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Deregulated electricity markets. The role of the ISO. Processes and systems.


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Processes run from an independent system operator (ISO) in deregulated energy markets. From physical dispatching to economic dispatching. Load forecasting. Power network operation. Day ahead markets. Ancillary services markets. SCADAs. Metering. The whole process is represented.

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Deregulated electricity markets. The role of the ISO. Processes and systems.

  1. 1. The role of the ISO in deregulated energy marketsEnergy Trading & Risk Management Systems Group @ linkedin
  2. 2. The role of the ISO in deregulated energy marketsEnergy Trading & Risk Management Systems Group @ linkedinThis ppt represents the first delivery of a collection of presentations that will bedelivered by the Energy Trading & Risk Management Systems Group members @tlinkedin.linkedinWould you wish to participate (extending the current presentation, delivering apresentation, providing with feedback) do not hesitate to contact with any of theETRM Group managers.Any Energy Trading & Risk Management Systems Group member is kindly invited todisclose the ETRM Systems Group source when using partially or totally thispresentation.
  3. 3. The role of the ISO in deregulated energy markets Version I. January 2012.Electricity markets ISO Regulatory  g y MO body The only possible way to fully understand an integrated ETRM framework is understanding all Deregulated  the complexities around around. electricity  markets Eligible  GENCO customerWould it be possible tounderstand h d d how a GENCOoperates without understandinghow ISO’s operate ? Supplier DISCO The Energy Trading & Risk Management Systems Group has an initiative focused to deliver an integrated vision of ETRM systems including understanding the processes systems, involved in power, gas, oil …
  4. 4. ISO –Independent System OperatorReliabilityR li bili considering economic criteria under i d id i i i i d independence and non di i i i d d discriminationbasis Grid planning G id l i Demand  Outage  response management TSO  TSO Load  coordination forecasting Reliability Voltage  Metering control Independence Efficiency ISO Frequency  Settlement control Non  Unbundlling g discrimination Congestion  Billing pricing Ancillary  Information Services management Black start  market 
  5. 5. ISO –Independent System Operator p y pCentralized versus non centralized approachesIn a pure decentralized scheme, the market agents agree on deliveries by means of bilateral contracts at aprice fixed by them. The ISO must accept those arrangements unless they are technically unfeasible. The ISOruns ancillary services, purchasing the service at a “market price” offered by the market agents. Participation ofancillary services is not mandatory.The market agents might trade also in a Power Exchange in which bids and offers are matched by means of anauctioning process. This is a blind market, and some level of “centralized optimization” is incorporated in thesense that only the most economical offers are matched. In some places participation in this market ismandatory, while in others it is not. Nevertheless, market players still can define the price at which they wantto bid, so they can effectively “uncouple” generation costs with the bidding stacks, that are based on , y y p g g ,maximization of generator’s benefits. There is not possibility to make a final (global) generation schedule basedon real generation costs. This is still a decentralized schemeIn an hybrid model, the generators might arrange bilateral contracts and match bids in auctioning processes in y , g g g gp“blind” power exchange markets (decentralized approaches), but the spare available energy must be offered toancillary services under a mandatory framework (centralized approach). Generation schedules will be arrangedby the ISO under a cost‐based approach based on optimal power flow analysis (this is, the generator does notsend “bids”, but generation “costs”). Ancillary services might be paid at a “Local Marginal Price”.In a pure centralized model, the generators just send costs associated to generator. The ISO arranges schedulesbased on the optimization of the global generation. Generators are rewarded at their generation cost, althougha prime can be added to the costs. This is a case of regulated environments.
  6. 6. ISO –Independent System Operator p y pEfficiency …. A long way to go …. of efficiencyAn “efficient scheme” should produce appropriate Nodaleconomical signals for efficient investing in transmissionresources and in efficient location of new generation and Zonal  aggregationloads. Level o ZonalIdeally, the framework should be simple to implementand transparent .ISO’s grid planning responsibilities should be enforced to g p g pgain efficiency (centralized model) or to assure a certain Level of complexity L l f l itlevel of sustainability (decentralized model). Centralized approaches enable nodal pricing under a cost based approach Rules and regulation should be carefully designed in order to avoid collusion of prices and to discourage inefficientallocation of generation assets and loads. Apparently, deregulation of markets and implementation of decentralizedframeworks have led to importing from other kind of industries of “pure market models” , which have proven not towork appropiately in the electricity sector. Social welfare demands a re‐definition of deregulated electricitymodels !Clear governance mechanisms for the ISO are fundamental for a proper functioning of the deregulated framework.Albert Einstein: everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler y g p p p
  7. 7. ISO –Independent System Operator p y p The figure of the MO In decentralized models, the idea is to enable an independent marketplace in which the market agents can trade energy by means of bilateral contracts or auctioning processes in a “power pool”. The market agents look for “benefit maximization”. As long as those matched bids between buyers are purchasers comply with technical restrictions, the ISO is obliged to schedule those programs, even if they do not comply with minimum cost criteria of power network g p g , y py p exploitation. In this framework, in order to “isolate” as much as possible the power exchange from the power network exploitation, the “Market Operator” – MO figure is created in some markets. Unconstrained schedule ISO MO Constrained scheduleBasically, when the MO exists, this entity will be in charge of financial markets (futures, forwards ... ), day ahead andeven intradaily markets (but always will need to coordinate with ISO to assure technical feasibility of the schedules). Inother market models, it will be the ISO the one in charge of all markets and only financial markets that don’t implyphysical deliverph sical deli er might be r n b a different entit (an e change) run by entity exchange).Hereinafter, unless otherwise stated, we will understand that we are facing a decentralized market. In the future, apresentation regarding the MO will be delivered and more details of power exchanges will be provided .More detail on Market operators and Power Exchanges will be delivered in further presentations.
  8. 8. ISO –Independent System Operator p y pVery high level voltage power network exploitation under reliability and economic criteriaIndependent System Operator is an entity that coordinates, controls and monitors the operation of the electricalpower system in a reliable manner and following economic dispatching criteria.The ISO coordinates the operation of the transport network in coordination with the transmission system operators.Its main objective is to maintain the system frequency (eg. US, 60 Hz; Europe, 50 Hz).Depending on the market model, the ISO might have more or less power to control investment decissions of TSO,generators .... From the writers opinion, grid planning should strongly rely on ISO’s recommendations, regardingreliability and power network efficiency.Frequency controlVoltage controlV lt t lLoad flow controlOutage managementEconomic dispatching
  9. 9. ISO –Independent System Operator p y pSCADA – Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition architectureIndependent System Operator is an entity that coordinates, controls and monitors the operation of the electricalpower system in a reliable manner and following economic dispatching criteria. • LinesLoad flow and voltage control • Transformers • Measure • RTU Network  • Generation State  SCADA  units • Transmission • IED Topology Estimator losses Server • Shunt • StatusMonitoring and control is done by capacitors, reactors… reactorsmeans of the SCADA system. RTU Remote Terminal Unit IED Intelligent Electronic DeviceLoad flow and voltage control can be controlled by generation allocation, change in network topology, change oftransformer taps, use of reactors and shunt capacitors. Generators can also contribute injecting or absorbingreactive power. Advanced power flow control is an enormous field to be fostered.Frequency controlThe way to maintain system frequency is essentially matching at every moment power generation with system load y y q y y g y p g y(including power network losses). Different markets (usually based on auctioning processes) are held in order tomatch from the day ahead to as close as real time generation with load.
  10. 10. ISO –Independent System Operator p y pSCADA – State estimationState estimationA process run in real time on SCADA systems in order to correct raw data and measurements coming from the fielddevices (RTU’s …) which filter measurement noise, detect gross errors and provides as an output estimatedinformation of system state and measures, b d on the available i fi f i f d based h il bl information and on the power network modeled i d h k d l dwithin the SCADA system.State variables: bus voltages, branch flows (MW, MVaR), …coming from field devices through RTUs, IEDs… Topology  processor State  variables i blTopology processor: gathers status of circuit breakers, switches,and represents the system topology. ProcessingProcessing Filtering: identifies and eliminates incorrect data coming from field Status Measures Processing: estimates network status (open/closed ‐ circuit breakers, shunt capacitors, reactors) and state variables ( voltage, phase angles, transformer taps…)
  11. 11. ISO –Independent System Operator p y p Representation of processes previous to day D year ahead year ahead Months ahead Months aheadMO rketM ansmission Capa Rights mar Transmission outage analysis utage analysis Grid Planning acity SO TLF TF O’s)IS LT Generation ou MT Planned development (GENCO o Planned outage generation units Planned outage generation units Authoris development (GENCOs) (GENCOs) Transmission network outage schedule ssignment Planned outage transmission network ss Bids for TCR sedTRANSCO Agents d o e Tra TCR as r orised developments Planned developments O Autho The ISO interfaces with TRANSCOs Suppliers GENCOs and with the market operator (MO) in charge of Day Ahead TRANSCOs, Suppliers, (MO), Markets – DAM – and even intradaily markets). In many market models, the ISO is in charge of all markets, including DAM, intradaily and ancillary services markets. In others, the MO handles day ahead markets.
  12. 12. ISO –Independent System Operator p y p Representation of processes previous to day D Months ahead Months ahead Day ahead Day ahead (N) Intraday markets s DAM MO dule M dule ule Constrained schedulle Unconstrained sched Constrained schedu Unconstrained sched Feasibility analysis Feasibility analysis Bid s for periodic Intrad markets TCR market TCR market SO TLF day IS m m y y ST Capacity rights nomination nstrained schedule strained schedule TCR assignments TCR assignments Bid for DAM Bilatera contracts Bid for TCR Bid for TCR y Agents s Uncon a a B al Uncons urneighbou ISO The ISO interfaces also with neighbour ISOs . Even in single zonal models a Transmission Capacity Market to manage g g p y g transmission capacity rights (TCR) between neighbouring networks must be defined. Usually there is an annual auctioning process between ISO and interested parties and also secondary markets can exists, in order to manage efficiently the TCR as real time market approaches.
  13. 13. ISO –Independent System Operator p y pLong term load forecast as part of ISO processes Projected  Economic  Historical  factors Demographic  Economic  data factors Metered Time factors Load data Historical  Forecasting  Calendar  weather data weather data model data Winter peak LTF, Summer peak LTF Winter peak LTF Summer peak LTFA long term forecasting (LTF) model is fundamental in order to understand which will be the peak and winter loadsthat the power system will need to support. This will be an input for the grid planning function.
  14. 14. ISO –Independent System Operator p y pGrid planning as part of ISO processes Proposed  Market Agent  M k A Regulatory  projects Technological framework factors Desired  Power flow  quality  simulation metrics Transmission  network (TN)  Stability  existing  analysis constraints LTF Grid  Short circuit  analysis l planning Authoritasion / Denial / proposition  Authoritasion / Denial / propositionGrid planning under a centralized approach is fundamental to derive in market efficiency. The ISO must be enacted toauthorise, deny or propose long term power network development actions (including generation, transmission andload allocation if possible) so that the grid is developed under a sustainable and efficient criteria.
  15. 15. ISO –Independent System Operator p y pMiddle term load forecast as part of ISO processes Projected  Historical  Economic  E i factors Forward  Economic  prices factors Metered Time  Load data factors Historical  Forecasting  Calendar  weather  model data data Medium term load forecast Medium term load forecastA middle term load forecast for months ahead to even 1 year ahead is calculated. The objective is mainly outagemanagement. The forecasting algorithms used differ from those used for short term forecast (days ahead) and neartime forecasts (close to real time) and of course LTF.
  16. 16. ISO –Independent System Operator p y pOutage analysis in order to guarantee power network reliability MTLF •Medium Term  Load forecast •Lines  •Transformers •Lines Network  •Generation  Peak  •Generation Contingency  •Generation  topology units scenario analysis units •Load •Shunt  •Transformers capacitors,  reactors, … Outage schedule Outage scheduleThe ISO models on the stable network topology a base scenario for peak loads (based on output from the middleterm load forecasting solution) The study can be executed either in the SCADA system (study mode) or in an solution).independent (not part of SCADA) power system simulator. N‐1 scenarios are modeled (e.g simulating the outage of apower line, a transformer, etc) under the contingency analysis. Only planned outages that derive in acceptable results(in terms of load flows and voltage levels) are approved.
  17. 17. ISO –Independent System Operator p y pShort term load forecast as part of ISO EMS system Metered SCADA  SCADA Load data actuals Weather  Prices forecast Weather  Time  actual factors Historical  Forecasting  Calendar  weather  model data data Short term load forecast Short term load forecastA short term load forecast for 1D to even 1 week ahead is calculated and published by ISO. The frequency ofcalculation might be hourly and the granularity of forecasts usually hourly Different methodologies can be deployed forecasts, hourly.; most common are neural networks and statistical methods. Load forecast is published through the web to allinterested parties, so they can prepare bid stacks accordingly. The objective is to maintain system reliability.
  18. 18. ISO –Independent System Operator p y p Different markets – from day ahead to real time operation Day time of each market pp Period ahead on which each market applies Day D-1 Day D 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Compañía Operadora del Mercado Day -ahead market Intraday 1 Intraday 2 Intraday 3 Intraday 4 Intraday 5 Intraday 6 RED ELÉCTRICA DE ESPAÑA Technical constraints Secondary Regul . Imbalances . Imbalances . Imbalances . Imbalances . Imbalances . Tertiary Regulation T. constraints in real time 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24Source: REE A representation of the different markets held in Spain by the ISO. Day ahead markets and intraday markets are held by the Market Operator (Power Exchange or Power Pool) in coordination with the ISO ISO.
  19. 19. ISO –Independent System Operator p y pAnalysis of unconstrained programs Unconstrained  schedule STLF (MO) ( ) •Generation bid  •Unconstra •Short Term stacks schedule forecast Load  ained  m  • Lines  • Transformers • Lines Network  • Generation  • Generation • Generation  • Load flows units Load flow N‐1 cases units OPF topology  • Shunt  • Load • Voltage levels • Transformers capacitors,  reactors, … Optimal constrained  programAll the parties make bids in order to maximize benefits. The (unconstrained) schedule that has been matched by the MOaccording to economic criteria (and even considering some technical characteristics of the generation units ‐ e.g. ramps) isanalyzed in conjunction with the bilateral contracts information under a load flow simulation and even stressed to N‐1 cases.After the scheduled program has been validated for technical conditions, a “constrained” schedule is generated and sent to theMO. The ISO only analyses the technical feasibility of the schedules, but does not run an OPF * to look for a minimum costsolution for the power network (in the sense that the matching algorithm results of the MO is respected as long as it complieswith technical restrictions) * clarification: conditional on the market agents bids, the solution obtained is optimal; it might beconsidered a constrained case of an OPF in which the ISO can determine each unit commitment based on a cost function, as in aregulated environment – pure centralized model – complete OPF, as we can see in next slide. All generation units are paid at theMCP (Marginal Clearing Price) for each of the time intervals in which it has been calculated.
  20. 20. ISO –Independent System Operator p y pComparison of approaches ‐‐ How would it be under a pure centralized approach Generation  STLF •Variable cos •Fixed costs •Planned out •Short Term forecast (b m Load  bus level) sts tages • Lines  • Transformers • Lines Network  • Generation  • Generation • Generation  • Load flows units Load flow N‐1 cases units OPF topology  • Shunt  • Load • Voltage levels • Transformers capacitors,  reactors, … Optimal constrained  programUnder a centralized approach the ISO would consider generation costs of all available generation units. According to minimumcost criteria, the ISO would find, running an optimal power flow, the minimum cost generation schedule. The generators wouldhave to assume the mandatory generation schedules imposed by the ISO. Each generation unit would be paid at its node pricelevel.l l If competition was t b f t d l l marginal prices would b paid i t d N t th t under a d titi to be fostered, local i l i ld be id instead. Note that d decentralized approach t li d hthe ISO will not run an OPF considering cost prices of generation units; instead self committed prices fixed by the generatorswould be used. That is why we insist in clarifying that in a decentralized model, an “optimal” solution can be found butconditional on prices fixed by generators. In that sense, the solution obtained in an centralized model derives in a more efficientprogram, as it is not subject to gaming by market agents.
  21. 21. ISO –Independent System Operator p y pOPF ‐ Optimal power flowOptimal power flowOnce a state estimation has been run – real time dispatching (or a base case has been defined ‐ planning), an OPF canbe run. The OPF solves the power flow equations using control variables to achieve an objective function, as forexample to mimimise the cost of generation by means of control variables with upper and lower limits. In acentralized approach generation costs are considered and in a decentralized model generation bid stacks are model,considered. Objective  b Control  l function variables State  Network  variables topology constraints Control  State  State estimation OPF variables  constraints Control variables  parameterization
  22. 22. ISO –Independent System Operator p y pGeneration of unconstrained programs (in many market models this is done by the MO) Demand (Purchase) MCP Auction process Supply (sale) MCV Unconstrained schedule Unconstrained scheduleUsually in an auction – based process a MCP (Market Clearing Price) and a MCV (Market Clearing Volume) is obtainedfor each of the 24 hours of the day ahead market The algorithm specifications and the granularity of the calculations market.are specific of each marketplace. The algorithm might be single zone or multi‐zonal based, include complexconditions from generators , etc. The unconstrained schedule will need to be further validated under an technicalpoint by the ISO.
  23. 23. ISO –Independent System Operator p y p Generation of constrained programs for DAM and intradaily marketsUnconstrained schedule (MO)U t i d h d l (MO) STLF Base case Optimal power flow  Contingency (N‐1 ) analysisProduce constrained schedule no Reliable? GENCO’s bid stacks yes Publish In case the unconstrained schedule does not derive in a reliable network exploitation solution, a feasible solution is searched until it complies with the AC network analysis. In some cases the AC OPF problem is approximated by DC‐ OPF problems.
  24. 24. Nei ighbour GENCOs ISO ISO Zonal exchange Zon exchange nal s schedule schedule Day ahead Schedulefor inter-zonal exchange p Secondary freq. regulat tion Bid for sec. frequency market Fea asibility analysis y Schedule Imba alances markets s Representation of processes (cont) Bid for imbalances market p Fea asibility analysis Schedule ISO –Independent System Operator Imba alances markets s Bid for im mbalances market Feasibility analysis Schedule NTLF Intraday Tertiar freq. regulatio ry on Bid for te ertiary freq. marketby the Market Operator (Power Exchange or Power Pool) in coordination with the ISO. Fea asibility analysis Schedule Frequen regulation AGC ncy A AG signal GC Vo oltage control Ov verload control Coord dination with TSO OA representation of the different markets held in Spain by the ISO. Day ahead markets and intraday markets are held
  25. 25. ISO –Independent System Operator p y pNear term load forecast as part of ISO EMS system Metered SCADA  SCADA Load data actuals Weather  Prices forecast Weather  Time  actual factors Historical  Forecasting  Calendar  weather  model data data Near term load forecast Near term load forecastA near term load forecast for minutes / hours ahead is calculated by ISO EMS. The frequency of calculation might beeven 5 minutes and the granularity of forecasts might be 5 minutes as well The objective is to compare NTLF with forecasts, well.the STLF. Imbalance markets are called regularly during the day in order to cover those differences, and to keepsecondary regulation reserve.
  26. 26. ISO –Independent System Operator p y pEconomic dispatching ‐ Ancillary servicesImbalances marketsIn order to manage imbalances that have not been covered by intraday markets, either because of change in the STLFor because of generation plants unavailabilities.Secondary reserve marketIn order to cover the requirements of secondary reserve for the day ahead.Secondary reserve is a spinning reserve which objective is to support the primary reserve (frequency control) and to y p g j pp p y ( q y )solve imbalances. It can be activated in very short periods (e.g available in 30 seconds – 15 minutes)Tertiary reserve marketIn order to replace secondary reserve i case i i necessary. d l d in it isTertiary reserve is power capacity which can be connected under tertiary control, in order to provide an adequatesecondary control reserve. It can be activated in periods between 15 minutes – 30 minutes.Frequency regulation by the AGCThe AGC (Automatic Generation Control) is an automatic adjustment signal sent to all AGC‐regulated generation unitsin order to compensate for ACE (Area Control Error ‐ Instantaneous difference between scheduled generation andactual load within a control area It is calculated as a frequency control mechanism in about 4‐10 seconds intervals by load, area.computers in the dispatching center).
  27. 27. ISO –Independent System Operator p y pGeneration of programs for Ancillary Services State estimator State estimator Schedules STLF NTLF Ancillary Service Request Matching algorithm Ancillary services bids Network topology Produce constrained  Optimal power flow schedule  Contingency analysis State estimator no Schedules Reliable? yes PublishAccording to existing schedules, actual measures (state estimator), and the results of the STLF / NTLF, the capacity forancillary service is requested in order to cover forecasted imbalances. If secondary reserve has be used, tertiaryreserve is proportionately transferred to secondary reserve and more tertiary reserve is requested.
  28. 28. ISO –Independent System Operator p y pReal time frequency controlPrimary frequency reserve Generation reserve which objective is to maintain a control area frequency and that can be activated immediately (5– 30 seconds) in a direction that stabilizes frequency. Turbine governors are the main source of frequency response. Itinvolves autonomous and automatic actions to arrest deviations in power system frequency whenever imbalances p y q yarise between load and generation.All generation units participate in primary control (mandatory). The settings on the governors are set locally, and theISO has not control on them (in the sense that they are not governed by AGC). Primary reserve Primary reserve Secondary reserve Secondary reserve Tertiary reserve Tertiary reserve Local AGC governed Replaces secondary reserve  Only generation units with AGC and which l h d h h Only generation units with AGC and which l h d h h Mandatory have offered regulation services in secondary have offered regulation services in tertiary reserve market. reserve market. Response‐ 5 – 30 secs Response 30 secs‐ 15 min  Response from 15 min …
  29. 29. ISO –Independent System Operator p y pSecondary frequency control by AGC ‐ ISO dispatching center – EMS system Actual  generation  Scheduled  (state  interchange estimator) Actual  Frequency interchange  Security  constrained  eco o c economic  dispatch AGC GENCO’s AGC  S a us Status AGC base pointsThe AGC scheme can be centralised or decentralised . In a centralised scheme a control area is assigned to a GENCO.Therefore,Therefore each control area might be composed of many generation units regulated under the same master AGCsignal. The master (ISO) AGC signal is sent to the different control area AGC, instead to each generation unit. In thisscheme, a GENCO can distribute the control area AGC regulation band between the different generation units.
  30. 30. ISO –Independent System Operator p y pPower network control (real time) – voltage and overload control RTU •Measure •States ements  Voltage  Voltage control  control at bus level • Lines Lines  • Generation • Transformers • Generation • Transformers  Network  • Generation  Stata  • Transformer  taps topology  units Estimation loads OPF • Capacitor  • Shunt  • Flows shunts capacitors,  • Reactors reactors, … Analysis of load  Overload  flows at power  control line &  transformer level transformer level Change network topologyVoltage and load flows are monitored constantly. An alarm is displayed in the SCADA system whenever voltages orIn case theviolate predetermined ranges. not derive in a reliable network exploitation solution, a feasible solution isload flows unconstrained schedule does Tap transformers, reactors, shunt capacitor, generation units, can be usedsearched until it complies with the AC network control voltage and even to adjust load flows (changing the network impedances by moving transformer taps atcertain network nodes).If that is not enough, then it might be necessary to reassign generation schedules to change load flows, by means ofancillary services markets. A reactive power market can be applied as ancillary service.
  31. 31. ISO –Independent System Operator p y p Representation of processes (cont) D+ N Meter reading acquisitiion Settlement InvoicingISO r Resolution SCADA •Instantaneous MW •Instantaneous MVaR ∫ MW . dt SCADA  RTU ∫ MVaR . dt database •MWh Metering  •MVaR devices Metering  database uisition ment puteGENCOs s stimated settlem Disp Met reading acqu ter Es Once the ISO (or a third party) has collected metering information from the metering devices (notice this is a different source than the information that was coming to the SCADA system in real time) the settlement is done to GENCOs. The GENCO’s on the other hand have integrated metering information form their SCADA system, as well as metering information from metering devices. After any dispute has been solved, the final settlement is conducted and invoicing takes place.
  32. 32. ISO –Independent System Operator p y pThe role of the ISO in the smart grid developmentThe evolution towards a smart grid is clear. This f sure will require an evolution of the transmission power network, h l d d l h for ll l f h kISO’s workflows, processes and systems, in order to cope with marketplace demands. Some of the fields that willevolute in the future years are: HV Electronic power equipment (e.g bulk storage), Advanced power flow  FACTS (Flexible Alternating Current Transmission control Systems) D‐FACTS devices, CLD (current‐limited devices), etc Synchronised phasor measurements, computer Advanced protection relay, advanced load shedding or even zone splitting schemes. Introduction of PMU’s (Phasor Measurement Advanced network  Units), improving state estimates, post‐disturbance g monitoring analysis and generally speaking, control. AMR (Advanced Metering Reading devices) will lead Advanced economic  towards DR (demand response) frameworks that will require an evolution of the economic dispatching dispatching  schemes di t hi h schemes, including load forecasting.
  33. 33. ISO –Independent System Operator p y pArchitecture Corporate enterprise networkSecondary Control centerSecondary Control center Finance Web …. Primary Control center servers SCADA  SCADA  Data Settlement Dispatcher  servers Communication warehouse servers consoles LAN servers WAN SCADA  Economic Metering Metering Load  Historian dispatch system communication forecast Data server Data server server servers servers External usersA simplified view of an ISO architecture. Duplicated sites with hot redundancy at each of the sites is absolutelynecessary to guarantee reliability.
  34. 34. Energy Trading & Risk Management Systems Group @ linkedin gy g g y pA long road aheadYou are kindly invited to join ETRM Systems Group at linkedin, and to share with thegroup members presentations, papers, works related with ETRM systems andenvironments.Want to collaborate with the ETRM Group? please contact with ETRM GroupmanagersLeena Dsouza ldsouza4210@hotmail.comMack Frankfurter qEnrique Rivero @g