Mc luhan’s laws of media and the 6 prominent


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Mc luhan’s laws of media and the 6 prominent

  1. 1. McLuhan’s Laws of Media and the 6 Prominent Forces that drive emerging technology <br />Transformation to the Smart Board<br />By: Nikisha Greer Summer 2010<br />
  2. 2. Mcluhan’s Tetrad<br />Enhancement – something new, that makes the media possible <br />Obsolescence – what the media makes obsolete <br />Retrieval – what item or concept from the past the media retrieves. <br />Reversal – the setting created by the media for its own reversal or demise in the future <br />
  3. 3. 6 forces of emerging technology Definitions<br />1. Evolutionary Technology- new technology is a progression or a growth of a previous one.<br />2. Rhyme of History- new technology is a fresh emergence of the impact felt many years before from another technology.<br />3. Science Fiction- new technology emerges from science based science fiction.<br />4. Disruptive Technology/Wild Card- new technology suddenly appears and creates a brand new way of thinking about a technological task.<br />5. Increasing Returns- between two competing technologies, one technology is chosen and the other disappears.<br />6. Red Queens- is a process by which two technologies suddenly move ahead (of the line) a bunch of competitors because of their fierce competition.<br />
  4. 4. Identification of an obsolete and an emerging technology <br />Over Head Projector<br />Interactive Smart Board<br />
  5. 5. Mcluhan’s tetrad<br />Over Head<br />Smart Board<br />
  6. 6. Guiding Questions<br />Based on each of the 6 forces, determine if each force is able to explain why the obsolete technology originally emerged? If not, why aren’t these forces useful in explaining why the obsolete technology originally emerged?<br />Based on each of the 6 forces, determine if each force is able to explain why the replacement/emerging technology emerged? If not, why aren’t these forces useful in explaining why the emerging technology emerged?<br />Obsolete Technology – Over Head Projector<br />Emerging Technology-<br /> Interactive White Board<br />
  7. 7. History of the Over-Head Projector<br />If the light traverses the object, the projection is said to be diascopic, if by reflected light, episcopic(, 2010).<br />The first projector, considered the predecessor to the overhead projector, is the opaque projector. <br />The opaque projector was originally created for projecting images.<br />They have been produced and marketed as artists’ enlargement tools to allow images to be transferred to surfaces such as prepared canvas, or for lectures and discourses (, 2010) <br />
  8. 8. History of over-head Projector<br />During World War II, overhead projectors appeared and were used as training tools for soldiers. <br />Roger Appledorn’s technological research impacted education with a that not only let your view visuals, but also write information. <br />By the time the 1960s hit, it was primarily used as an educational device in classrooms (, 2010).<br /> The overhead projector remarkable tool that helped achieve high academic standards. <br />
  9. 9. Interviews<br />Decision Makers and End Users<br />*These individuals were the only people who I could find (over the summer break) that have used the products on a consistent basis. <br />
  10. 10. Decision Maker Questions<br />How did the school district/ schools become interested in purchasing interactive white boards?<br />Was there any other product that caught the eye of the educational leaders for this school district?<br />What made you choose the Smart Board over the Promethean Board?<br />Was a Smart Board purchased for each teacher? Also for those teachers who have one, will a professional development be provided to ensure that the teacher uses the equipment to its full potential?<br /> Has the Smart Board increased academics (test scores (AYP), retention, etc.) since the purchasing of this product?<br />
  11. 11. Interview with Kelly Carter<br />Instructional Facilitator at Treadwell Middle School in Memphis, TN. The School District is called: Memphis City Schools.<br />Recording was done with a RCA Digital Voice Recorder.<br />Ms. Carter requested that her picture not be displayed.<br />
  12. 12. End User Questions<br />Before your school district/school purchased the Smart Board, explain your experience with the over head projector? <br /> Upon receiving the Smart Board, was the board assembled appropriately and positioned in your classroom in a manner that is pleasing to you?<br />How did you learn the many components and features of the Smart Board? If you attended a training, was the information presented very useful?<br />What education goals does the Smart Board meet in your classroom?<br />Have you seen a difference in the performance of you students before (with the over head) and after once incorporating the Smart Board within your lessons?<br /> <br />
  13. 13. Interview with Alexis McMiller<br />A Teacher at Treadwell Middle School in Memphis, TN. The School District is called: Memphis City Schools.<br />Recording was done with a RCA Digital Voice Recorder.<br />Ms. McMiller requested that her picture not be displayed.<br />
  14. 14. Evolutionary Technology<br />“A little theory can carry you a long way as you evaluate technological development” (Thornburg, 2008). <br />Old Technology-<br /> In the early/middle 20th century, opaque projectors were created and marketed as toys for children. The opaque projector served as a visual device to display images, etc.<br /> From the opaque projector emerged the overhead projector in the 1940s. The first overhead projector was used as a police identification work (, 2010a). The military used the overhead’s services also in its fight in WWII.<br /> Roger Appledorn did research on the current overhead projector and addition of a valuable tool (projection of writing) that would change projection up until the 1990s. <br />Emerging Technology- <br />The interactive whiteboard emerged from the dry-erase whiteboard. The interactive whiteboard adds the components of a computer, projection of images, interactivity, and a dry erase board altogether. The next step for the interactive white board may be wireless access, 3D imaging, or even obsolete. <br />
  15. 15. Rhymes of History<br /> Old Technology<br />The first projector (opaque) emerged between the early and middle parts of the 20th century. <br />The opaque projector produced the overhead projector (visual only) in the 1940s.<br />The visual only overhead projector produced the combo overhead projector (visual and writing components). <br />Overhead projectors were once a common fixture in most classrooms and business conference rooms, but today are slowly being replaced by document cameras, dedicated computer projection systems and interactive whiteboards (, 2010).<br />New Technology<br />Interactive whiteboards are a combination of dry-erase board, computer technology, image projection, and touch screen.<br />Interactive whiteboards are advancing with technology which means multiple means of access and control. Interactive whiteboards have their own programs (Smart Notebook, Smart Math Notebook, etc.), stylus, and compatibility with other programs (CPS-Classroom Performance System, Windows 7, etc.) The future holds unlimited range or even become obsolete.<br />
  16. 16. Science Fiction<br />“Impact of imagined innovations in science fiction” (, 2010b)<br />Old Technology-<br />While SF has provided criticism of developing and future technologies, it also produces innovation and new technology (, 2010b).<br /> It is unlikely this product was a creation of Science Fiction; although this tool was featured in movies until the production of the interactive whiteboard.<br />Emerging Technology-<br />Many science fiction topics are born from reality, but turn these new technologies to create imagined realities, thus creating science fiction in itself (Wikipedia, 2010). Interactive whiteboards were a hypothesized theory of Science Fiction that has been proven with data. The notion of interactive screens, data display, and compatible tools with many programs has helped in the presentation of information.<br />
  17. 17. Disruptive Technologies/ wild cards<br />Obsolete Technology-<br />The first type of overhead projector, episcope, was created in the early 20th century but was replaced by the modern over head in the 1940s-1950s. <br />While in the beginning, projectors were used to project images; it was not until Roger Appledorn’s designing of a device that allows the displaying of writing from a projector. <br />The education field, unlike big corporations, deemed the over-head as a valuable tool and the adoption rates ascended. <br />Emerging Technology-<br />Interactive whiteboards are not the result of a disruptive technology, but the emergence of educational research. <br />The first interactive white board was created based on research and a notion to integrate technologies (computer tools, interactive components, projecting images, etc.).<br /> Over 360,000 boards were sold in 2009 and 1.3 million products sold up to date.<br />(Nancy Knowlton and David Martin, founders of SMART Technologies)<br />
  18. 18. Increasing Returns<br />With the first over-head projector (used for projecting written information) being created in 1950 by Roger Appledorn, two companies were known for the production of this piece of technology- 3M & Buhl Industries. <br />The overhead projector did not receive any fierce competition until the creation of Microsoft Power Point, LCD projectors, and the interactive whiteboards. <br />
  19. 19. Increasing Returns<br />Smart Technologies created the first interactive whiteboard in 1991. Although many companies (Promethean, Polyvision, etc.) have tried to compete with Smart Tech but as of 2008, sells for the smart board have increased 11% in the U.S. <br />More information:<br /><br />
  20. 20. Red Queens<br />Upon the creation of the first overhead projector in the 1950s, no other piece of technology competed with the overhead projector until the 1990s. Since then, it has experienced a decline due to the development of computer based projectors (, 2010).<br />
  21. 21. Red Queens<br />Smart Boards are still emerging technologies . Many companies are creating the interactive boards, but none have created features that distinguish them from the other competitors. <br />
  22. 22. Resources<br /> (2010a). Overhead projector. Retrieved on August 1, 2010 from:<br /> (2010). Science fiction. Retrieved on August 1, 2010 from:<br /> (2010). History of the overhead projector. Retrieved on August 1, 2010 from:<br />Manning Innovation Awards (2002). 2002 Manning Innovation Award announcements. Retrieved from: <br />
  23. 23. Resources<br />Smart (2010). About. Retrieved on August 1, 2010 from:<br />Thornburg, D. (2008). Red queens, butterflies, and strange attractors: imperfect lenses into emergent technologies. Retrieved from: //,_butterflys,_ and strange_attractors.pdf <br /> (2010). Technology in science fiction. Retrieved on August 1, 2010 from:<br />
  24. 24. Consent Form- Kelly Carter<br />
  25. 25. Interview Transcript- Kelly Carter<br />
  26. 26. Consent form- Alexis Mcmiller<br />
  27. 27. Interview Transcript- Alexis Mcmiller<br />