(1) Swallow hole - An exposed limestone joint down which a surface river 'dis appears'.
(2) Clints and grykes - Rainwater flowing over an impermeable surface will, on reaching (permeable) limestone, be able to dissolve the joints into grooves called grykes, leaving blocks or clumps of limestone in between called clints
(3) Limestone pavements - Exposed clints and grykes.
(4) Stalactite - Water dripping from the roofs of caves leave behind microscopic particles of calcium carbonate. These build up as icicle shaped stalactites.