Personality type as predictor of team roles

1,591 views
1,378 views

Published on

Published in: Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,591
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
25
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Personality type as predictor of team roles

  1. 1. Personality  Type  as  predictor  of  Team  Roles   Malcolm Gabriel, MA (Industrial & Organizational Psychology), An  overview  of  a  Masters  Disserta0on  research  findings  presented  to  the   Industrial  Psychology  Conference  (incorpora0ng  the  Psychometric   Conference)  in  June  2000  organized  by  the  Society  for  Industrial  Psychology   (SIP)  -­‐  a  division  of  the  Psychological  Society  of  South  Africa  (PsySA).   University of South Africa Masters  Disserta0on  Supervisor:   Dirk  Geldenhuys   Department  of  Industrial  Psychology,   University  of  South  Africa   By  Malcolm  Gabriel   MBA;  MA  (Org.  Psychology)   A  copy  of  the  publica0on  can  be  found  the  University  of  South   Africa  Public  Library       About  Malcolm  Gabriel   Profile:    www.linkedin.com/in/malcolmgabriel   Blog:  www.malcolmprestongabriel.wordpress.com   1  
  2. 2. Previous  research  focused  on  the  effects  of  personality   type  on:   Malcolm Gabriel, MA (Industrial & Organizational Psychology), Area  of  art   study  of  senior   Teaching  styles   (Cunningham,   art  students   1962)   (Stephens,  1973)   Speciali0es  of   medical  students   Job  sa0sfac0on   University of South Africa twelve  years   (Williams,  1975)   later     (Myers,  1976)   Management   level  and  job   foci     (Church  &  Allie,  1986)   Management   styles     Career  Paerns   (Coetzee,  1996)   (Hartston,  1975)     career  success  in   the  accoun0ng   Career  choices   profession   (Hanson,  1980)   (Jacoby,  1981).     Management   level  and  job   foci     (Church  &  Allie,   1986   Student   survival  in  law   school     (Miller,  1967)   Role  foci  of   leaders     2 (Church,  1982)  
  3. 3. Malcolm Gabriel, MA (Industrial & Organizational Psychology), University of South AfricaVery  lile  research  on  personality  types  as   predictors  of  team  roles     3
  4. 4. The  ideal  team   Malcolm Gabriel, MA (Industrial & Organizational Psychology),•  A  tradi0onal  team  composi0on  •  An  ideal  team  requires  a  balance  of  team  roles   University of South Africa where   certain   roles   would   be   accentuated   at   certain  stages  of  the  team’s  development  •  Tradi0onal  approaches  to  selec0on  and   assessment  do  not  have  a  provision  for  fit   within  a  team  •  A   new   emphasis   should   therefore   be   placed   on   predic0ng   an   applicant’s   fit   and   contribu0on   within   a   team   as   well   as   maintain   a  balance  of  team  roles  within  a  team.     4
  5. 5. Purpose  &  Aims   Malcolm Gabriel, MA (Industrial & Organizational Psychology),Purpose  1.  Expand  our  understanding  of  human  behaviour  in  teams  by   University of South Africa focusing  specifically  on  personality  types  as  predictors  of  team   roles.    2.  Leverage  findings  to  advance  the  effec0veness  of  teams  by   assessing  an  applicant’s  fit  to  a  team  Specific  Aims  1.  to  determine  whether  personality  types  predict  team  roles  2.  to  formulate  recommenda0ons  for  the  use  of  personality  types   in  future  selec0on  and  teambuilding   5
  6. 6. Research  Questions   Malcolm Gabriel, MA (Industrial & Organizational Psychology),1.  what   is   personality   type   as   a   concept   and   what   constructs   are   involved?2.  what  is  a  team  role  as  a  concept,  and  what  constructs  are  involved?3.  is   there   a   theore0cal   rela0onship   between   personality   types   and   University of South Africa team  roles?4.  can  personality  types  act  as  predictors  of  team  roles?5.  what   conclusions   and   recommenda0ons   can   be   made   with   regard   to   the   use   of   personality   types   to   predict   team   roles   for   selec0on   and  teambuilding? 6
  7. 7. Relevant  Paradigms   Malcolm Gabriel, MA (Industrial & Organizational Psychology),•  the  literature  review  on  personality  was  presented  from  the   psychodynamic  paradigm  •  personality  types  was  categorised  according  to  Jung’s  four  scales   of  eight  personality  types   University of South Africa•  the  literature  review  on  team  roles  was  presented  from  the   behaviouris0c  paradigm  •  teams  are  extracted  from  the  TeamBuilder  model  developed  by   Peter  Milburn  (Murphy,  1998).   7
  8. 8. Steps  in  empirical  investigation  Step  1:     Malcolm Gabriel, MA (Industrial & Organizational Psychology),A  random  sample  of  80  par0cipants  comprising  corporate  managers  and  professionals  in  commercial  and  government  sectors  will  be  selected  to  par0cipate  in  the  research  project.     Step  2:     University of South Africa The  Myers  Briggs  Personality  Type  Indicator  Ques0onnaire  and  the   TeamBuilder  Ques0onnaire  will  be  discussed  and  mo0vated  as  a  test   baery  to  assess  personality  types  and  team  roles,  respec0vely.     Step  3:     The  Myers  Briggs  Personality  Type  Indicator  Ques0onnaire  and  the  Team   Builder  Ques0onnaire  will  be  administered  to  the  sample  of  80   par0cipants Step  4:     Formula0on  of  the  research  hypothesis. Step  5:     8 The  psychometric  data  will  be  analysed  using  a  correla0on  and   regression  analysis,  and  the  results  will  then  be  reported  and  interpreted  
  9. 9. Steps  in  empirical  investigation   Malcolm Gabriel, MA (Industrial & Organizational Psychology),  Step  6:    Integra0on  of  research  findings. University of South Africa Step  7:       Limita0ons  and  conclusions  of  the  research.   Step  8:       Recommenda0ons  for  future  selec0on  and   teambuilding.   9
  10. 10. Jung’s  Personality  Types   Malcolm Gabriel, MA (Industrial & Organizational Psychology), Extraversion  (E)  or   Sensing  (S)  or   Introversion  (I)   Intui0ve  (I)   University of South Africa Thinking  (T)  or   Judging  (J)  or   Feeling  (F)   Perceiving  (P)  Extension  of  Jung’s  Personality  Type  theory   Combina0ons  of  aitudes  and  func0ons   10 16  Personality  Types  
  11. 11. Organizational  Relevance   Malcolm Gabriel, MA (Industrial & Organizational Psychology),• Organiza0onal  Type  impacts  organiza0onal   culture   •  collated  types  of  employees   University of South Africa •  collated  types  of  managers   •  new  employee  type  • effects  of  personality  types  in  work   situa0ons   11
  12. 12. Team  Roles Malcolm Gabriel, MA (Industrial & Organizational Psychology),•  team  roles  can  be  defined  as  the  tendencies  to  behave,  contribute   and  interrelate  with  others  in  certain  dis0nc0ve  ways  within  a   team       University of South Africa•  an   effec0ve   team   depends   on   each   member’s   understanding   of   his  or  her  role  and  the  rela0onships  between  that  role  and  other   roles  held  by  team  members  (Francis  &  Young,  1992).   12
  13. 13. Characteristics  of  effective  teams  •  Weiss  (1990)  defines  an  effec0ve  team  as  mee0ng  a  specific  set  of   Malcolm Gabriel, MA (Industrial & Organizational Psychology), goals  or  objec0ves,  and  is  organised  around  a  predetermined  set   of  iden0fiable  roles  related  to  ac0vi0es  that  accomplish  the   team’s  goals  and  objec0ves   University of South Africa•  An  effec0ve  team  requires  a  balance  of  team  roles  and  that   certain  roles  would  be  accentuated  at  certain  stages  of  the  team’s   development,  depending  on  the  situa0on  •  a  balanced  team  is  more  likely  to  be  effec0ve  than  one  that  is   homogeneous  in  terms  of  individual  roles  •  in  order  to  achieve  a  balance,  it  may  be  necessary  to  ask  some   members  to  adopt  secondary  roles,  and  the  appropriate   behaviours  can  be  learned  and  developed  •  an  individual’s  preferred  team  role  will  be  valued  at  certain   stages,  and  their  effec0veness  in  their  role  will  be  determined  by   13 the  fit  between  the  individual  and  their  role.
  14. 14. Belbin’s  research  on  teams  •  several  highly  significant  experiments  on  team  roles     Malcolm Gabriel, MA (Industrial & Organizational Psychology), •  subjects  par0cipated  in  a  lengthy  management  course  and  then   formed  into  teams  to  complete  a  management  task     •  Belbin,  using  a  range  of  psychometric  tests,  studied  the  personali0es   and  mental  capabili0es  of  team  members  and     University of South Africa•  discovered  that  each  person  had  a  strong  tendency  to  play  a   dis0nct  but  limited  set  of  roles    •  paern  of  role  balance  had  a  crucial  effect  on  the  outcome     •  poor  balance  produced  a  poor  outcome,  and     •  teams  with  competent  members  would  not  necessarily  produce   favourable  results  since  the  balance  might  be  wrong  •  Belbin  iden0fied  nine  basic  team  roles  •  successful  teams’  membership  was  broad  enough  so  that  all  the   necessary  roles  were  filled     14
  15. 15. Nature  of  Team  Roles   Malcolm Gabriel, MA (Industrial & Organizational Psychology),•  Team  Role  and  Func0onal  Role  •  Role  Versa0lity  and  Role  Priority  •  Coherent  and  Incoherent  Role  Profiles   University of South Africa•  Role  Suppression  •  Eligibility  and  Suitability   Suitability Suitable Unsuitable Eligibility Eligible Ideal fit Poor fit Ineligible Surprise fit Total misfit 15
  16. 16. Belbin’s  model  of  team  roles   Malcolm Gabriel, MA (Industrial & Organizational Psychology), Coordinat or   Specialist   Shaper   University of South AfricaCompleter   Plant   Resource   Monitor   Navigator   Evaluator   Team   Implemen Worker   ter   16
  17. 17. Critique  of  Belbin’s  model  •  team  roles  outlined  by  Belbin  are  represented  as  requiring  varying   Malcolm Gabriel, MA (Industrial & Organizational Psychology), degrees  of  intellect     •  eg:  the  “plant”  requiring  a  higher  intellect,  and  co-­‐worker  lower  levels  of   intellect     University of South Africa•  language  used  by  Belbin  is  male  oriented  and  presented  in  a  prescrip0ve   way   •  eg:  “you  are  a….”,  thereby  labelling  and  categorising  team  members  as  a   Plant  or  a  Monitor  Evaluator   •  implies  that  individuals  are  restricted  to  these  roles  without  the  possibility  of   extending  beyond  them.  •  Belbin’s  (1982)  model  iden0fies  an  apparent  link  between  a  Shaper  and  a   Company  Worker,  but  refers  to  it  as  a  boss  /  subordinate  style  of   rela0onship  and  not  colleagues  applying  a  process  together.    •  Belbin’s  (1982)  model  does  not  regard  each  team  role  as  sequen0al  and   interrelated  with  each  other.       17
  18. 18. TeamBuilder  as  an  extension  of  Belbin  •  TeamBuilder  as  an  alterna0ve  model     Malcolm Gabriel, MA (Industrial & Organizational Psychology),•  draws  on  the  original  work  done  by  Belbin  •  outlines  a  team  process  for  geing  things  done  which  is  non-­‐judgmental,   not   hierarchical,   non-­‐threatening,   makes   no   prejudicial   assump0ons   of   intelligence,   and   no   assump0ons   about   management   skills   (Murphy,   University of South Africa 1998).    •  5   team   roles   of   equal   value   compared   with   Belbin’s   9   team   roles   that   are   dis0nguishable  by  status,  importance,  and  intelligence    •  Further   outlines   an   individual’s   preference   for   contribu0ng   within   a   certain   role,   rather   than   labelling   and   categorising   them   as   their   preferred  role  (Murphy,  1998)    •  assump0on  that  an  individual  develops  a  primary  preference  for  a  team   role  within  the  model    •  an  individual’s  sustainable  contribu0on  to  a  team  is  primarily  determined   by  the  team  member’s  sa0sfactory  fulfilment  of  his  preferred  team  role   18 and  the  team’s  need  for  that  specific  team  role    
  19. 19. Components  of  TeamBuilder   Malcolm Gabriel, MA (Industrial & Organizational Psychology), Projected  or   communicated   team  role   preferences   University of South Africa Awareness  of   Preference  for   preferred  team   team  roles   role   Team  role  Preference  for   TeamBuilder   preference  under   team  work   pressure   19
  20. 20. TeamBuilder  model  of  Team  Roles   Malcolm Gabriel, MA (Industrial & Organizational Psychology), Driving  Onward   Developing  concepts,  direc0ng   ac0on,  innova0ng  ideas   University of South Africa Controlling  Quality   Planning  Ahead  Monitoring  progress,  audi0ng   Strategic  planning,  es0ma0ng  methods,  evalua0ng  results   feasibility,  scheduling  tasks   Delivering  Plans   Enabling  Ac0on   Producing  output,  coordina0ng   the  team,  maintaining  team   Resourcing  and  promo0ng  the   morale   team,  nego0a0ng  for  support   20
  21. 21. Organizational  Relevance   Malcolm Gabriel, MA (Industrial & Organizational Psychology),•  the  paern  of  role  balance  within  the  team  has  a  crucial  effect   on  the  team’s  effec0veness  •  a  poor  balance  would  produce  a  poor  outcome   University of South Africa•  the   concept   and   roles   outlined   in   the   TeamBuilder   model   is   therefore  of  cri0cal  importance  to  the  evolving  significance  of  a   team’s  contribu0on  to  organisa0onal  success.  •  compa0bility  with  Project  Management  Phases   21
  22. 22. Theoretical  relationship  between  personality   types  and  team  roles   Malcolm Gabriel, MA (Industrial & Organizational Psychology), • People  demonstra0ng  a  preference  for  the  Driving  Onward  team  role   Intui0on   exhibit  preferences  for  seeing  “big  picture”  opportuni0es,     University of South Africa • ins0nc0vely  reaching  conclusions  rather  than  making  a  detailed  analysis  of   a  situa0on,  and  open  making  decisions  intui0vely.     • Driving  Onward  exhibits  preferences  for  developing  concepts,  direc0ng   Driving   ac0on  and  providing  the  team  with  innova0ve  ideas  (Murphy,  1998).     • corresponds  with  Jung’s  descrip0on  of  people  who  prefer  Intui0on,  and  is   Onward   described  as  seeing  the  big  picture,  new  possibili0es  and  different  ways  of   doing  things  (Hirsh,  1993).    The corresponding similarity between the behavioural descriptions of Intuition and Driving Onward allows for a tentative postulation that people who fall into the Intuition personality type are more likely to display a preference for the Driving 22 Onward team role.
  23. 23. Theoretical  relationship  between  personality   types  and  team  roles   Malcolm Gabriel, MA (Industrial & Organizational Psychology),Personality Type Team RolesExtraversion (E) Enabling Action University of South AfricaIntroversion (I)Sensing (S) Controlling Quality Delivering PlansIntuition (N) Driving OnwardThinking (T) Planning Ahead; Driving OnwardFeeling (F) Enabling ActionJudging (J) Planning Ahead 23Perceiving (P)
  24. 24. Sample  description   Malcolm Gabriel, MA (Industrial & Organizational Psychology), n %Gender Male 30 60 Female 20 40 University of South AfricaAge 20-29 years 15 30 30-39 years 18 36 40-49 years 10 20 50 years + 7 14Length of service with the Organisation Less than one year 6 12 1-5 years 22 44 5-10 years 13 26 10-15 years 6 12 More than 15 years 3 6 24
  25. 25. Sample  occupational  group   Malcolm Gabriel, MA (Industrial & Organizational Psychology), University of South Africa 10%38% 28% 24% T echnical Professional Non-technical professional Manager (technical) Manager (non-technical) 25
  26. 26. Psychometric  Battery   Malcolm Gabriel, MA (Industrial & Organizational Psychology),•  Biographical  ques0onnaire   •  cover  leer  •  Myers-­‐Briggs  Type  Indicator  (MBTI)     University of South Africa •  Form  G   •  paper  and  pencil  ques0onnaire   •  no  0me  limit  •  TeamBuilder  Ques0onnaire   •  self-­‐administering  computer-­‐based  ques0onnaire  in  form  of  “s0ffy-­‐ disk”   •  no  0me  limit   26
  27. 27. Distribution  of  participants’  team  role  preference   Malcolm Gabriel, MA (Industrial & Organizational Psychology), University of South Africa 14% 20% 46% 10% 10% Driving Onw ard Planning Ahead Enabling Action Delivering Plans Controlling Quality 27
  28. 28. Distribution  of  participants’  personality  types   Malcolm Gabriel, MA (Industrial & Organizational Psychology), Sensing (S) Intuitives (N) Thinking (T) Feeling (F) Feeling (F) Thinking (T) - ST - - SF - - NF - - NT - University of South Africa I -- J ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJIntrovert 22% (n: 11) n: 0 n: 0 6% (n: 3) I -- P ISTP ISFP INFP INTP 2% (n: 1) n: 0 n: 0 12% (n: 6) E -- P ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTPExtravert 4% (n: 2) 2% (n: 1) 4% (n: 2) 12% (n: 6) E -- J ESTJ ESFJ ENFJ ENTJ 20% (n: 10) 2% (n: 1) n: 0 14% (n: 7) Total % 48% (n: 24) 4% (n: 2) 4% (n: 2) 44% (n: 22) 28
  29. 29. Correlation  Analysis  Personality Type (X variable) Positive/Negative Correlation Team Role (Y variable) Malcolm Gabriel, MA (Industrial & Organizational Psychology),Extraversion Positive Driving OnwardExtraversion Negative Delivering PlansSensing Negative Driving Onward University of South AfricaSensing Positive Delivering PlansIntuition Positive Driving OnwardIntuition Negative Delivering PlansThinking Positive Controlling QualityJudging Negative Driving OnwardJudging Positive Planning AheadPerceiving Positive Driving OnwardPerceiving Negative Planning Ahead 29
  30. 30. Multiple  Regression  Analysis   Malcolm Gabriel, MA (Industrial & Organizational Psychology),Personality Type (X Positive / Negative Team Role (Yvariable) Predictor variable)Extraversion Positive Driving Onward University of South AfricaExtraversion Negative Delivering PlansSensing Negative Driving OnwardSensing Positive Delivering PlansIntuition Positive Driving OnwardIntuition Negative Delivering PlansThinking Positive Controlling QualityJudging Positive Planning AheadPerceiving Negative Planning Ahead 30
  31. 31. Lack  of  supporting  evidence  for  theoretical  postulations   for:   Malcolm Gabriel, MA (Industrial & Organizational Psychology),Personality Type Team RolesExtraversion (E) Enabling ActionIntroversion (I) University of South AfricaSensing (S) Controlling Quality Delivering PlansIntuition (N) Driving OnwardThinking (T) Planning Ahead; Driving OnwardFeeling (F) Enabling ActionJudging (J) Planning AheadPerceiving (P) 31
  32. 32. No  theoretical  postulations  for:   Malcolm Gabriel, MA (Industrial & Organizational Psychology),Personality Type (X Positive / Negative Team Role (Yvariable) Predictor variable)Extraversion Positive Driving Onward University of South AfricaExtraversion Negative Delivering PlansSensing Negative Driving OnwardSensing Positive Delivering PlansIntuition Positive Driving OnwardIntuition Negative Delivering PlansThinking Positive Controlling QualityJudging Positive Planning AheadPerceiving Negative Planning Ahead 32
  33. 33. Limitations  of  Research  •  a  limited  amount  of  literature  with  reference  to  team  roles  exists;   Malcolm Gabriel, MA (Industrial & Organizational Psychology),•  research   on   the   linkages   between   team   roles   in   work   seings   are   limited  and  s0ll  need  further  explora0on;  •  a   limited   amount   of   literature   exists   on   the   rela0onship   between   University of South Africa personality  types  and  team  roles;  •  a  limited  amount  of  research  exists  for  the  reliability  of  the   TeamBuilder  instrument  •  the   sample   size   was   too   small   to   draw   significant   conclusions   and   therefore  limited  the  poten0al  for  generalisa0ons  of  the  results;  •  the  sample  represented  a  only  a  limited  work  seing;  •  the  MBTI  requires  an  individual  frame  of  reference  of  repor0ng  one’s   natural  preference,  and  not  one’s  “work  self”  or  “ideal  self”.    •  difficult  to  monitor  par0cipants’  frame  of  mind  when  answering  the   MBTI,  and  could  have  influenced  the  results;   33
  34. 34. Limitations  of  Research  •  Only   the   raw   scores   of   the   MBTI   preferences   were   u0lised   for   the   Malcolm Gabriel, MA (Industrial & Organizational Psychology), purposes  of  this  research;  •  the   research   focused   on   Jung’s   personality   type   groupings,   and   not   on  the  16  personality  types.     University of South Africa•  The   dynamic   interrela0onship   between   team   roles   and   the   16   personality  types  might  have  provided  more  meaningful  insight;  •  strength   of   the   preferences   for   each   team   role   was   also   not   taken   into  considera0on  in  the  data  analysis  •  only  the  raw  score  of  the  preferences  was  u0lised  for  the  purposes  of   this  research.   34
  35. 35. Recommendations  •  both   the   Personality   Type   theory   and   the   Team   Role   model   can   be   Malcolm Gabriel, MA (Industrial & Organizational Psychology), used   as   a   process   of   self-­‐enlightenment   towards   more   effec0vely   being  able  to  contribute  to  a  team.  •  personality   type   profiles   can   assist   in   predic0ng   a   team   member’s   preferred  team  role.   University of South Africa•  prac00oners  must  take  cognisance  of  the  impact  of  personality  types   and   team   roles   in   the   overall   effec0veness   of   teambuilding   interven0ons  and  ini0a0ves.    •  focus   on   enhancing   self-­‐awareness   of   team   members’   by   iden0fying   their   true   personality   type,   thereby   enabling   them   to   predict   their   preference  for  a  team  role;  •  Tradi0onal   selec0on   and   assessment   methodologies   does   not   make   provision   for   assessing   whether   job   applicants   are   an   appropriate   fit   within  a  team.    •  The  outcome  of  this  research  makes  it  possible  to  predict  team  roles   35 from  the  assessments  of  personality  types  
  36. 36. Recommendations  •  prac00oners   can   simultaneously   assess   and   select   a   balance   of   team   Malcolm Gabriel, MA (Industrial & Organizational Psychology), roles   to   a   project   team;   thereby   reducing   reliance   on   team   role   measurement;  •  Each  team  role  descrip0on  in  the  TeamBuilder  model  can  incorporate   addi0onal   relevant   behavioural   descrip0ons   of   the   personality   type   University of South Africa that  is  a  significant  predictor  of  the  team  role.    •  Similarly,  each  personality  type  descrip0on  can  incorporate  addi0onal   literature  on  a  personality  type’s  probable  preference  of  a  team  role  in   team  seings.     36

×