentslivestock and crop sales as a better-off are the only wealth Map & livelihood zone descriptionmeans of generating cash group who get more than half Population by livelihood zoneincome. whilst the poor and their income from their own Key parameters for monitoringvery poor rely more on labor. production. Agricultural labor is Livelihood zone profilesRoad access is good. an important source of income for the very poor, poor and middle households. Page 1
  • 2. Amhara Livelihood Profile Population by Livelihood Zone and Kebele (2005) Woreda: Goncha Siso Enese Zone: E.Gojam Woreda population 147,725 Livelihood Zone: Livelihood Zone: Livelihood Zone: Abay Beshilo River Basin Central Highland Barley & Potato South East Woyna Dega Teff LZ Population: 40,444 LZ Population: 23,923 83,359 Population by Kebele: Population by Kebele: Population by Kebele: Abar Wuha Eyesus 3,809 Barjano Akababi 5,549 Addis Hiwot 6,950 Anegote 3,353 Dequat Goshra 4,694 Akabiet 2,981 Derit Mariam Betekiristian 2,816 Embawoch Selassie Gomt 3,511 Bahare Gio 3,309 Fela Ygarda 3,867 Enbuayoch 3,005 Buza Yemerat 5,818 Gebet Medh 2,962 Enegesh Ybada 4,460 Chem Ygagra 4,881 Nebeazela 2,484 Enezeba 2,704 Debereyako 3,598 Segena Guchba 3,423 Debete Han 2,374 Selamegie 2,994 Debre Birhan 4,154 Serat Yerawoch 5,219 Debre Hayl 5,594 Wendiye Kuch 5,166 Enegodie 3,891 Yewa Agezen Meda 4,349 Eneva Eneger 3,620 Eneva Gundib 3,125 Gete Semani Waf 5,307 Gindeweyn Zuria 2,485 Lay Michae 1,044 Merhagif 3,812 Sekela Genbore 5,484 Tach Micha 1,861 Tigdar Begdo 3,503 Yebuchir Yeweya 4,011 Yekura Arasma 5,556Page 2
  • 3. Content of the Woreda Profiles The Woreda Profiles are a compilation of the livelihood information directly relevant to a single woreda. They provide a map of the woreda showing the livelihood zones within the woreda, population data by kebele and livelihood zone within the woreda, the relevant livelihood zone profiles and the key parameters (indicators) for monitoring within the woreda. Please note that sources of food and income, whilst typical of the livelihood zone, might not be found in all woredas within the livelihood zone. Urban Populations Urban HEAs have not been completed for Ethiopia. Large urban centres are not included in the livelihood baselines. Source of Population Data Note: The 2005 woreda population is that estimated by the Central Statistical Authority. The list of kebeles in the woreda was taken from the 1994 census and each kebeles 2005 population calculated by multiplying the 1994 census figure by the increase in total woreda population since 1994. Information from the 1994 census was used in preference to other sources of information since this represents the main official source of population data for the woreda. Difficulties were encountered due to changes in woreda and kebele boundaries since 1994. Many kebeles have been combined since 1994. Where kebeles have been renamed or combined since 1994, woreda officials were asked to assign the old 1994 kebele to one or other new kebele in the woreda. It was sometimes not possible to locate a kebele (e.g. because woreda officials did not recognize the name or did not include the kebele in their list). In these cases an unknown category has been included in the population analysis. A not assigned category has also been included for livelihood zones. Kebeles included in the not assigned category could not be assigned to any of the livelihood zones in the woreda.Page 3
  • 4. Key Parameters Abay Beshilo River Basin (ABB) - Key Parameters Item Key Parameter – Quantity Key Parameter – Price Crops • Meher Sorghum • Meher Maize (staple) • Meher Teff • Meher Sorghum • Meher Other Pulses • Meher Teff • Meher Maize • Meher Other Pulses • Honey • Honey Livestock production • Cattle • Cattle • Goats • Goats Other food and cash • Firewood • Labour – weeding/ploughing income • Labour – weeding/ploughing • Firewood Central Highland Barley & Potato (CBP) - Key Parameters Item Key Parameter – Quantity Key Parameter – Price Crops • Meher Teff • Meher Maize (staple) • Meher Barley • Meher Barley • Meher Irish Potatoes • Meher Irish Potatoes • Trees • Trees Livestock production • Cattle • Cattle • Sheep • Sheep Other food and cash • Labour Migration • Labour Migration income • Labour: Construction/Urban • Labour: Construction/Urban • Firewood • Firewood South East Woyna Dega Teff (SWT) - Key Parameters Item Key Parameter – Quantity Key Parameter – Price Crops • Meher Maize • Meher Maize (staple) • Meher Teff • Meher Teff • Meher Other Pulses • Meher Other Pulses • Meher Wheat • Meher Wheat • Trees • Trees • Honey • Honey Livestock production • Cattle • Cattle • Goats • Goats • Cow’s milk Other food and cash • Labour: Weeding/Ploughing • Labour: Weeding/Ploughing income • Labour: Harvesting • Labour: HarvestingPage 4
  • 5. Livelihood Profile Amhara Region, EthiopiaAbay Beshilo Basin Livelihood Zone (ABB) October 20071Zone DescriptionThe Abay Beshilo Livelihood Zone is a food insecurearea with a very long history of relief assistance. Theworedas with kebeles within the LZ are located in variousadministrative zones of the Amhara region: East Gojam(Aneded, Awabel, Baso Liben, Dejen, Enarj Enawga,Enbise Sar Midr, Enemay, Goncha Siso Enese, Guzamn,Hulet Ej Enese, Shebel Bereta), West Gojam, (YilmanaDensa); South Gonder (Dera, E & W Esite, Simada, TachGayint); and South Wollo (Debrasina, Mehal Sayint,Tenta, Wegde). The Abay Beshilo Basin LivelihoodZone is a narrow, elongated area comprising the lowland(kola) parts of the woredas listed above. The LZ runsbeside the River Abay, and beside its tributary the BeshiloRiver and is a long distance from major roads and towns.The population is relatively scattered.The vegetation is bush and shrubs. Natural resources in this zone include gypsum and gum arabic acacias. It is a mixedproduction system with both crops and livestock. The dominant crops include sorghum, teff, maize and haricot beans.Crop production is entirely rain fed, except in small number of localities where small-scale water harvesting practiceshave been recently introduced by the Office of Agriculture and Rural Development. There is only one rainy season –kremt - and it is important for the cultivation of both long and short cycle crops. The area is characterized by hightemperatures, erratic rainfall and sandy soils. These factors contribute to the high rate of evapo-transpiration and poorwater holding capacity. The combination of moisture stress and poor soil fertility is the limiting factor for agriculturalproduction. There is a high prevalence of crop pests and disease, and no utilization of treatments or chemical fertilizers- so yields per hectare are very low.One of the most important determinants of wealth is the ownership of livestock in general and ownership of ploughoxen in particular. Ownership of a pair of oxen allows better off households to prepare their land on time and rent-in theland of poor and very poor households on a contractual basis. The most common livestock diseases includepasteurellosis (all livestock), black leg (cattle and equines) and liver fluke (sheep and cattle). Regarding livestockproduction, goats are dominant. There is a high prevalence of livestock disease in the area and intervention in thisregard is minimal. However, the area has uncultivated land that can be used as grazing to enhance livestockproduction.Poor physical infrastructure and complete obstruction of transportation during the rainy seasons also increase theproblem of access to food and cash income. A substantial part of the livelihood zone, particularly areas along the riverbank, are completely inaccessible even during the dry season.In a typical year, better-off and middle households rely upon livestock and crop sales as a means of generating cashincome. For the poor and the very poor the productive safety net program (PSNP) is the major source of cash incomeeven in a typical year in many woredas in the LZ. The Safety Net programme is implemented (particularly in theeastern parts of the LZ) for six months in a year and beneficiaries are paid mainly cash.MarketsMarket access is bad in this livelihood zone. Trade interaction across the river valley is minimal during the dry seasonand totally impossible during the kremt (rainy) season. Poor physical infrastructure and the remote location of thelivelihood zone are the major limiting factors that restrict trade with external markets as well as between differentmarkets within the livelihood zone.1 Fieldwork for the current profile was undertaken in October 2007. The information presented refers to September 2005-August 2006 (EC Meskerem1998 to Nehase 1998), a good year by local standards. Provided there are no fundamental and rapid shifts in the economy, the information in thisprofile is expected to remain valid for approximately five years (i.e. until 2012). ). The exchange rate January 2006 1USD = 8.767 ETB. Abay Bashilo Basin Livelihood Zone Page 5
  • 6. As crop production is very small, almost all agricultural products are consumed locally and whatever is supplied to thelocal market does not exceed the local demand. Haricot beans are the only crop supplied to external markets in urbanareas (Dejen, Mota and Debre Tabor) as well as Dessie and Addis Ababa. When grain is unavailable in the local marketduring the hunger season, maize is supplied to the livelihood zone from surplus producing areas in Gojam and otherregions. Livestock and livestock products are sold in the major towns within the livelihood zone. The only opportunityin terms of employment is the local agricultural labor.Seasonal Calendar M ay June July Aug. Sep. O ct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. M ar. Apr. Rainy Seasons Dry Krem t Bega (dry season) Belg Legend cons. green harvest w eeding planting shoats cattle/shoats land prep cattle Sorghum Teff Haricot bean Maize Livestock sales Cattle in heat Milk production Crop sales O ther Local labor Hunger season Malaria Rainfall Pattern M ay Jun Jul Aug Sep O ct Nov Dec Jan Feb M ar AprOf all agricultural activities, land preparation (March-June) and weeding (July-September) are the most laborious andtime-consuming activities. Agriculture is entirely dependent on kremt rains that last from June to September. Maize isharvested green from September to October and the main food crops, sorghum and teff, are harvested in November.Except in December and January when both cattle and goats are sold, different types of livestock are sold at differenttimes of the year. Goats are sold around the major Christian Festivals (New Year, Christmas and Easter); cattle are soldin the months when there is no need for oxen for agricultural activities.Whilst migratory labor is not common, some people travel to Tapi, Metema, Wollega, Nazareth, Bale Goba andHumera for work in December and January. Local employment opportunities are available for a relatively longerperiod of time starting with weeding in July to harvesting in November.The hunger season and the period of highest dependence on market for food purchase lasts for about two months inSeptember and October. Abay Beshilo Basin Livelihood Zone Page 6
  • 7. Wealth Breakdown Wealth Groups Characteristics Land area HH size Livestock/asset holding Other assets cultivated Very 3-5 0-1 timad 1-3 chicken none Poor 3-5 goats,0-2 cattle, 1-3 Poor 4-6 0-2 timad none chicken 6-8 goats, 1-3 oxen, 2-4 Middle 5-7 4-7 timad cattle, 0-2 donkey, 1-3 0-2 beehives chicken 12-14 goats, 2-4 oxen, 5-7 Better- 6-8 8-10 timad cattle, 1-3 donkey, 1-3 2-4 beehives off chicken 0% 20% 40% % of households 4 timads=1 hectareWealth is determined by land owned and cultivated, livestock possession (plough oxen, cattle and goats) There is a bigdifference in the ownership of land, with the better-off owning three times more land than the very poor. Differencesin land cultivated are even greater ranging from 0-1 timad for the very poor to 8-10 timads for the better-off. Thisreflects the fact that the poor and very poor do not have oxen and so are unable to cultivate all their own land, and sorent out part of their land to the middle and better-off with an equal (half) crop sharing arrangement.Sources of Food – A good year (2005-06)The contribution of own crop production to the 120%annual food requirement of the differenthouseholds positively correlates with the 100%economic status of the wealth groups,consistently increasing from the very poor to 80% Payment in kindthe better-off. In a typical year, while the Safety netmiddle and better-off households cover more 60% Purchasethan 75% of their annual food needs, the poor livestock prod. 40%and very poor can only afford to cover slightly cropsmore than 40% and 30% of their requirement 20%respectively.All wealth groups, though to a different extent, 0%partially rely on the purchase of food to make V.Poor Poor Middle Better-offup their annual food deficit. The contributionpurchase food ranges from 5% to the better-offto more than 50% for the very poor. In the graph, food access is expressed as a percentage of minimumConsumption of livestock products is only food requirements, taken as an average food energy intake of 2100relevant to the better-off and middle. However, kcals per person per day.the better-off consume more as a result ofowning a larger number of livestock. The poor and the very poor receive food from the PSNP program. Abay Beshilo Basin Livelihood Zone Page 7
  • 8. Sources of Cash – a good year (2005-06) 100% Incomes in this livelihood zone are generally other low. There are differences in the safety nets composition and relative importance of 80% agr.labour income options available to the different 60% self-em ploym ent wealth groups. The middle and the better-off livestock sales get most of their income from livestock and 40% l/stock prod. sales crops sales, whilst the poor and the very poor are dependent on self-employment (firewood crop sales 20% and charcoal sales), local agricultural labor, a little labor migration and the safety net 0% program. In all except the very poor wealth V.Poor Poor M iddle Better-off group, livestock provide more income than crops.The graph provides a breakdown of total cash income according to incomesource. Annual 900-1200 1300-1500 1400-1800 2250-2650income (ETB)Expenditure Patterns – a good year (2005-06)Annual expenses are divided into 100%eight different categories. Allwealth groups purchase vetch, the other 80%very poor, poor and middle also giftspurchase staple food (sorghum) in tax 60% clothesaddition the very poor also social sev.purchase maize. With the inputsexception of the very poor, all 40% water HH itemswealth groups invest in animal non-staple fooddrugs and tools. The middle and 20% staple foodbetter off also hire local labor. Thepoor and the very poor have limited 0%resources to invest in production of V.Poor Poor Middle Better-offeither crops or livestock. The graph provides a breakdown of total cash expenditure by category of expenditure.The amount of cash spent on each category as well as the quantity and quality of items purchased varies depending onthe economic status of each socio-economic group.All wealth groups except the better-off purchase staple food. Non-staple food purchase by the very poor is higher asthey purchase more pulses than the other wealth groups whose own production is marginally more diverse. Whileexpenditure on staple food decreases with increasing wealth, expenditure on clothing and social services follow thereverse trend.HazardsIn this Livelihood Zone, erratic rains, pest infestation, livestock disease and malaria are the recurring problemsaffecting agricultural productivity and human wellbeing.Erratic rains. Drought, which can include both insufficient rainfall and uneven distribution over the rainy season, isthe single most important cause of acute food insecurity in the livelihood zone.Crop pests are a chronic problem in the livelihood zone, of which the most hazardous are stalk borer (sorghum andmaize), Wollo bush crickets (teff), aphids (all crops), and cut worm. Root rot is also a problem.Livestock disease. Anthrax (cattle and goat), goat pox, black leg, and internal and external parasites (cattle and goats)Malaria. Endemic and highly prevalent especially in September and October - the months immediately after the rainyseasons. In years of high incidence, food security can be affected because farmers may not be able to work during thecritical seasons of agricultural activity and labor migration.Weed. Striga (sorghum and maize)Coping StrategiesCoping strategies employed by different wealth groups vary depending upon various factors including phase andfrequency of the hazard and the asset base of households.Sale of labor and labor migration. This strategy is particularly employed by the poor and the very poor. Compared tothe other wealth groups, poor and very poor households have fewer options that they can use in bad years. Their main Abay Beshilo Basin Livelihood Zone Page 8
  • 9. option is to increase the number of people working and the duration (both locally and outside of the zone).Increased sale of livestock. This is an important strategy for better-off and middle households. These wealth groupstry to maintain the productive assets until all efforts to protect asset depletion are no more applicable. Sale of livestockis less of an option for the poor and very poor who may only be able to sell a small number of additional goats (poor)and poultry (poor and very poor).Switching of expenditure from non-food to staple food items. This is a common strategy for expanding purchases ina bad year. In a bad year, households report reducing expenditure on a range of non-food items and purchase staplefood. Some of these strategies have very negative effect in the case of reduced minimum non-staple items such asexpenditure on schooling basic inputs. Reduced expenditure on non-food items can be purchasing either lower qualityor small quantity.Firewood and charcoal sales. This is specifically employed by poor and very poor households only.SummaryCommunities residing within the Abay-Beshilo Livelihood zone suffer from chronic food insecurity due to acombination of various factors including erratic rains, small landholdings, highly degraded farmlands, infertile soil,pest infestation, livestock disease and malaria. Poor physical infrastructure is also a serious problem in the livelihoodzone. Trade interaction across the rivers valley is very minimal during the dry season and totally impossible during thekremt season.The middle and better-off can barely produce much more than their annual food needs, whilst the poor/very poor aredependant on food purchases. The main food crops cultivated are sorghum, teff and maize. Livestock are an importantsource of income for the middle and better-off households with over half of their income coming from livestock salesand livestock product sales.The very poor one-fifth of the population cultivate very small amounts of land - less than they have available, becausethey do not have oxen to provide draught power for land preparation. They are forced to purchase a significant portionof annual food needs, and their major income sources are precarious: local labor, PSNP and firewood sales. Abay Beshilo Basin Livelihood Zone Page 9
  • 10. Livelihood Profile Amhara Region, EthiopiaCentral Highland Barley and Potato Livelihood Zone (CBP)August 20071Zone DescriptionThe Central Highland Barley and Potato livelihood zone(CBP) spreads across Bure, Dega Damot, Dembecha, JabiTehnan, Mecha, Quarit, Sekela, and Yilmana Densa woredasin West Gojam; Ankasha, Banja, Fagta Lakoma,, GuagusaShikudad, and Guangua woredas in Agew; and Awabel,Bibugn, Debay Telatgen, Enarj Enawga, Enbise Sar Midir,Enemay, Goncha Siso Enese, Gonje, Hulet Ej Enese,Michakel and Senan woredas in East Gojam. The majesticChoke and Lake mountains are prominent features of theterrain in this predominantly dega area. Temperatures averagea temperate 5 to 15 degrees Celsius. The source of the BlueNile is located in this zone, reliably fed by the substantial1200 to 1400 mm of rainfall that falls on the zone yearly.Vegetation is moderately dense, comprised mostly ofeucalyptus and juniper trees. Bamboo is grown around thehomestead for construction of household furniture andequipment. The population is very dense, at 210 to 220 people per km.2 In most cases humans and livestock share waterfrom the same source (rivers and streams); when they don’t humans use wells and springs. There is no payment for waterfor humans except in woreda towns. The zone is well connected to surrounding areas via the Debre Markos-Enjibarahighway which runs through it.Mixed production of crops and livestock are the cornerstone of this zone’s economy. Agriculture activities are dependenton the kremt rains which fall from May to October. Some households use irrigation, particularly for potato production.The main crops cultivated are barley and potato, the bulk of it produced for household consumption. Extensivedegradation and high soil acidity have reduced the agricultural potential of the region. Manure from cattle is an importantproductive input in this zone. Draught power is provided mainly by horses, which are cheaper to maintain than oxen.Land preparation is done by men. Women assist with weeding and harvesting activities. Hiring labour is untypical for anywealth group. The main hazards to crop production are late blight which affects potatoes, and smut and rust which affectbarley. Traditional disease and pest control measures are used to prevent the spread of disease. This zone suffers from afood deficit every year.Raising sheep, cattle and horses is a key economic strategy. Sheep are the more commonly sold livestock, usuallybetween the ages of 4 to 12 months. The demand for sheep peaks during religious festivals. Cattle are valuablepossessions mostly owned by wealthier households, and serve as longer term investments. Few cattle are sold. Maturecows are sometimes sold after 7 or 8 years of age, and thereafter replaced from within the herd. Livestock free-graze andfeed on crop residues and/or collected grass. Children are responsible for herding livestock. The main hazards to livestockproduction are pasteurellosis, internal parasites, black leg, and anthrax. Internal parasites affect all livestock,pasteurellosis in sheep and cattle, and black leg in cattle. Treatments for these diseases, including vaccinations, areavailable from both the Bureau of Agriculture and Rural Development (BoARD) and the market for cash. The sameapplies to inputs for livestock production.Other important economic activities are wage labour and the sale of eucalyptus trees. Migratory labour opportunities areavailable in Shindi, Humera, Wollega, and Metemma for maize and sesame weeding and harvest. Migration is a maleactivity, undertaken from June to August and from November to December. 1 Field work for the current profile was undertaken from 4/17/2007 to 5/2/2007. The information presented refers to October 2005- September 2006 (EC Tekemt 1998 to Meskerem 1999), a relatively good year by local standards (i.e. a year of above average production and rural food security, when judged in the context of recent years). Provided there are no fundamental and rapid shifts in the economy, the information in this profile is expected to remain valid for approximately five years (i.e. until 2011). The reference year exchange rate: 1USD=8.82 ETB. CBP - Central Highland Barley and Potato.doc Page 10
  • 11. Casual urban labour opportunities, predominantly for men, are available in neighbouring towns, peaking from June toAugust, though they are available throughout the year. The poor and very poor groups buy eucalyptus trees from themiddle and better-off groups; older trees tend to be split and sold mainly for firewood, and younger trees are sold as polesfor home construction. This happens throughout the year. There are no specific credit programmes in this zone, thoughsome households take credit from the Amhara Credit and Savings Institution.MarketsPotatoes are the main crop traded. They are transported from local markets to markets in Addis Ababa, Bahir Dar, andGondar. There is demand all year round, though the peak trading period is from July to September. Maize and fingermillet are imported into the zone when local food supplies have been exhausted, from June to December. They arebrought in from surrounding areas in Birsheleko, Bure and Shinde. Sheep and cattle are the popular livestock in the market. Sheep sales increase during the religious festival season in April(Fasika/Easter), September (EnkutatashNew Year) and January (Genna/Christmas). Cattle demand peaks in March andApril, though both types of animals are sold throughout the year.Poorly maintained roads winding through the mountains are the biggest barrier to the inflow of traders and commoditiesinto the zone. Residents of the zone usually walk up to 6 hours to visit the market.In this chronically food insecure zone, in normal times 75% of households have at least one member who migrates toMetema, Humera, Wollega, Shindi, and Birsheleko in search of agricultural work. The first wave of migrants leavesbetween June and September for weeding labour, and a second wave leaves for harvesting labour in November andDecember. A minority of some 25% seek opportunities within the towns in surrounding areas.Seasonal Calendar Mar Mar Apr Apr May May Jun Jun Jul Jul Aug Aug Sep Oct Nov Nov Dec Dec Jan Jan Feb Feb Seasons Bega Kiremt Tibi Meher Legend harvest Weeding planting Land Preparation Barley Potato Livestock sales Cattle (in-heat) Livestock births Milk production Other Urban labour Labour migration Food purchase Hunger season Eucalyptus sales Rainfall Pattern Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan FebThere are four main seasons in the zone, namely bega (dry) from March to May, kremt (rains) from June to August (mainrainy season), tibi from September to November, and meher from December to February (harvest season).Agricultural activities are planned around the kremt rainy season. Land preparation for short-cycle potato cultivationbegins in January, whilst for long-cycle barley it begins in June. Eucalyptus sales peak in April, May and June. Urbanlabor is most common from June to August, whilst milk output peaks from July to November. The food purchase seasonis relatively lengthy, peaking for 6 months from July to December.The livestock ‘season’ begins in July soon after the rains commence. An increase in cattle sales is seen between Marchand May as households seek to purchase draught power for the upcoming land preparation period, whilst sheep sales peakduring festival months (April, September and January). CBP - Central Highland Barley and Potato.doc Page 11
  • 12. Wealth Breakdown Wealth Groups Characteristics Land area HH size Crops cultivated Livestock Holding Other cultivated Very 0-40 eucalyptus 4-6 0-2 timad barley, potato 2-5 sheep, 0-3 hens Poor trees 4-8 sheep, 0-1 horse, 70-200 eucalyptus Poor 5-7 0-3 timad barley, potato 1-3 hens trees 100-300 1-3 cattle, 6-12 sheep, Middle 5-7 3-5 timad barley, potato eucalyptus trees, 1 horse, 2-4 hens 0-125 bamboo 3-4 cattle, 0-1 oxen, 250-750 Better- 6-7 5-7.5 timad barley, potato, teff 8-14 sheep, 2 horses, eucalyptus trees, off 2-4 hens 0-200 bamboo 0% 20% 40% % of householdsThe main determinants of wealth are the amount of land owned, the ownership of cattle and sheep, and the ownershipof horses for draught power. Land holdings in the zone are generally small, ranging from 0-2 timads, 2-4 timads, 3-5timads and 3.5-5 timads for the very poor, poor, middle and better-off respectively.2 Ownership of horses is importantfor productivity because access to draught power determines household capacity to utilise available land holdings. Thepoor who haven’t the capital to obtain their own draught power, or who lack family labour, are compelled to rent-outland to the better-off, who have the capacity to cultivate more than they own. Land rental arrangements usually dividethe harvest from the rented land equally between the two parties. The biggest barrier to poor household ownership ofdraught power is the lack of capital; the main constraints on crop production among the poor are land degradation;shortage of farmland and crop diseases affecting barley and potato.Livestock ownership is also important for building household capacity to cope with livelihood shocks. The interest ingenerating new stock favours the ownership of mature female animals. Sheep provide most of the regular income fromlivestock. Cattle are more valuable assets, and they are owned only by the middle and better-off households. They arelonger term investments. Beyond a lack of money, the biggest barrier to ownership of livestock is lack of feed:livestock production in the zone is limited by diminishing availability of grazing land. The better off at times growpasture on a portion of their land to feed their cattle.The search for work is the main livelihood strategy for poor households, and so they depend on the availability ofworkers in the family for a significant portion of their income.Sources of Food – A good year (2005-06)Crop production accounts for 60% to 120%70% of the better-off households’food, and around half of the middle 100%group’s. The poor and very poorobtain one-third and one-fifth of their 80% purchasefood from own crop production. Themain crops consumed by all wealth payment in kindgroups are purchased maize and 60% livestock prod.finger millet, and home-grown cropspotatoes and barley. Food purchase 40%increases in importance as wealthdecreases. Vetch is also purchased, 20%the middle and better-off groupspurchasing more than the poor. The 0%zone is not in the Safety Net V.Poor Poor Middle Better-offprogramme and received no food aidduring the reference year, eventhough there is a chronic food gap for In the graph, food access is expressed as a percentage of minimum food requirements, taken as an average food energy intake of 2100 kcals per personall apart from the better-off. per day.2 1 timad equals 0.25 ha CBP - Central Highland Barley and Potato.doc Page 12
  • 13. Payment in kind provides on between 5% and 10% of food for the very poor, poor, and middle households, mainly forwork done outside the zone. The participation of the middle households in work migration, unusual elsewhere, reflectsthe high levels of poverty and food insecurity in the livelihood zone. The consumption of eggs, butter, and milk isgeneral indicator of well being. The limited contribution of livestock products, between 1% and 2% for the middle andbetter-off, confirms that households cannot afford to consume luxury items. The significant contribution of purchasesdemonstrates low self- reliance arising from low productivity and small land holdings. Poor market access (due toabsence of road access, mountainous topography and distance from the market) and the significant contribution of foodpurchases to household consumption, accentuate household vulnerability to food market shocks.Sources of Cash – a good year (2005-06) 100% The majority of households earn most of their income from agricultural wage labor. Most of this 80% is earned from labour migration, firewood and tree sales whilst a smaller contribution comes labour sales from casual labour, mostly 60% construction, in local towns. Paid livestock sales work provides three-quarters of l/stock prod. sales 40% income for the very poor and poor crop sales households, and half of the middle. 20% Livestock sales give between one- third and one-half of better-off income, one-quarter for the middle, 0% one tenth for the poor and 5% for the V.Poor Poor Middle Better-off very poor – all mostly from sheepThe graph provides a breakdown of total cash income according to income Chickens Are also sold bysource. everybody.Annual 1850- 1750- 1950- 2250-income 2350 2250 2350 2750 (ETB)Livestock product sales contribute 2% to the very poor and poor incomes, and between 5% and 10% to the middle andbetter off households respectively. The poor households sell mainly eggs, while the better-off also sell butter.The sale of potatoes is an important source of income for the better-off, and overall crop sales average one-quarter oftheir income, while the middle and poor earn a less distinguished 5%.Eucalyptus sales and firewood sales play an important role in income for all wealth groups.Expenditure Patterns – a good year (2005-06)Purchasing staple food is thelargest expense for all groups. 100%Staple food expenditure increases otheras wealth and crop production 80% taxdecrease. There is limited cash clothesleft for income for non-staple food social serv. 60% inputspurchases, comprised mainly of HH itemspulses (for all groups) and 40% non-staple foodpotatoes (for the poor and very staple foodpoor). This takes up 3% of verypoor and poor expenditure and 20%one-tenth of the middle andbetter-off’s. 0% V.Poor Poor Middle Better-off The graph provides a breakdown of total cash expenditure according to category of expenditure. CBP - Central Highland Barley and Potato.doc Page 13
  • 14. Household items, namely kerosene, utensils, soap and milling fees comprise the second largest expenditure for allgroups, taking up between 10% and 20% of very poor and poor expenditure income, and a quarter of the middle andbetter-offs. The bulk of the expenditure on this line is spent on milling.The better-off households invest one-fifth of expenditure on livestock restocking, credit repayment, and animal drugs.This reflects an effort to build and protect livestock holdings. The middle spends 10% of total expenditure on animaldrugs, while the poor expend only 1%.Investment in education and access to health services is 3% for the very poor and poor, and 5% for the middle andbetter-off. Clothes expenditure comprises 7% of expenditure for the very poor, poor, and better off, and 8% for themiddle.HazardsThe major hazard in the zone is land degradation which not only undermines present productivity but also threatensfuture crop yields. Soils in the zone are infertile and acidic.The prevalence of potato blight is a chronic problem affecting potato yields.The shortage of pasture and forage diminishes livestock condition, and prevents ownership of larger livestock herds.Hailstorms and frost are further hazards occurring every year.Coping StrategiesThe poor households’ general lack of access to productive activities forces them to intensify the search for migrantwork opportunities during bad years. People migrate to more distant areas, and additional household members join thesearch for work. The sale of firewood is an additional coping strategy for the poor. The extent to which firewood salescan be expanded is limited by availability of firewood and ability of the market to absorb the increased supply offirewood.The better-off respond to hardship through the increased sale of livestock. However, existing livestock herds are smallin the zone and major or prolonged shocks can seriously deplete herds. Their secondary strategy is to increase the saleof eucalyptus.SummaryExtensive degradation and high soil acidity severely undermine agricultural production in this dega zone. Cropproduction is particularly low for the poor and very poor who are constrained by poor availability of cultivable landand the lack of draught power. Low crop production increases household dependence on the market to access food. Thecommonly purchased crops are finger millet and maize, and modest amounts of potatoes and pulses. The participationof middle households in labor activities in exchange for food is indicative of the high levels of food insecurity in thezone. Poor market access and the significant contribution of food purchases to household consumption, accentuateshousehold vulnerability to food market shocks. The better-off are distinguished as the only wealth group earning morethan half their income from primary production activities – with potatoes falling a long way behind livestock as a cashearner. The search for agricultural work opportunities is the main income earning strategy for the very poor, poor andmiddle households. Expenditure on social services and clothes is low for all wealth groups. CBP - Central Highland Barley and Potato.doc Page 14
  • 15. Livelihood Profile Amhara Region, EthiopiaSouth West Woina Dega Teff Livelihood Zone August 20071Zone DescriptionThe South West Woina Dega Teff livelihoodzone is one of the surplus producing areas inAmhara Region. It incorporates parts ofworedas in West Gojam (Yilmana Densa),Agew (Ankasha, Guagusa Shikudad) and EastGojam (Aneded, Awabel, Baso Liden, Bibugn,Debay Telatgen, Dejen, Enarj Enawga, EnbiseSar Midir, Enemay, Goncha Siso Enese, Hulet,Ej Enese and Sebel Bereta). It is in a primarilywoina dega agro-ecological zone and thetopography is mostly plain. The zone is withinthe Abay (Blue Nile) Drainage Basin. Tindefeji,Yenjuit, Sihoa, Bogena and Chemoga are themajor rivers crossing the zone. Widespreaddeforestation has resulted in a landscape almostdevoid of natural vegetation apart from standsof eucalyptus trees around homesteads. Thepopulation density is moderate.Although there is a very high potential forirrigation, agriculture is totally rainfed. Total annual rainfall ranges approximately from 900-1200 mm per year. Thezone has a long term mean annual rainfall of 1181 mm, and in most years precipitation is very favourable for thecultivation of different crops, the most important of which are teff, wheat and maize, grown for both consumption andsale. The zone usually produces a food surplus. Ox-plowing is used to prepare the land, whilst weeding andharvesting are the most labor intensive crop production activities, for which the middle and better-off groups pay forlabor in cash. The main crop pests and diseases are Wollo bush cricket, African boll worm, stalk borer, aphids and redteff worm. Treatment is available from the market and in some cases from the BoARD for cash. Agricultural inputs(fertilizers and improved seed) are also available either from the market or BoARD for credit and cash.The main types of livestock are sheep, cattle and horses which free-graze and feed on crop residues and/or collectedgrass. Water is obtained from both major and minor rivers, hand-dug wells and sometimes springs. Humans in somecases share water from rivers with animals. The main diseases affecting animals are black leg, anthrax, sheep andgoat pox and pasteurellosis. Treatment is available either from the market or the BoARD for cash, as are livestockinputs such as vaccines. In comparison to the neighbouring Blue Nile gorge area disease prevalence in SWT is lowerand lactation length is longer. Apart from crop and livestock and butter sales (and honey sales by the wealthier) theother element of income concerns only the poorer households: paid work.MarketsDebre Markos and the woreda towns hold the major grain and livestock markets in the zone. There is good marketaccess since the road network is relatively good and most kebeles (village areas) in the zone are reasonably close to themain road and to the main urban centres. All these markets serve as the centers of supply for local consumers and transitto other markets outside the Livelihood Zone. The main crops sold are teff, maize and wheat from January to June. Teffis the only item exported to other regions mainly Tigray and Addis Ababa. Livestock (sheep and cattle traded all yearround) and the other crops are supplied to local consumers. Maize and wheat/sorghum are the main grains bought locallyor from kebeles in the nearby Blue Nile gorge lowlands. Most paid work is found in the local rural area though some isperformed in the local towns and less outside the zone.1 Field work for the current profile was undertaken from September to October 2007. The information presented refers to September 2005-August2006 (EC Meskerem 1998 to Nehase 1998), a good year by local standards. Provided there are no fundamental and rapid shifts in the economy, theinformation in this profile is expected to remain valid for approximately five years (i.e. until 2012). The reference year exchange rate: 1USD = 8.59ETB. South West Woina dega Teff Livelihood Zone Page 15
  • 16. Seasonal Calendar M ay. June July Aug. S ep. O ct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. M ar. Apr. Rainy S easons Krem t Tibi M eher Bega Legend cons. green harvest W eeding planting shoats cattle and shoats cattle Teff M aize W heat Chickpea V etch B eans Livestock sales Cattle in heat B irths M ilk production Crop sales O ther Local labour Urban Labour Honey Hunger season Food P urchase R ainfall PatternLand preparation from March to June, weeding from June to August and harvesting from October to January are themain agricultural activities. Teff and wheat are the main short cycle crops grown whilst maize is the main long-cyclecrop. There is no intercropping. Local agricultural employment is available mainly from July to December. DebreMarkos and other urban centres in the zone also offer employment from January to March. Poor and very poorhouseholds also migrate mainly to Humera (Tigray), Teppi (Benishangul Gumuz), Arsi Negelle and Wellega (Oromia)in different seasons every year looking for employment opportunities.Wealth Breakdown Wealth Groups Characteristics Land area HH size Crops Cultivated Livestock Other assets cultivated Very Green cons Maize, 20-40 eucalyptus 4-5 1-3 timads 1-3 sheep, 1-3 hens Poor Maize, Wheat, Teff trees Green cons Maize, 3-5 sheep, 0-2 oxen, 0-1 100-150 eucalyptus Poor 4-6 3-5 timads Maize Wheat, Teff, cattle, 1-3 hens trees Vetch Green cons Maize, 6-8 sheep, 1-3 oxen, 2-4 400-600 eucalyptus Middle 5-7 6-9 timads Maize Wheat, Teff, cattle, 0-2 donkeys, 3-5 trees, 1-3 beehives Vetch, Honey hens Green cons Maize, 8-12 sheep, 2-4 oxen, 4- Better- 9-12 700-800 eucalyptus 7-8 Maize Wheat, Teff, 6 cattle, 1-3 donkeys, 3- off timads trees, 3-5 beehives Vetch, Beans, Honey 5 hens 0% 20% 40% % of households 1 hectare=4 timadsWealth is determined by the size of land owned by households as well as by herd size in general and ownership ofplough oxen in particular. On the basis of these criteria, four distinct wealth groups (very poor, poor, middle and better-off) were identified. Households also differ in the ownership eucalyptus trees and beehives. While beehives are owned South West Woina dega Teff Livelihood Zone Page 16
  • 17. by the better-off and middle households, eucalyptus trees are owned by all, but wealthier people have far more trees. Thebetter-off also grow beans which the poor do not; this is because the former own enough land and plough-oxen and theycommonly rent-in extra land from poorer farmers who have no oxen. These gain the advantage of half the harvest on thatland – a harvest gained from better cultivation than they could possibly have achieved, given the capacity of the renter tomake sufficient and timely ploughing passes especially for the demanding teff, and also to buy fertilizers and otherinputs – although these are expensive in relation even to wealthier farmers’ budgets and are often used sparingly, belowthe recommended rate. They also bear the cost of employing local labour during weeding and harvesting months. Interms of livestock the poorer households lack money and access to credit to keep more whilst the wealthier lack grazingland, animal feed and improved animal breeds. There are few other sources of income generation, although there aresome government attempts to help the landless rural youth benefit from non-agricultural activities in their locality.Sources of Food – A good year (2005-06)Own crop production is the most importantsource of food for all wealth groups. Maize, 120%wheat and teff are the main sources of foodfor all groups, even providing just above gifts 100%half the staple food of the very poor. Better-off and middle households essentially and 80% food aidmore than cover their staple foodrequirement from their own production, 60% purchasealthough the middle sell teff and buy thecheaper maize. For the poorer groups staples 40%purchase is vital for survival. payment in kindConsumption of livestock products is only 20%enjoyed by the better-off and middle wealth livestock prod.groups, though its contribution in calorie 0%terms is small. Overall this is a picture of a V.Poor Poor Middle Better-offcomparatively productive and food securearea. In the graph, food access is expressed as a percentage of minimum food requirements, taken as an average food energy intake of 2100 kcals per person per day.Sources of Cash – a good year (2005-06) 100% The proportion of crop sales in household employment earnings (including here eucalyptus sales) is higher here than in most other livelihood 80% zones, and even the very poor make half l/stock prod. their money from crops alone. Everybody 60% sales sells teff and wheat, but the wealthier also sell some pulses. The real differentiation 40% livestock between wealthier and poorer households is sales in where they get the balance of their earnings. The wealthier can rely on 20% livestock and product sales: cattle, goats, crop sales chickens, butter, eggs, skins and honey. 0% The poor sell goats, chickens and eggs, but V.Poor Poor Middle Better-off they must also undertake paid work – particularly the very poor. There is only a small amount of petty trade Annual performed by villagers in the zone. 1300- 2050- 3750- 5550- income 1800 2550 4250 6050 (ETB)The graph provides a breakdown of total cash incomeaccording to income source. South West Woinadega Livelihood Zone Page 17
  • 18. Expenditure Patterns – a good year (2005-06) The expenditure categories of all wealth 100%groups are similar except that the better-offdo not purchase staple food.Staple food is the highest single expense 80% otherfor very poor households spend most in giftsstaple food purchases whilst they spendmuch less than wealthier families on non- 60% taxstaple foods in absolute cash terms (their social expenditure, like their income, is one-third of wealthier families’ income, or 40% inputsless). The poorer purchase vetch whilst the HH itemswealthier buy sugar and oil. The graph provides a breakdown of total cash expenditure according toAgain in absolute cash terms the 20% category of expenditure. The graph provides a breakdown of total c non-staple foodexpenditure by wealthier farmers on inputs staple foodis much higher than the poorer farmers, 0%and they spend more too on social services(school and medical costs), although this V.Poor Poor Middle Better- The graph provides a breakdown of total cash expenditureexpenditure is proportionately small across according offthe board. The graph provides a breakdown of total cash expenditure according to category of expenditure.HazardsCrop pests: Wollo bush cricket (teff), African boll worm (pulses), stalk borer (maize), aphids (pulses) and red teffworm.Livestock disease: Black leg (cattle), anthrax (cattle), sheep pox, pasteurellosis (cattle and sheep).Increased cost of inputs: Particularly fertilizer (& the low supply of improved seeds) may be seen as a man-madehazard to production.Coping StrategiesIntensification of labour sales. This strategy is employed by the poor and the very poor, extending the duration ofwork migration and involving more members of the household in both local and migratory paid work.Minimize non-essential expenditures. This is strategy employed by all wealth groups. In a bad year, households reportreducing expenditure on a range of non-food items in favour of purchasing staple food. The middle and better-offhouseholds also use up grain and pulses from their stock and reduce consumption.Increased sale of livestock. This is an important strategy for better-off and middle households. But they try to maintainfertile females until all efforts to protect assets are defeated by want.SummaryThe South West Woina Dega Teff livelihood zone is one of the surplus producing areas in Amhara Region. The mostimportant determinants of wealth are the size of land owned by households and the ownership of livestock in generaland ownership of plough oxen in particular. Own crop production covers the highest proportion of the annual foodrequirement for all wealth groups. The main crops consumed are maize, wheat and teff, although teff and wheat are alsothe most sold crops. In a typical year, middle and better-off wealth groups rely on crop and livestock sales as the meansof generating nearly all cash income, whilst poorer households must also engage in paid work, local and migratory. Themain livestock are sheep, cattle and horses. Livestock sales contribute relatively more to the income of the middle andbetter-off than to that of the poor and very poor.Road access is good; this promotes relatively active trade interaction within the zone and between the zone and externalmarkets. Expansion of the road network can further enhance the economic situation of communities.Crop pest, livestock disease and unaffordable input prices have been the major problems affecting rural communities ingeneral and poor and very poor households in particular. Coping strategies include the intensification of labor sales,minimizing non-essential expenditure and increasing livestock sales. South West Woina dega Teff Livelihood Zone Page 18